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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16655, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404814

RESUMO

Co-infection with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the severity and mortality rates of both diseases. A better understanding of the effects of co-infections could help in the diagnosis, prompt treatment, prevention, and control of malarial parasites among HIV-infected patients. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we estimated the prevalence and characteristics of severe malaria (SM) caused by co-infection with HIV. We included relevant studies that were conducted between the years 1991 and 2018 and reporting on SM. We pooled the prevalence of SM in patients with co-infection, pooled odds ratios of SM in patients with co-infection and Plasmodium mono-infection, and differences in laboratory parameters such as parasite density and leucocyte counts, between co-infected and Plasmodium mono-infected patients. The meta-analysis included 29 studies (1126 SM cases). The pooled prevalence of SM in co-infected patients using the data of 23 studies (SM = 795 cases, all co-infection cases = 2534 cases) was 43.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 31.0-56.0%; I2, 98.0%). Overall, the odds of SM from 18 studies were pooled. The odds of SM were significantly higher in co-infected patients than in Plasmodium mono-infected patients (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.43-4.08; I2 = 85%; P = 0.001) and also significantly higher in children (OR 9.69; 95% CI 5.14-18.3; I2, 0%; P < 0.0001; two studies) than in adults (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.52-4.73; I2, 79.0%; P = 0.0007; 12 studies). Co-infected patients with SM had a higher parasite density than those with Plasmodium mono-infection when the data of seven studies were analysed (SMD, 1.25; 95% CI 0.14-2.36; I2, 98.0%; P = 0.03) and higher leukocyte counts when the data of four studies were analysed (MD, 1570 cells/µL; 95% CI 850-2300 cells/µL; I2, 21.0%; P < 0.0001). Thus, the prevalence of SM among patients co-infected with Plasmodium spp. and HIV is high. Because co-infections could lead to SM, patients with Plasmodium spp. and HIV co-infection should be identified and treated to reduce the prevalence of SM and the number of deaths.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2887-2895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331137

RESUMO

Few data are available on the genetic identity of enteric protists Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans in Thailand. In this study, 254 stool samples were collected from primary school children from Ratchaburi Province at the Thai-Myanmar border and examined for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis using PCR techniques. The genotype identity of the pathogens was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products. Cryptosporidium felis was found in 1 stool sample, G. duodenalis in 19 stool samples, and E. bieneusi in 4 stool samples. For G. duodenalis, sub-assemblage AII was the dominant genotype, but one infection with assemblage F was found. The E. bieneusi genotypes found included known genotypes D and J, and one novel genotype (HPTM1). Cyclospora cayetanensis was not detected in any samples. Results of the preliminary study indicate that children at the Thai-Myanmar border from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand are infected with diverse zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Microsporidiose , Criança , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Mianmar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 203, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pentatrichomonas hominis inhabits the digestive tracts of several vertebrates, such as humans, monkeys, pigs, dogs, cats and rats. This protozoan was originally considered a commensal of the digestive tract but has subsequently been identified as a potential zoonotic parasite and a causative agent of diarrhoea. Molecular techniques are considered more sensitive and specific to detect P. hominis. This study aimed to determine the presence and genetic diversity of P. hominis in animals in Thailand. A total of 403 faecal samples were collected from 119 cats, 55 dogs, 73 goats, 35 monkeys, 55 cattle and 66 pigs, and the presence of P. hominis was determined using the nested polymerase chain reaction method. Sequence analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes was used to determine the genotype of the organism. RESULTS: Twenty-six samples (26/403, 6.45%) were positive for P. hominis. The highest prevalence was found in cats (21/119; 17.65%), followed by cattle (3/55; 5.45%) and dogs (2/55; 3.64%). Seven out of 26 nucleotides demonstrated 100% sequence identity with existing sequences; additionally, 16 novel sequence patterns were identified. All nucleotide sequences of P. hominis-positive samples were shown in the same branch with the previously described P. hominis sequences found in humans, dogs and goat. CONCLUSION: This is the first study on P. hominis infections in animals in Thailand. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of P. hominis was significantly higher in cats than in cattle and dogs. Cats were the main reservoir host; however, P. hominis can infect several kinds of animals. Therefore, the proper waste management of animals is necessary to reduce and prevent infection in the community.


