Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gynaecology trainees struggle to obtain adequate procedural experience. Training programs integrating virtual reality simulators (VRS) have been suggested as a solution. AIMS: The study aimed to assess if a VRS training program (LapSim® , Surgical Sciences, Göteborg, 2017) improved live operating performance at six months for novice and experienced trainees. Additional outcomes included the association between LapSim® logged time and live operating performance at six months, LapSim® scores and live operating performance at zero and sixmonths and the difference in benefit for novice and experienced gynaecology trainees. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was conducted. Novice and experienced trainees were enrolled, and comparisons made at zero- and six-month time points. The intervention groups were provided with a laparoscopic gynaecology curriculum incorporating VRS. Controls underwent routine training only. Assessment of live operating performance was conducted after six months training. RESULTS: Thirty-five trainees participated, and 25 had access to the VRS curriculum (17 novice and eight experienced trainees). Access to the VRS curriculum and time spent training on the LapSim® made no difference to live operating ability for either intervention group (P > 0.05). The median (interquartile range) hours of VRS usage were 7.9 (4.5-10.8) and 6.0 (4.0-6.8) for novice and experienced trainees respectively. The intervention group provided positive feedback on the utility of VRS in their laparoscopic skill development. CONCLUSION: Optimal utilisation of VRS in Australian training paradigms remains incompletely understood. Further research is required to establish the most effective integration of VRS into training models to ensure uptake and transferability to the operating theatre.

2.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 29(5): 633-640, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990811

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of specialist-performed transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities in predicting depth of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) of the rectosigmoid by comparison with histologic specimens obtained at surgery. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis, which met the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (2015) guidelines for a diagnostic accuracy study. SETTING: Tertiary teaching hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 194 cases who underwent preoperative discussion at the gynecologic endosurgery unit multidisciplinary meeting between January 2012 and December 2019 were eligible for inclusion. INTERVENTIONS: Retrospective assessment of the accuracy of TVUS and MRI in predicting histologic depth of rectosigmoid DIE after operative management. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Al total of 135 surgeries were performed for DIE; 20 underwent a rectal shave, 14 had a disc/wedge resection, 38 an anterior/segmental resection, and 63 had no rectosigmoid surgery. Of the 52 patients with full-thickness rectal wall excision, all patients had at least one imaging modality available for review; 42 (81%) had both. At least one imaging modality was in agreement with histologic depth in 48 cases (92%) (sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 50%; positive predictive value [PPV], 97.9%; negative predictive value [NPV], 25.0%; area under the receiver operating curve, 0.720; 95% confidence interval, 0.229-1.000). When TVUS was assessed in isolation, the test remained sensitive for any rectal wall involvement (sensitivity, 93.6%; specificity, 50.0%; PPV, 97.8%; NPV, 25.0%; area under the receiver operating curve, 0.718; 95% confidence interval, 0.227-1.000). When only MRI was assessed, the test demonstrated both high sensitivity and specificity for rectal wall disease (sensitivity, 86.4%; specificity, 100%; PPV, 100%; NPV, 14.2). CONCLUSION: Specialist-performed TVUS and MRI are accurate in predicting depth of disease in rectosigmoid endometriosis. These modalities were similar in their diagnostic performance at assessing depth of rectal wall involvement, and their use is justified in the preoperative planning of these gynecologic surgeries.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Doenças Retais , Endometriose/diagnóstico por imagem , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retais/patologia , Doenças Retais/cirurgia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia , Reto/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia/métodos
3.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 62(1): 110-117, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis is histologically defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in the myometrium. To date, there are no standardised ultrasound findings that reliably predict histological adenomyosis. AIMS: This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a novel sonographic measurement for adenomyosis, the myometrial-cervical ratio (MCR), when compared with histopathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-centre retrospective study was performed. The MCR was calculated from the pre-operative ultrasound, and histopathology reviewed for each case. Accuracy data were analysed in the form of 2 × 2 tables. The discriminative value of the MCR was summarised with a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. Sub-analysis examined the impact of fibroids, hormonal suppression, menopausal status, parity and indication for surgery. RESULTS: Between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2018, 982 patients underwent hysterectomy for benign non-obstetric indication and adequate pre-operative ultrasound was available for 260. The MCR demonstrated limited diagnostic ability for adenomyosis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.58, 95% CI 0.51-0.65). However, when applied to cases with no uterine fibroid included in the MCR calculation (n = 133) there was a strong association between MCR and diagnosis of adenomyosis (odds ratio: 5.79, 95% CI: 2.15, 15.62, P = 0.001) with AUROC for this model 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.77). At an MCR cut-point of 1.74, sensitivity is 67.16% and specificity is 66.15%, with 66.67% of samples correctly classified. CONCLUSIONS: While diagnostic accuracy was suboptimal, the MCR outperforms traditional ultrasound diagnostic features of adenomyosis. The MCR may offer a simple imaging measurement for adenomyosis.


