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1.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690521

RESUMO

Since the epidemic began in November 2019, no viable medicine against SARS-CoV-2 has been discovered. The typical medication discovery strategy requires several years of rigorous research and development as well as a significant financial commitment, which is not feasible in the face of the current epidemic. Through molecular docking and dynamic simulation studies, we used the FDA-approved drug mezonavir against the most important viral targets, including spike (S) glycoprotein, Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), Main protease (Mpro), human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), and furin. These targets are critical for viral replication and infection propagation because they play a key role in replication/transcription and host cell recognition. Molecular docking revealed that the antiviral medication mozenavir showed a stronger affinity for SARS-CoV-2 target proteins than reference medicines in this investigation. We discovered that mozenavir increases the complex's stability and validates the molecular docking findings using molecular dynamics modeling. Furin, a target protein of COVID-19, has a greater binding affinity (-12.04 kcal/mol) than other COVID-19 target proteins, forming different hydrogen bonds and polar and hydrophobic interactions, suggesting that it might be used as an antiviral treatment against SARS-CoV-2. Overall, the present in silico results will be valuable in identifying crucial targets for subsequent experimental investigations that might help combat COVID-19 by blocking the protease furin's proteolytic activity.

2.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 69: 126878, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green nanoparticles are subjected as an immunostimulant against bacterial pathogens. METHODS: Murraya koenigii berry extract-based synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (Mb-ZnO NPs) and selenium nanoparticles (Mb-Se NPs) were relatively analyzed for immunostimulation in serum and mucus fish Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila infections. Initial minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for both Mb-ZnO NPs and Mb-Se NPs followed by specific growth rate (SGR), antioxidant level (Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), Catalase activity (CA), and Glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx)), and immune parameters Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), Respiratory burst activity (RBA), Lysozyme activity (LYZ), Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), Serum antiprotease activity and Natural complement activity (NAC). RESULTS: The potential bacterial inhibition property of Mb-ZnO NPs and Mb-Se NPs exhibited the most negligible concentration of 25 and 15 µg mL-1, respectively, against A. hydrophila. In addition, Mb-ZnO NPs and Mb-Se NPs exhibited 70-80 % and 90-95 % diminished biofilm activity at 50 µg mL-1 that was viewed under an inverted research microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Protein leakage and nucleic acid leakage assay quantified oozed out protein and nucleic acid from A. hydrophila that confirms Mb-Se NPs exhibited vigorous antibacterial activity than Mb-ZnO NPs at tested concentrations. Oreochromis mossambicus fed with Mb-ZnO NPs and Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet at different concentrations (0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg) improved SGR along with a rise in the immune response of those fishes against A. hydrophila infection. Serum and mucus of fish fed with Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet exhibited a significant rise in antioxidant level SOD, CA and GPx at a dosage of 2 mg/kg. Likewise, lipid peroxidation assay detected significantly diminished oxidative stress in the serum and mucus of fish fed with Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet (2 mg/kg). Enhanced immune parameters in serum and mucus of fish fed with Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet determined by MPO, RBA, LYZ, ALP, Serum antiprotease activity and NAC. CONCLUSION: Thus O. mossambicus fed with Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet was less prone to become infected by aquatic pathogen A. hydrophila established by challenge study. On the whole, Mb-Se NPs supplemented diet ensured the rise in antioxidant response that boosts the immune responses and reduces the chance of getting infected against A. hydrophila infections.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 814-821, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153402