Assuntos
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/classificação , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Cercopithecidae/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 280, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria mixed infections are often unrecognized by microscopists in the hospitals, and a delay or failure to treat Plasmodium-mixed infection may lead to aggravated morbidity and increased mortality. The present study aimed to quantify the pooled proportion and risk of malarial recurrences after the treatment of Plasmodium-mixed infection. The results of the study may provide benefits in the management of Plasmodium-mixed infection in co-endemic regions. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis searched the international Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; ID = CRD42020199709), MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus for potentially relevant studies in any language published between January 1, 1936, and July 20, 2020, assessing drug efficacy in patients with Plasmodium-mixed infection. The primary outcome was the pooled prevalence of Plasmodium parasitemia after initiating antimalarial treatment for Plasmodium-mixed infection. The secondary outcome was the pooled risk ratio (RR) of malarial recurrence in Plasmodium-mixed infection compared with those in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax mono-infection. The pooled analyses were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis. After the initial treatment in different days of recurrences (≤ 28 days or > 28 days), the risk of Plasmodium parasitemia was compared in subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Out of 5217 screened studies, 11 were included in the meta-analysis, including 4390 patients from six countries. The pooled prevalence of all recurrences of Plasmodium-mixed parasitemia was 30% (95% confidence interval (CI) 16-43; I2: 99.2%; 11 studies). The RR of malarial recurrence within 28 days after the initial treatment (clinical treatment failure) of Plasmodium-mixed parasitemia compared with the treatment of P. falciparum was 1.22 (p: 0.029; 95% CI 1.02-1.47; Cochran Q: 0.93; I2: 0%; six studies), while there was no significant difference in the risk of recurrence 28 days after initial treatment compared with the treatment of P. falciparum (p: 0.696, RR: 1.14; 95% CI 0.59-2.18; Cochran Q < 0.05; I2: 98.2%; four studies). The subgroup analysis of antimalarial drugs showed that significant malarial recurrence within 28 days was observed in patients treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) with no significant heterogeneity (p: 0.028, RR: 1.31; 95% CI 1.03-1.66; Cochran Q: 0.834; I2: 0%). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings showed a high prevalence of malarial recurrence after the initial treatment of Plasmodium-mixed infection. Moreover, significant malaria recurrence of mixed infection occurred within 28 days after treatment with ACTs.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/etiologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
5.
Malar J ; 20(1): 179, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is recognized as the fifth Plasmodium species causing malaria in humans. It is morphologically similar to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium malariae, so molecular detection should be used to clearly discriminate between these Plasmodium species. This study aimed to quantify the rate at which P. knowlesi is misidentified as P. malariae by microscopy in endemic and non-endemic areas. METHODS: The protocol of this systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (ID = CRD42020204770). Studies reporting the misidentification of P. knowlesi as P. malariae by microscopy and confirmation of this by molecular methods in MEDLINE, Web of Science and Scopus were reviewed. The risk of bias in the included studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS). The pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the misidentification of P. knowlesi as P. malariae by microscopy were estimated using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis of the study sites was performed to demonstrate any differences in the misidentification rates in different areas. Heterogeneity across the included studies was assessed and quantified using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics, respectively. Publication bias in the included studies was assessed using the funnel plot, Egger's test and contour-enhanced funnel plot. RESULTS: Among 375 reviewed studies, 11 studies with a total of 1569 confirmed P. knowlesi cases in humans were included. Overall, the pooled prevalence of the misidentification of P. knowlesi as P. malariae by microscopy was estimated at 57% (95% CI 37-77%, I2: 99.3%). Subgroup analysis demonstrated the highest rate of misidentification in Sawarak, Malaysia (87%, 95% CI 83-90%, I2: 95%), followed by Sabah, Malaysia (85%, 95% CI 79-92%, I2: 85.1%), Indonesia (16%, 95% CI 6-38%), and then Thailand (4%, 95% CI 2-9%, I2: 95%). CONCLUSION: Although the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all P. malariae-positive diagnoses made by microscopy in P. knowlesi endemic areas be reported as P. malariae/P. knowlesi malaria, the possibility of microscopists misidentifying P. knowlesi as P. malariae is a diagnostic challenge. The use of molecular techniques in cases with malariae-like Plasmodium with high parasite density as determined by microscopy could help identify human P. knowlesi cases in non-endemic countries.