Assuntos
Adenomiose , Adenomiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/métodos , Miométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Miométrio/patologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0242586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478443

RESUMO

Road ecology has traditionally focused on the impact of in-situ and functional roads on wildlife. However, road construction also poses a major, yet understudied, threat and the implications for key aspects of animal behaviour are unknown. Badgers (Meles meles) have been implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle. There are concerns that environmental disturbances, including major road construction, can disrupt badger territoriality, promoting the spread of the disease to cattle. To address these knowledge gaps the ranging behaviour of a medium-density Irish badger population was monitored using GPS-tracking collars before, during, and after a major road realignment project that bisected the study area. We estimated badgers' home range sizes, nightly distances travelled, and the distance and frequency of extra-territorial excursions during each phase of the study and quantified any changes to these parameters. We show that road construction had a very limited effect on ranging behaviour. A small increase in nightly distance during road construction did not translate into an increase in home range size, nor an increase in the distance or frequency of extra-territorial excursions during road construction. In addition, suitable mitigation measures to prevent badger deaths appeared to ensure that normal patterns of ranging behaviour continued once the new road was in place. We recommend that continuous badger-proof fencing be placed along the entire length of new major roads, in combination with appropriately sited underpasses. Our analysis supports the view that road construction did not cause badgers to change their ranging behaviour in ways likely to increase the spread of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Territorialidade , Animais , Bovinos , Reservatórios de Doenças , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9665, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541685

RESUMO

European badgers (Meles meles) in medium and high density populations show strong territorial behaviour. Territories in these populations are contiguous, well-marked and often unchanging over many years. However, badgers do not always stay within their territorial boundaries. In our medium-density population, most individual badgers made extra-territorial excursions (ETEs) throughout the year. ETEs were most frequent between April and September and least frequent in December and January (the period of winter lethargy). Male badgers made longer and more frequent ETEs than females (especially between January and March, and in autumn). Breeding females made longer and more frequent ETEs than non-breeding females in November. While these peaks correspond with the main mating seasons, mating activity does not explain ETEs throughout the year. The shorter, but more frequent, ETEs in summer months may serve a monitoring purpose, rather than simply providing additional mating opportunities with badgers from outside the 'home' social group. We found that young badgers did not make regular ETEs until the summer of their second year. If badgers could be vaccinated as cubs, this would reduce any potential risk of TB spread during ETEs.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Mustelidae/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano
6.
Ecol Evol ; 9(23): 13142-13152, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871635

RESUMO

European badgers (Meles meles) are group-living mustelids implicated in the spread of bovine tuberculosis (TB) to cattle and act as a wildlife reservoir for the disease. In badgers, only a minority of individuals disperse from their natal social group. However, dispersal may be extremely important for the spread of TB, as dispersers could act as hubs for disease transmission. We monitored a population of 139 wild badgers over 7 years in a medium-density population (1.8 individuals/km2). GPS tracking collars were applied to 80 different individuals. Of these, we identified 25 dispersers, 14 of which were wearing collars as they dispersed. This allowed us to record the process of dispersal in much greater detail than ever before. We show that dispersal is an extremely complex process, and measurements of straight-line distance between old and new social groups can severely underestimate how far dispersers travel. Assumptions of straight-line travel can also underestimate direct and indirect interactions and the potential for disease transmission. For example, one female disperser which eventually settled 1.5 km from her natal territory traveled 308 km and passed through 22 different territories during dispersal. Knowledge of badgers' ranging behavior during dispersal is crucial to understanding the dynamics of TB transmission, and for designing appropriate interventions, such as vaccination.