RESUMO

Abstract Untreated sewage and industrial wastes from Faisalabad city are disposed to River Chenab through Chakbandi Main Drain (CMD). The present project is planned to investigate the effects of this freshwater pollution on the body of fish Ictalurus punctatus. The specimens of this fish species were collected upstream and downstream of the entrance of CMD into River Chenab. Fish gills, liver, kidney and muscles from dorsolateral regions of fish were subjected to histopathology. Farmed fish and fish from upstream areas were used as control. Fish collected from polluted experimental sites showed significant damage in selected organs. Gill tissues showed an abnormality in the form of an uplifting of the primary epithelium, fusion, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and necrosis. While liver tissues subjected to hepatocytes degeneration, necrosis, mitochondrial granular hepatocyte, and sinusoids dilation. Kidney tissues indicated increased bowmen space and constricted glomerulus and degenerated nephrons. Edema, necrosis, and atrophy were observed in muscle tissues of fish from polluted areas. Fish from the upstream area showed fused gill lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, hypertrophy and vacuolation in hepatocytes. Kidney tissues indicated the presence of nuclear tubular cells, destructive renal tubules, hemorrhage, and necrosis at tubular epithelium. Intra myofibril spaces were also observed in muscles. Specimens of control fish indicated no variation in gills, liver, kidney, and muscles. The present study revealed a strong correlation between the degree of tissue damage and environmental contamination. Present findings also compel global warnings to protect our water bodies and fish to rescue the human population.


Resumo O esgoto não tratado e os resíduos industriais da cidade de Faisalabad, no Paquistão, são descartados no Rio Chenab através do dreno principal de Chakbandi (CMD). O presente projeto busca investigar os efeitos dessa poluição de água doce no corpo de peixes Ictalurus punctatus. Os espécimes deste peixe foram coletados a montante e a jusante da entrada do CMD no Rio Chenab. Brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos das regiões dorsolaterais dos peixes foram submetidos à histopatologia. Peixes de criação e peixes de áreas a montante foram utilizados como controle. Peixes coletados em locais experimentais poluídos mostraram danos significativos em órgãos selecionados. Os tecidos branquiais mostraram uma anormalidade na forma de elevação do epitélio primário, fusão, vacuolação, hipertrofia e necrose. Observou-se que os tecidos hepáticos estão sujeitos a degeneração de hepatócitos, necrose, hepatócitos mitocondriais granulares e dilatação de sinusoides. Os tecidos renais indicaram aumento do espaço dos arqueiros, glomérulos contraídos e néfrons degenerados. Edema, necrose e atrofia foram observados nos tecidos musculares de peixes de áreas poluídas. Peixes da área a montante apresentaram lamelas branquiais fundidas, infiltração de células inflamatórias, hipertrofia e vacuolização em hepatócitos. Os tecidos renais indicaram a presença de células tubulares nucleares, túbulos renais destrutivos, hemorragia e necrose no epitélio tubular. Os espaços intramiofibrilas também foram observados nos músculos. Amostras de peixes controle não indicaram variação em brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos. O presente estudo revelou uma forte correlação entre o grau de dano tecidual e a contaminação ambiental. As descobertas atuais também constituem avisos globais para proteger nossos corpos d'água e peixes para resguardar a população humana.

4.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(4): 2267-2271, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911941

RESUMO

The cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes due to different industrial dyes in industrial effluents is a major worldwide issue. Hematoxylin dye has a wide range of uses in textile industries and laboratories. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of hematoxylin's sublethal effect in vitro in Cirrhinus mrigala. The fish was exposed to different grading concentrations of dye in the aquarium. Fish were sacrificed and dissected to remove the kidney after exposure to hematoxylin dye for specific time intervals. Nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by this dye were detected through histopathology by using the paraffin wax method. Immediate mortality of fish was noticed against the exposure to 0.08 g/L (LC50) concentration of dye, but at 0.008 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, it showed tremendous tissue damage in the kidneys, significant reduction in fish growth. This dye induced many alterations in the kidney such as tubular degeneration, vacuolation, shrinkage of a glomerulus, reduced lumen, congestion in the kidney, glomerulonephritis, absence of Bowmen space, necrosis of the hematopoietic interstitial tissues, clogging of tubules, necrosis in the glomerulus and increased space between glomerulus and bowmen's capsule. Although this dye has a wide range of biological and industrial applications, a minute amount of hematoxylin released in effluents is quite toxic to aquatic fauna.