Assuntos
Malária/classificação , Plasmodium knowlesi/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium malariae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Microscopia , Prevalência
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4845, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649410

RESUMO

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from dried blood spots (DBS) provides a fast, inexpensive, and convenient method for large-scale epidemiological studies. This study compared the performance of PCR between DNA extracted from DBS and DNA obtained from whole blood for detecting malarial parasites. Primary studies assessing the diagnostic performance of PCR using DNA extracted from DBS and whole blood for detecting malarial parasites were obtained from the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were plotted in forest plots using Review Manager version 5.3. Statistical analysis was performed via random-effects meta-analysis. Data heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. Of the 904 studies retrieved from the databases, seven were included in this study. The pooled meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the comparative performance of PCR for detecting malaria parasites between DNA extracted from DBS and that extracted from whole blood (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.62-1.16; I2 = 78%). However, subgroup analysis demonstrated that PCR using DNA extracted from DBS was less accurate in detecting Plasmodium vivax than that using DNA extracted from whole blood (OR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77-0.94). In conclusion, a significant difference in detecting P. vivax was observed between PCR using DNA extracted from DBS and that using DNA extracted from whole blood. Therefore, P. vivax in endemic areas should be identified and detected with care with PCR using DNA obtained from DBS which potentially leads to a negative result. Further studies are required to investigate the performance of PCR using DBS for detecting P. vivax and other malarial parasites to provide data in research and routine surveillance of malaria, especially with renewed efforts towards the eradication of the disease.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6409, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742015

RESUMO

Malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale species is considered a neglected tropical disease with limited information about its characteristics. It also remains unclear whether the two distinct species P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri exhibit differences in their prevalence, geographic distribution, clinical characteristics, or laboratory parameters. Therefore, this study was conducted to clarify these differences to support global malaria control and eradication programs. Studies reporting the occurrence of P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri were explored in databases. Differences in proportion, clinical data, and laboratory parameters between the two species were estimated using a random-effects model and expressed as pooled odds ratios (ORs), mean difference (MD), or standardized MD depending on the types of extracted data. The difference in geographical distribution was visualized by mapping the origin of the two species. A total of 1453 P. ovale cases extracted from 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The p-value in the meta-analyses provided evidence favoring a real difference between P. ovale curtisi malaria cases (809/1453, 55.7%) and P. ovale wallikeri malaria cases (644/1453, 44.3%) (p: 0.01, OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.71-3.63, I2: 77%). Subgroup analyses established evidence favoring a real difference between P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri malaria cases among the imported cases (p: 0.02, 1135 cases). The p value in the meta-analyses provided evidence favoring a real difference in the mean latency period between P. ovale curtisi (289 cases) and P. ovale wallikeri malaria (266 cases) (p: 0.03, MD: 27.59, 95% CI 1.99-53.2, I2: 94%), total leukocyte count (p < 0.0001, MD: 840, 95% CI 610-1070, I2: 0%, two studies) and platelet count (p < 0.0001, MD: 44,750, 95% CI 2900-60,500, I2: 32%, three studies). Four continents were found to have reports of P. ovale spp., among which Africa had the highest number of reports for both P. ovale spp. in its 37 countries, with a global proportion of 94.46%, and an almost equal distribution of both P. ovale spp., where P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri reflected 53.09% and 46.90% of the continent's proportion, respectively. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to demonstrate the differences in the characteristics of the two distinct P. ovale species. Malaria caused by P. ovale curtisi was found in higher proportions among imported cases and had longer latency periods, higher platelet counts, and higher total leukocyte counts than malaria caused by P. ovale wallikeri. Further studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm the differences or similarities between these two species to promote malaria control and effective eradication programs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Plasmodium ovale/classificação , Plasmodium ovale/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genes de Protozoários , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260351