7.
Eur J Radiol ; 121: 108717, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with colorectal surgical bowel resection for treatment of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 122 preoperative pelvic MRIs in women with laparoscopically-proven DIE and subsequent surgery (2006-2015) were identified, and retrospective cohort analysis performed. MRIs were reviewed independently by two radiologists blinded to surgical/histopathological outcomes. Associations between MRI characteristics of middle/posterior compartment endometriosis and surgical outcomes were investigated to identify MRI features associated with colorectal surgical bowel resection. RESULTS: MRI features associated with colorectal surgical intervention were: presence of an MRI bowel lesion (sensitivity 95.3%, specificity 63.3%, ROC-AUC 0.79); MRI bowel lesions ≥20 mm in length (sensitivity 91%, specificity 77%, ROC-AUC 0.84); MRI bowel lesions invading the muscularis or submucosa/mucosa layers (sensitivity 95.3%, specificity 63.3%, ROC-AUC 0.90). CONCLUSION: This study identifies MRI features that have potential diagnostic utility in identifying the need for colorectal surgical intervention in patients with DIE.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doenças Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retais/cirurgia , Adulto , Doenças do Colo/etiologia , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doenças Retais/etiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 59(1): 123-133, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinician and patient factors impact on the management of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) with medical, surgical or combined approaches possible, although none have proven superior. AIMS: To understand the characteristics of women offered laparoscopic pelvic surgery for CPP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an observational study of women referred with CPP. They were asked to complete a study questionnaire regarding their symptoms, medical history, quality of life and pain catastrophisation. Examination and ultrasound findings were collected from patient records. Gynaecologists who recommended a laparoscopy completed a survey detailing their reasoning at the time of booking. The outcomes were investigated using a Cox proportional hazards ratio (HR) model. RESULTS: Of 211 participants, 59 (28%) were booked for laparoscopic surgery during the study timeframe. Factors increasing the rate of laparoscopy included severe dysmenorrhoea (Cox HR = 1.94; P = 0.017), unsuccessful trial of hormonal therapy (Cox HR = 1.81; P = 0.044), prior abdominal surgery (Cox HR = 1.79; P = 0.030), prior pelvic laparoscopy (Cox HR = 2.00; P = 0.007) and past diagnosis of endometriosis (Cox HR = 5.44; P = 0.010). Abnormal vaginal examination (Cox HR = 2.86; P = 0.019) and ultrasound probe tenderness (Cox HR = 2.52; P < 0.001) also increased the likelihood of surgery. Surgical and non-surgical patients did not differ in family history, quality of life or pain catastrophisation. Of gynaecologists' questionnaires, 75% were returned. Results indicated they were most influenced by the severity or duration of pain and least by examination or ultrasound findings. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of women booked for surgery were in keeping with the features evidence suggests increases the risk of pathology. There were some discrepancies between patient characteristics elicited in the questionnaires and those indicated by gynaecologists to influence their decision.


Assuntos
Dor Pélvica/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pélvica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 26(3): 427-433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775729

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of narrowband imaging (NBI) to detect additional areas of endometriosis not identified by standard white light in patients undergoing laparoscopy for the investigation of pelvic pain. DESIGN: A prospective cohort trial (Canadian Task Force classification II). Evidence obtained from a well-designed cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary laparoscopic subspecialty unit in Melbourne, Australia. PATIENTS: Fifty-seven patients undergoing laparoscopy for the investigation of pelvic pain were recruited. Fifty-three patients were eligible for analysis. INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent standard white-light laparoscopy of the pelvis followed by NBI survey to assess for any additional areas suspicious for endometriosis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All identified areas of possible endometriosis were resected and sent for blinded histopathological analysis. The additional predictive value of NBI was 0% if the preceding white-light survey was negative and 86% if the preceding white-light survey was positive. CONCLUSION: The use of NBI at laparoscopy for the investigation of pelvic pain is beneficial in finding additional areas of endometriosis if endometriosis is already suspected after white-light survey in a tertiary laparoscopic unit. Further research in nonspecialized units may show additional benefit and requires further research. NBI may also be useful as a diagnostic aid for trainees.