5.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(3): 1539-1543, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732037

RESUMO

Reproductive success is attained by various mechanisms in insects. Prolonged post insemination association is one such mechanism to increase the reproductive success. The present study was conducted to assess the role of post insemination association of mating partners on reproductive performance in Chrysomelidae beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister. The matings were disrupted at different time intervals and fecundity and percent egg viability of the females were recorded. In addition, the mounting attempts, mating attempts, time to commencement of mating and latent period were also recorded. It was hypothesized that: (1) the mounting and mating attempts would not exist, (2) copulation duration, would not affect the reproductive performance, and (3) the beetle would not exhibit the mate guarding behaviour. Interestingly, results revealed that 6.00 ± 1.3 and 6.59 ± 0.93 mounting and mating attempts are needed to establish successful mating. The results revealed that males improved their percent egg viability with a mating duration ranging from nearly 30-50 min. While fecundity increased with a mating duration of above 30 min and up to a duration of 60 min. This result concluded that males of this beetle display post copulatory mate guarding behaviour after 60 min in which male rides on female's back with his aedeagus inserted in the female genital tract.

6.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(3): 1808-1815, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732066

RESUMO

The present work aims to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles via green approaches using leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus. UV-vis and FT-IR tests confirmed the existence of biomolecules, active materials, and metal oxides. The X-ray diffraction structural study exposes the ZnO nanoparticles formation with hexagonal phase structures. SEM and TEM analysis reveal surface morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles and most of them are spherical with a size range of 10 nm. ZnO nanoparticles were revealed strong antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal strains. The germination of seeds and vegetative growth of Sesamum indicum has been greatly improved.

7.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(2): 1218-1225, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613050

RESUMO

Pollution is severely threatening the wetland habitats. Heavy metals are one among of the major pollutants in wetland habitats. The cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn), were assessed in the water, sediment, benthic species (polychaetes, mollusc and crustaceans), prawn and fishes. The assessment of heavy metals was done by using double-beam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Hg, Cr and Co were greater in sediment, Ni and Cd were higher in polychaetes and molluscs respectively. However, the Cu and Pb greater in crabs and the Zinc was greater in fishes. The concentration of metals showed significant differences among the various sources examined (P < 0.05) except Cr (P > 0.05). The inter-correlational analysis among the metals assessed from the various sources showed that the Cr and Pb not correlated among the eight metals examined. However, the Cu and Co were correlated with Hg (r = 0.307) and (r = 0.788) respectively. The nickel was correlated with Hg (r = 0.367), Cu (r = 0.362) and Co (r = 0.432). The Zinc was correlated with the Cd (r = 0.331) and Hg (r = 0.737). However, correlation of metals among the different sources shown that the metals of polychaetes correlated with sediment r = 0.637, the metals of crabs correlated with the sediment and polychaetes r = 0.630 and r = 842 respectively, the metals of molluscs was also correlated with sediment (r = 0.636), polychaetes (r = 0.889) and crabs (r = 0.894). In addition to that the metals of prawns was correlated with the polychaetes (r = 839), crabs (r = 0.628) and molluscs (r = 0.634). The metals of fishes correlated with polychaetes (r = 0.529), crabs (r = 0.710), molluscs (r = 0.493) and prawns (r = 0.593). Indeed the multiple regression model explained that the metals of sediments influence the accumulation of metals in biotic species such as polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, prawns and fishes with 84% (F = 21.079; p < 0.001).The order of the heavy metals in the water, sediment and biotic species was Hg > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > Co > Cu > Cd. The study found that the level of heavy metals at various sources in the sanctuary is showing considerable warning and the sanctuary is required intensive assessment on various aspects of pollution since the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary is supporting several species of migratory and endangered shorebirds seasonally.