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major global public health problem with an increasing prevalence. DM increases the risk of infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. We examined the prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors of Blastocystis infection in patients with and without DM in central Thailand. Stool samples and questionnaires were obtained from 130 people in the DM group and 100 people in the non-DM group. Blastocystis infection was identified via a nested polymerase chain reaction and subtyped via sequencing of the partial small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Analysis of potential risk factors was conducted via binary logistic regression. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis infection was 10.8%, including rates of 9% and 12.3% in the non-DM and DM groups, respectively. The most prevalent subtype was ST3, followed by ST1, and ST4. Factors that potentially increased the risk of Blastocystis infection include patients being >65 years old, the presence of DM, a DM duration of ≥10 years, a low level of education, and animal ownership. In conclusion, this is the first study of Blastocystis infection in DM, and a high prevalence was found among this population. Therefore, health education promoting sanitation and hygiene is necessary to reduce and prevent infection in the community.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Idoso , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/complicações , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 808, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent zoonotic parasites associated with a high burden among children. To date only limited molecular epidemiological data on E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. in humans living in Thailand has been published. METHODS: PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterize E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene was used to investigate E. bieneusi, and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to investigate Cryptosporidium spp., and 697 fecal samples from villagers and school children in rural areas in Thailand were analyzed. RESULTS: The infection rates were 2.15% (15/697) for E. bieneusi and 0.14% (1/697) for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was significantly high in Loei province. Sequence analysis indicated that the Cryptosporidium isolate was C. parvum. Nine E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, EbpC, Peru12, TMH6, TMH3, TMH7, H, D, and two novel genotypes TMLH1 and TMLH2. E. bieneusi prevalence was significantly higher in male participants than in female participants, and in children aged 3-15 years than in participants aged > 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence, genotypes, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi were found to vary significantly high even in one country. Transmission routes and key animal carriers of E. bieneusi may be associated with differences in hygiene, sanitation, and cultural behaviors. Further molecular studies including longitudinal studies will be required to unveil epidemiological characteristics of these opportunistic intestinal protozoa in all over the countries.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Filogenia , Prevalência , População Rural , Saneamento , Suínos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 308, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been increasingly reported to infect domestic animals and humans, with human infections primarily reported as zoonotic in origin. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence and genotype of E. bieneusi in humans and domestic animals in central Thailand by testing stool samples of 200 apparently healthy humans, 73 goats, 60 cattle and 65 pigs using nested-PCR/ sequence analysis based on the ITS region of SSU rRNA genes. RESULTS: E. bieneusi tested positive in 2 (1%) of the 200 stool samples collected from humans and 56 (28.3%) of the 198 stool samples collected from domestic animals. The highest prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed in pigs (39/65, 60%), followed by goats (14/73, 19.2%) and cattle (3/60, 5%). Seven novel E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, which were named GoatAYE1-4 and PigAYE1-3 and clustered in either zoonotic Group 1 or Group 2. Moreover, eleven previously described E. bieneusi genotypes were also identified (O, D, H, SX1, CHC8, CHG3, CS-10, SHZC1, LW1, WildBoar5, and EbpC). All novel genotypes exhibited zoonotic potential from a phylogenetic analysis of ITS region. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the prevalence of E. bieneusi is low in apparently healthy individuals and higher in pigs than cattle and goats. This study provides baseline data useful for controlling and preventing E. bieneusi infection in farm communities, where pigs and goats appear to be the major reservoir of E. bieneusi. The results of our study support the view that E. bieneusi is a zoonotic pathogen that should be considered a potential public health threat.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Lactente , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
11.
BMC Microbiol ; 18(1): 135, 2018 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) was isolated from monkey (Macaca fascicularis) faecal samples collected from human-inhabited areas in Lopburi Province, Thailand. These samples were initially obtained to survey for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV). RESULTS: Two virus isolates were retrieved by virus culture of 55 monkey faecal samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was successfully used to identify the viruses as the segmented dsRNA orthoreovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lopburi orthoreovirus whole-genomes revealed relationships with the well-characterised PRVs Pulau (segment L1), Cangyuan (segments L2, M3 and S3), Melaka (segments L3 and M2), Kampar (segments M1 and S2) and Sikamat (segments S1 and S4) of Southeast Asia and China with nucleotide sequence identities of 93.5-98.9%. RT-PCR showed that PRV was detected in 10.9% (6/55) and HEV was detected in 25.5% (14/55) of the monkey faecal samples. CONCLUSIONS: PRV was isolated from monkey faeces for the first time in Thailand via viral culture and LC-MS/MS. The genetic diversity of the virus genome segments suggested a re-assortment within the PRV species group. The overall findings emphasise that monkey faeces can be sources of zoonotic viruses, including PRV and HEV, and suggest the need for active virus surveillance in areas of human and monkey co-habitation to prevent and control emerging zoonotic diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Haplorrinos/virologia , Orthoreovirus/classificação , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Orthoreovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tailândia
12.
Parasitol Int ; 67(6): 824-828, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165261