Assuntos
Endometriose/diagnóstico , Endometriose/cirurgia , Imagem de Banda Estreita/métodos , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/cirurgia , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/complicações , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/patologia , Dor Pélvica/etiologia , Dor Pélvica/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 59(2): 279-284, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To establish whether the ultrasound findings of minimal endometriosis are confirmed at laparoscopy and that a correlation can be established as to the anatomical sites in this mild form of the disease. AIMS: Patients with pain and suspicion of endometriosis had an ultrasound scan by a sonologist with expertise in endometriosis as part of their pre-operative workup. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The clinical histories of 53 patients who had laparoscopy to investigate pelvic pain were reviewed. Ultrasounds were performed between 2012 and 2015 by a single sonologist with expertise in endometriosis assessments. The ultrasound findings were divided into subgroups as follows - presence of uterosacral ligament thickness, thickened pericolic fat, ovarian mobility and focal tenderness. These were compared with operative findings of those patients with superficial endometriosis. Evidence Level 3 - observational studies with controls and health services research that includes adjustment for likely confounding factors. RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent (42/53) of the patients had laparoscopic findings consistent with their ultrasound findings (95% CI 68-90%, P < 0.0001). Of the subgroups that we reviewed, uterosacral thickening (P < 0.05) and thickened pericolic fat (P < 0.05) were the most associated with superficial endometriosis at the time of laparoscopy. CONCLUSION: Markers on ultrasound that reliably demonstrated inflammation (thickened uterosacral ligaments and thickened pericolic fat) were shown to be significantly associated with the disease.


Assuntos
Endometriose/diagnóstico por imagem , Endossonografia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Ligamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Pélvica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Pélvica/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 26(7): 1297-1302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590128

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the hypothesis that the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) can have a role in the treatment of endometrial polyps confirmed at outpatient hysteroscopy in premenopausal women. DESIGN: Canadian Task Force classification level II1 (a controlled trial that is not randomised). SETTING: Outpatient hysteroscopy. PATIENTS: Premenopausal women who had a polyp diagnosed at outpatient hysteroscopy. INTERVENTIONS: Premenopausal women who had a polyp diagnosed at outpatient hysteroscopy and had a LNG-IUD inserted were booked for general anesthesia hysteroscopy and polypectomy through the standard booking process. A contemporaneous control was taken sequentially from the outpatient hysteroscopy database to match the case. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The presence of a polyp at hysteroscopy under general anesthesia. A total of 39 patients were included in the study, with 19 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. The mean age was 43.6 (standard deviation = 5.6) and 43.2 (standard deviation = 8.1) years in the 2 groups, respectively. No difference was found in the time interval between the 2 procedures in the intervention and control groups (mean = 92 vs 84 days, p = .73). However, the proportion of polyps present at the second procedure was significantly higher in the control group (80% vs 37%; relative risk = 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-4.07; p = .0062). CONCLUSION: Our case-control study found that the LNG-IUD can have a role in the treatment of polyps for women who have heavy menstrual bleeding. This is the first study to show regression of endometrial polyps after treatment with LNG-IUD by direct visualisation at hysteroscopy.


Assuntos
Contraceptivos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Levanogestrel/administração & dosagem , Pólipos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contraceptivos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia , Levanogestrel/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Scand J Pain ; 18(3): 441-448, 2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794266

RESUMO

Background and aims Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) impacts significantly on the lives of women. Negative coping responses such as pain catastrophizing are thought to be significant in predicting both pain severity and outcome. The combined effect of the individual's response to pain and its severity on their quality of life (QoL) has not been well studied in women with CPP. Aims were to determine the prevalence of pain catastrophizing in women with CPP and to examine the associations between pain catastrophizing and levels of dysmenorrhea, non-cyclical pelvic pain, dyspareunia, dysuria, dyschezia and QoL. Methods A cross-sectional study including women aged 18-50 years, referred to a tertiary gynecology outpatients department at an Australian women's hospital in 2015. Participants completed questionnaires including: pain catastrophizing scale (PCS); pelvic pain levels in the prior 3 months; and the World Health Organisation Quality of life - Bref Questionnaire (WHOQoL-Bref). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA (StataCorp, USA Version13). Results Participants (n = 115) had a median age of 29.0 [interquartile range (IQR): 23.0-38.0] years. The Pain catastrophizing score revealed that 60/113 [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.6, 71.2] of participants had a clinically relevant total score ≥30. There were statistically significant positive correlations between pain catastrophizing scores and pelvic pain levels in all five pain categories studied, dysmenorrhea (ρ = 0.37, p = 0.0001), non-cyclical pelvic pain (ρ = 0.46, p<0.0001), dyspareunia (ρ = 0.32, p = 0.0008), dysuria (ρ = 0.32, p = 0.0005) and dyschezia (ρ = 0.38, p = 0.0012). Participants who reported maximal pain levels (5/5) had significantly higher median pain catastrophizing scores when compared to those who reported no pain (0/5) in all categories. Overall QoL was considered as "good" in 71/113 (95% CI: 60.1, 81.0) participants and "poor" in 42/113 (95% CI: 32.0, 53.0) participants. Comparison to Australian female norms revealed significantly lower QoL scores in the physical domain, across all ages, and in psychological domain for those aged <30 and 30-40 years. There was a significant association between increased catastrophizing scores and reduced odds of good QoL. An increase in PCS by one point is associated with a 6.3% decrease in the odds of good QoL [odds ratio (OR) per one-point increase: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.98), p = 0.008]. Conclusions Pain catastrophizing is prevalent at clinically relevant levels in women with CPP across all domains. It is associated with higher pain levels and decreased QoL. Implications There is potential for further studies to investigate the predictive nature of pain catastrophizing and management targeting catastrophizing to improve outcomes in women with CPP.