8.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(3): 2029-2039, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519272

RESUMO

Introduction: Researchers worldwide with great endeavor searching and repurpose drugs might be potentially useful in fighting newly emerged coronavirus. These drugs show inhibition but also show side effects and complications too. On December 27, 2020, 80,926,235 cases have been reported worldwide. Specifically, in Pakistan, 471,335 has been reported with inconsiderable deaths. Problem statement: Identification of COVID-19 drugs pathway through drug-gene and gene-gene interaction to find out the most important genes involved in the pathway to deal with the actual cause of side effects beyond the beneficent effects of the drugs. Methodology: The medicines used to treat COVID-19 are retrieved from the Drug Bank. The drug-gene interaction was performed using the Drug Gene Interaction Database to check the relation between the genes and the drugs. The networks of genes are developed by Gene MANIA, while Cytoscape is used to check the active functional association of the targeted gene. The developed systems cross-validated using the EnrichNet tool and identify drug genes' concerned pathways using Reactome and STRING. Results: Five drugs Azithromycin, Bevacizumab, CQ, HCQ, and Lopinavir, are retrieved. The drug-gene interaction shows several genes that are targeted by the drug. Gene MANIA interaction network shows the functional association of the genes like co-expression, physical interaction, predicted, genetic interaction, co-localization, and shared protein domains. Conclusion: Our study suggests the pathways for each drug in which targeted genes and medicines play a crucial role, which will help experts in-vitro overcome and deal with the side effects of these drugs, as we find out the in-silico gene analysis for the COVID-19 drugs.

9.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(1): 901-910, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424382

RESUMO

This study presents ethanol's fabrication by fermenting the golden trumpet flower (Allamanda schottii L) with the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The changes in different parameters during fermentation were studied and optimized while producing the ethanol and the end product was subjected to emission test study by blending petrol and ethanol. The Allamanda floral substrate contains 65% polysaccharides. The strain S. cerevisiae was obtained in the form of baker's yeast from a domestic shop. For 100 ml of slurry, the highest bioethanol yield recorded was about 18.75 ml via optimization of different culture conditions, including a 1:8 ratio for slurry preparation, maintained under 35 °C, 5.5 pH, 72 h. old inoculum with a quantity of 3.75 g 100 ml-1, fermented for120 h. The highest yield of bioethanol was acquired under the addition of urea. This technique & design is capable of industrial-scale fabrication of bioethanol by using A. schottii floral substrates. This research was conducted to fabricate ethanol by fermentation (A. schottii L) floral substrate with S. cerevisiae. The optimum physiochemical parameters required to obtain the highest yield of bioethanol from A. schottii flower by fermentation was studied. The immobilization strategy with a cheap agricultural substrate and magnetic nanoparticles were also studied. The engine performance and emission studies were done with different blends of petrol and bio-ethanol.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 81(3): 814-821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965341

RESUMO

Untreated sewage and industrial wastes from Faisalabad city are disposed to River Chenab through Chakbandi Main Drain (CMD). The present project is planned to investigate the effects of this freshwater pollution on the body of fish Ictalurus punctatus. The specimens of this fish species were collected upstream and downstream of the entrance of CMD into River Chenab. Fish gills, liver, kidney and muscles from dorsolateral regions of fish were subjected to histopathology. Farmed fish and fish from upstream areas were used as control. Fish collected from polluted experimental sites showed significant damage in selected organs. Gill tissues showed an abnormality in the form of an uplifting of the primary epithelium, fusion, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and necrosis. While liver tissues subjected to hepatocytes degeneration, necrosis, mitochondrial granular hepatocyte, and sinusoids dilation. Kidney tissues indicated increased bowmen space and constricted glomerulus and degenerated nephrons. Edema, necrosis, and atrophy were observed in muscle tissues of fish from polluted areas. Fish from the upstream area showed fused gill lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, hypertrophy and vacuolation in hepatocytes. Kidney tissues indicated the presence of nuclear tubular cells, destructive renal tubules, hemorrhage, and necrosis at tubular epithelium. Intra myofibril spaces were also observed in muscles. Specimens of control fish indicated no variation in gills, liver, kidney, and muscles. The present study revealed a strong correlation between the degree of tissue damage and environmental contamination. Present findings also compel global warnings to protect our water bodies and fish to rescue the human population.


Assuntos
Ictaluridae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brânquias , Humanos , Rim , Fígado , Músculos
11.
Gene ; 768: 145321, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221538

RESUMO

c/ebpα is a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, which are involved in cell growth and differentiation and have a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. However, little is known about its function in sex determination and differentiation. In the present study, c/ebpα was cloned from the gonads of Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The full-length cDNA of c/ebpα was 1583 bp, with a 198-bp 5' UTR, a 446-bp 3' UTR, and a 939-bp open reading frame encoding a 312-amino acid peptide. qRT-PCR revealed that c/ebpα was predominantly expressed in undifferentiated gonads of male C. semilaevis at 30 dpf and 60 dpf and peaked at 60 dpf. Expression levels of c/ebpα in the testis were constantly higher than those in ovaries at all developmental stages. Moreover, a dual-luciferase assay revealed that c/ebpα could negatively regulate the male-determining gene dmrt1 in vitro. These results provide fundamental information indicating that C. semilaevis c/ebpa might be involved in early gonadal differentiation and functions as a negative regulator of dmrt1 by repressing its transcription.


Assuntos
Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Linguados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Linguados/genética , Linguados/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/metabolismo
12.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 33(1): 101255, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288976

RESUMO

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infecting millions of people globally has given rise to serious public health threats. The need for early detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in asymptomatic pregnant women is compelling to detect vertical transmission timely. Here, 11 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic pregnant cases from Wuhan China were investigated. All the patients were initially tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR, so a chest CT scan was performed. Also, serum antibody (IgM and IgG) titers were estimated. CT scan of patients revealed typical abnormalities related to SARS-CoV-2, indicating ground-glass opacity and infection lesions suggesting viral pneumonia. Elevated IgM and IgG antibodies levels (p < 0.001) were also noticed in infected patients. Hence, CT imaging and serum antibody response are valuable in the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic pregnant patients. These might serve as prognostic markers for healthcare professionals, in RT-PCR negative patients, to assess the effect of given treatment by chest CT.

13.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 33: 102148, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346056

RESUMO

A simple method has been needed to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs) to avoid environmental pollution, an alternative chemical and physical method. This current study deals with phytosynthesis of gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) metal doped with titanium oxide (TiO2) NPs using Enterolobium saman bark extract. This extract plays a vital role in reducing and stabilizing Au and Pt doped into the TiO2 NPs lattices. Phytosynthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, ED-XRF, TEM, FTIR, Raman, and UV-vis-DRS analyses. The metal doping effect has decreased bandgap energy and particle size, whereas increased conductivity for TiO2/M-Au and TiO2/M-Pt NPs compared to pristine TiO2 NPs. Phytosynthesized NPs were fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and photocatalytic behaviour against methylene blue (MB) dye was studied. An obtained result demonstrates that TiO2/M-Au NPs have excellent feasibility for applying DSSC and photocatalytic application due to particle size, crystallite size, absorption ability, and bandgap energy. Besides, synthesized samples were measured with cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy found that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric and increases that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric increases electro-catalytic of the TiO2. Different concentrations of all NPs were tested against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and S. aureus ATCC 6633 bacteria by a well-diffusion method. The 10 mg concentration of all NPs showed better antibacterial activity. However, we believe that the proposed simple phytosynthesized method provides an efficient way to overcome the chemical and physical methods.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Fotoquimioterapia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ouro , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Platina , Staphylococcus aureus , Titânio
14.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(12): 3334-3341, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304139

RESUMO

Chronic diabetes extensively complicates the glucose metabolism to onset and progress the complication. Concurrently, several contemporary medicines, especially organo-metallic formulations, are emerging to treat hyperglycemia. The current study aims to emphasize the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) potential for glucose metabolism regulation in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect the mRNA expression of Glucose transporters 2 (GLUT2), Glucokinase (GK) and Glucose 6 Phosphatase (G-6-Pase). The study shows remarkable results such as the prognostic effect of GNPs in reinforcing the repression of enzyme complex G-6-Pase about 13.3-fold when compared to diabetes control. Also, molecular docking studies showed significant inhibition of G-6-Pase by the terpenoid ligands with alpha and beta amyrin from leaf extract of Couroupita guianensis. Thus the study explored the novel mechanism of G-6-Pase downregulated by GNPs intervention that majorly contributes to the regulation of circulatory glucose homeostasis during diabetes.