Assuntos
Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/fisiopatologia , Dor Pélvica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Catastrofização/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pélvica/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0191818, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444100

RESUMO

We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles) population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females) remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22%) regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more) social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB). Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Mustelidae/fisiologia , Animais , Europa (Continente)
15.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 57(1): 74-80, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27861704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Australia, gynaecologists continue to investigate women with abnormal bleeding and suspected intrauterine pathology with inpatient hysteroscopy despite some evidence in the literature that that there is no difference in safety and outcome when compared to an outpatient procedure. AIMS: This prospective study assessed the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of outpatient hysteroscopy over 11 years at a tertiary hospital in Australia. Resource savings were then calculated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective database was analysed from March 2003 to January 2014 (130 months, 990 women). RESULTS: Successful hysteroscopic access was obtained in 94% of cases. Twenty-six percent of patients required a second procedure, including 132 for endometrial polyps and 33 for submucosal fibroids that were not able to be treated in the outpatient setting. On questioning, 88% of women would be happy to have the procedure again. Factors affecting success were pre-procedure pain, menopausal status and previous vaginal delivery. The difference between pain experienced versus pain expected was a major factor in patient acceptability. A vasovagal episode occurred in 5% of cases. CONCLUSION: Outpatient hysteroscopy was demonstrated to be safe, effective and acceptable to women. Provision of an outpatient hysteroscopy service saves theatre time and approximately $1000 per case. Improved techniques and technology will allow progression to a 'see and treat' service, providing further savings. With budget constraints, increasing wait times for major procedures and concerns about trainee surgical experience, an outpatient hysteroscopy service should be considered the 'gold standard' investigation over hysteroscopy in theatre.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/normas , Histeroscopia/normas , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Histeroscopia/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Paridade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pólipos/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Retratamento , Síncope Vasovagal/etiologia
17.
Hum Reprod ; 30(12): 2808-15, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26472151

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can the presence of endometrial nerve fibres be used as a diagnostic test for endometriosis in women with pelvic pain? SUMMARY ANSWER: Endometrial fine nerve fibres were seen in the endometrium of women both with and without endometriosis, making their detection a poor diagnostic tool for endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Laparoscopy and biopsy are currently the gold standard for making a diagnosis of endometriosis. It has been reported that small density nerve fibres in the functional layer of the endometrium are unique to women with endometriosis and hence nerve fibre detection could function as a less invasive diagnostic test of endometriosis. However, it may be that other painful conditions of the pelvis are also associated with these nerve fibres. We therefore focused this prospective study on women with pelvic pain to examine the efficacy of endometrial nerve fibre detection as a diagnostic test for endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This prospective case-control study conducted between July 2009 and July 2013 included 44 women with pelvic pain undergoing laparoscopic examination for the diagnosis of endometriosis. Immunohistochemical nerve fibre detection in endometrial curettings and biopsies using anti-protein gene product 9.5 was compared with surgical diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: Paired endometrial biopsies and curettings were taken from patients with (n = 22, study group) and without (n = 22, control group) endometriosis. Tissue was analysed by immunohistochemistry and nerve fibres were counted whenever they were present in the functional layer of the endometrium. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Fine nerve fibres were present in the eutopic endometrium of patients both with and without endometriosis. The presence of nerve fibres in curettings was not effective for either diagnosing or excluding endometriosis; sensitivity and specificity were 31.8 and 45.5% respectively, positive predictive value was 36.8% and negative predictive value was 40.0%. Few endometrial biopsy specimens were found to have nerve fibres present; sensitivity and specificity for endometrial biopsy were 13.6 and 68.2% respectively, positive predictive value was 30.0% and negative predictive value was 44.1%. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This was a relatively small sample size and studies like this are subject to the heterogeneous nature of the patient population and tissue samples, despite our best efforts to regulate these parameters. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results demonstrate that fine nerve fibres are present in women with and without endometriosis. Future work should focus on the function of endometrial nerves and whether these nerves are involved with the subfertility or pain that endometriosis sufferers experience. Our study does not support the detection of endometrial nerve fibres as a non-invasive diagnostic test of endometriosis in women with pelvic pain.