15.
Front Genet ; 11: 581161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329719

RESUMO

Anglerfishes are a highly diverse group of species with unique characteristics. Here, we report the first chromosome-level genome of a species in the order Lophiiformes, the yellow goosefish (Lophius litulon), obtained by whole genome shotgun sequencing and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture. Approximately 97.20% of the assembly spanning 709.23 Mb could be anchored to 23 chromosomes with a contig N50 of 164.91 kb. The BUSCO value was 95.4%, suggesting that the quality of the assembly was high. A comparative gene family analysis identified expanded and contracted gene families, and these may be associated with adaptation to the benthic environment and the lack of scales in the species. A majority of positively selected genes were related to metabolic processes, suggesting that digestive and metabolic system evolution expanded the diversity of yellow goosefish prey. Our study provides a valuable genetic resource for understanding the mechanisms underlying the unique features of the yellow goosefish and for investigating anglerfish evolution.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22118, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335186

RESUMO

The study is intended to deliver the incidence of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds from two important Central Asian Flyway (CAF) migratory shorebirds wintering sites such as the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary (PWLS) and Pichavaram Mangrove Forest (PMF), India. Feathers of fifteen species of shorebirds and seven different metals viz., Cu, Cr, Co, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn were analyzed. Zn was highest in Dunlin, Little-ringed Plover, Marsh Sandpiper, and Common sandpiper, Ni showed highest in Little ringed plover, and Common sandpiper, Co, Cr, and Cu were maximum in Little stint, Marsh sandpiper, and Dunlin, respectively. The Hg was higher in Black-winged stilt, Common redshank, Curlew Sandpiper, Eurasian curlew, Lesser Sand-plover, Temminck's stint, Kentish plover, Spotted redshank, and Wood sandpiper, the Pb found highest in Kentish plover, Painted stork, Spotted redshank, Wood sandpiper, Eurasian Curlew, and Lesser sand-plover. The concentration of metals showed significant variations among the species of shorebirds studied (P < 0.001). The mercury negatively correlated with the other metals than the other six metals studied in both the wetlands. The order of metal concentration in the feathers of shorebirds was Zn > Ni > Co > Cr > Cu > Pb > Hg. Nevertheless, the current study revealed that the level of metals in the shorebirds is alarming; since the PWLS and PMF are located along the CAF routes, it needs intensive studies on various pollutions to manage both the resident as well as migratory shorebirds.

17.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(11): 2917-2928, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100847

RESUMO

The entomofaunal survey and its toxicity of Blumea mollis (Asteraceae) leaf aqueous extract-mediated (Bm-LAE) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were assessed against selected human vector mosquitoes (HVMs). A total of 1800 individuals of 29 species belongs to 7 genera were identified. Month-wise and Genus-wise abundance of HVMs larval diversity were calculated and one-way ANOVA statistically analyzed the average physico-chemical characteristics. The relationship between physicochemical characteristics and HVMs larvae in KWS was interpreted. The total larval density and container index were 23530.18 and 1961.85 examined against 10 different containers. Various spectroscopic and microscopic investigation characterized Bm-AgNPs. The Bm- AgNPs tested against HVMs larvae, the predominant LC50/LC90 values of 18.17/39.56, 23.45/42.49 and 21.82/40.43 µg/mL were observed on An. subpictus Cx. vishnui and Ae. vittatus, respectively. The findings of this investigation, improperly maintained drainages, containers and unused things in study sites, are engaged to HVMs development. This will be essential for designing and implementing HVMs control. The larval toxic potentiality of Bm- AgNPs had a prompt, inexpensive and compelling synthesis of multi-disperse action against HVMs.