Assuntos
Endometriose/patologia , Endométrio/inervação , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Dor Pélvica/patologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Radiol ; 84(11): 2071-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26283193

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if the menstrual cycle affects MR interpretation in patients with pelvic endometriosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with either laparoscopically proven endometriosis, or a high clinical suspicion of deep infiltrative endometriosis, were prospectively recruited from May 2008 to October 2009 and January to June 2012. Two pelvic MR scans were performed for pre-operative planning; during menses and the other mid-cycle. Two experienced radiologists independently assessed image quality and disease extent. Both were blinded to patient identity, previous imaging and menstrual status. Interobserver agreement was assessed using the Kappa (k) test. Descriptive statistics were prepared using chi-squared (or Fishers' exact) tests and Mann-Whitney (rank sum) tests to assess for significant differences between menstrual and non-menstrual imaging. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement for image quality was moderate for T2 weighted imaging (k=0.475, p-value <0.001) and substantial for T1 fat saturated imaging (k=0.733, p-value<0.001), with no significant difference in image quality between menstrual and non-menstrual scans (all p-values>0.255). Readers demonstrated at least moderate interobserver agreement for certainty level of endometriosis at site-specific locations, with median k 0.599 (IQR 0.488-0.807). No significant difference in disease extent was observed between menstruating and non-menstruating scans (all p-values>0.05). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest no significant differences in image quality, disease extent or disease severity between menstruating and non-menstruating MR; thus, timing of pelvic MR for assessment of endometriosis need not be influenced by the menstrual cycle.


Assuntos
Endometriose/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Adulto , Endometriose/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 54(6): 564-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25476809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the past three decades, rates of overweight and obesity internationally have risen to epidemic proportions. There are currently no published prospective studies examining the effect of obesity on gynaecologic laparoscopy for benign indications within a population with obesity rates comparable to Australian women. AIMS: To assess and quantify whether increasing patient body mass index negatively impacted upon the ability to successfully complete planned laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: From January 2009 until October 2012, 307 women undergoing laparoscopic gynaecological surgery for benign pathology were recruited. Intra-operative variables included the following: ease of identification of anatomical landmarks, entry technique and number of attempts, conversion to laparotomy and any complications encountered. Any post-operative complications were recorded at the six week post-operative review. RESULTS: 94.46% of operations were completed as planned. As BMI increased, the ease of identification of important anatomical landmarks significantly decreased. There was no correlation between increasing BMI and surgical complication rates. CONCLUSIONS: Planned gynaecological laparoscopy can be performed in obese patients with a high likelihood of completion. In this study, obesity was not associated with a significant increase in complication rates or failure to complete the surgery as planned.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Laparoscopia , Adulto , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 54(5): 462-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25287563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is complex, and preoperative diagnosis benefits both surgeon and patient. Studies in expert centres have reported high accuracy for transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) diagnosis of DIE. External validation of these findings has been limited, and no information is available on how quickly these skills can be acquired. The aim of this study was to measure the learning curve of DIE-TVUS and to identify the causes for inaccuracies in the diagnosis of bowel lesions and Pouch of Douglas (POD) obliteration. METHODS: Following one week of training at the University of São Paulo (Brazil), 205 consecutive women with a history of endometriosis symptoms were prospectively assessed by TVUS after minimal bowel preparation. TVUS findings were correlated with laparoscopic findings in eighty-five cases to assess the accuracy. The LC-CUSUM and CUSUM were used to assess the learning curve and maintenance of competency, respectively. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for DIE of the bladder, vagina and bowel were 33% and 100%, 80% and 100%, and 88% and 93%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the presence of POD obliteration were 88% and 90%, respectively. LC-CUSUM analysis confirmed that competency for DIE-TVUS was achieved within 38 scans for the detection of POD obliteration and within 36 scans for the detection of bowel nodules. Competency was maintained for the remainder of the scans as assessed by the CUSUM. CONCLUSIONS: After one week of DIE-TVUS training, competency can be achieved within forty procedures, allowing diagnosis of DIE with similar diagnostic accuracy as reported by centres of excellence.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Endometriose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Tecnologia Biomédica/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Vagina , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...