18.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 745, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temperature is known to affect living organisms and alter the expression of responsive genes, which affects a series of life processes, such as development, reproduction and metabolism. Several genes and gene families have been involved in high temperature responses, such as heat shock protein (hsp) family, Jumonji family and genes related to cortisol synthesis. Gonad is a vital organ related to the existence of a species. However, the comprehensive understanding of gonadal responses to environmental temperature is limited. RESULTS: To explore the effects of environmental temperature on genes and gene networks in gonads, we performed acute heat treatment (48 h) on Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Gonadal transcriptome analysis was conducted on females, pseudomales and males exposed to high (28 °C) and normal (22 °C) temperatures. A total of 1226.24 million clean reads were obtained from 18 libraries. Principal component analysis (PCA) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis revealed different performance of sex responses to heat stress. There were 4565, 790 and 1117 specific genes altered their expression level in females, pseudomales and males, respectively. Of these, genes related to hsp gene family, cortisol synthesis and metabolism and epigenetic regulation were involved in early heat response. Furthermore, a total of 1048 DEGs were shared among females, pesudomales and males, which may represent the inherent difference between high and normal temperatures. Genes, such as eef1akmt3, eef1akmt4, pnmt and hsp family members, were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our results depicted for the first time the gonadal gene expression under acute high temperature treatment in Chinese tongue sole. The findings may provide a clue for understanding the responses of genes and networks to environmental temperature.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Linguados , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , China , Feminino , Linguados/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Masculino
19.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 32: 102058, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065306

RESUMO

Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract. The synthesis of the nanoparticle was primarily visualized when the colour of the reaction mixture turned into reddish-brown. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDX. The UV spectra showed maximum absorption at 584 nm. FT-IR studies showed stretching frequency at 592.76 cm-1, which is the fingerprint region for Cu-O bond. The crystallinity of the synthesized copper nanoparticles (Mz-Cu NPs) was revealed through XRD analysis. The synthesized Mz-Cu NPs were spherical with an average size of 18.9-42.5 nm and it was shown by SEM analysis. EDX analysis displayed that the nano sample contains 58 % of copper. The antimicrobial property of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against fungal plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani (MTCC 12232), Sclerotium oryzae (MTCC 12230) and bacterial species, namely Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 23857), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 35084), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33845). In in-vitro haemolytic assay, the particle showed 5.73, 3.34, 0.5 % hemolysis at 100, 50, 25 µg/mL concentration respectively. In the antiproliferative assay, the IC50 values of MCF7 and Vero cells were found to be 53.89 and 883.69 µg/µl. The particle degraded Methyl violet, Malachite green and Coomassie brilliant blue by 92.2, 94.9 and 78.8 %, within 50, 40 and 60 min, respectively, through its photocatalytic activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Manilkara , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cobre/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizoctonia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Células Vero , Vibrio
20.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(10): 2747-2755, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994734

RESUMO

This study explored the effects of natural growth promoters (phytogenic feed additives and organic acids) on animal performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, gut microflora composition, and microbe-host interactions in broiler chickens over a 42-day feeding period. Two-hundred-fifty-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (i) control diets (CON); (ii) control diets + 40 g/tons antibiotic growth promoter (AB); (iii) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids (ORG); (iv) control diets + 3 kg/tons phytogenic feed additives (PHY); (v) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids + phytogenic feed additive combination (COM). A non-significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in broiler performance among treatments at 21 days of age; however, a gradually increasing body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio were observed at 42 days in treatments versus control group. Biochemical indices were non-significant (p > 0.05) except for decreased cholesterol (p < 0.05) and increased A/G ratio (p < 0.05) recorded in the treatment groups. The addition of PHY and ORG improved total counts of Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. (p < 0.05) as well as reduced caecal and ileal Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis elucidated beneficial bacteria (Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) were positively and pathogenic bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and E. coli) were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with host weight gain. The findings indicated that dietary supplementation of PHY and ORG sustained balanced gut microflora, which in turn improved body weight. This study broadens the significance of using PHY and ORG as safe alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for achieving healthier and economical broiler production.

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