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a unicellular protist most commonly detected in humans and a variety of animals. The predominant mode of its transmission is the fecal-oral route, but its zoonotic potential is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis on pig farms in Nakhon Pathom Province, Central Thailand. A total of 154 human and 90 pig stool samples were collected and analyzed. Nested PCR detected Blastocystis in 35.55% of the pig samples and 6.49% of the human samples. Subtyping based on regions of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene identified three Blastocystis subtypes in pigs and humans: ST1, ST3, and ST5. Blastocystis ST5 was the predominant subtype, followed by ST1 and then ST3. All the sequences from the Blastocystis-positive samples from both pigs and humans were closely related. This study reveals a possibility of low host specificity of Blastocystis STs (ST1, ST3 and ST5) on pig farms in Thailand. We tentatively suggest that close contact with or exposure to pig stools may be a significant source of Blastocystis detected in pig handlers. Further studies are required to confirm the zoonotic transmission of this organism in Thailand, because pigs may play an important role in the transmission of Blastocystis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 65: 107-111, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003970

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a common intestinal pathogen of humans and a variety of animals, with various host-specific subtypes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in humans and domestic animals, Thailand. 113 stool samples were collected from pigs, goats, and cattle in Ayutthaya Province (AP; central Thailand) and 218 stool samples were collected from pigs, dogs, cats, chickens, and humans in Kanchanaburi Province (KP; western Thailand). Blastocystis was detected by nested PCR targeting the SSU rRNA gene. Subtypes were identified by DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis in animals was 76.1% (86/113) and 11.88% (12/101) in AP and KP, respectively, and the prevalence in humans was 12.82% (15/117) in KP. The prevalence of Blastocystis in the AP and KP pigs were 87.88% (29/33) and 20.37% (11/54), respectively. Blastocystis ST5 was the most abundant in pigs in both areas while Blastocystis ST10 and ST12 were most frequently found in cattle and goats. In addition, low percentage of Blastocystis ST1 and Blastocystis ST14 were found in pigs and goats, respectively. In this study, Blastocystis ST3, followed by ST2 and ST1 were predominantly found in humans. In conclusion, pigs may be a natural host of Blastocystis and this ST may be the pig-adapted ST in the studied areas, in this study.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Bovinos , DNA de Protozoário , Humanos , Filogenia , Suínos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
14.
Ecohealth ; 15(1): 143-147, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192342

RESUMO

Infectious diseases including those acquired through direct or indirect contact with people and livestock threaten the survival of wild great apes. Few studies have reported enterobacterial pathogens in chimpanzees. We used multiplex PCR to screen faeces of chimpanzees sharing a landscape with villagers and livestock in Bulindi, Uganda for Salmonella spp., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli. All three potentially zoonotic pathogens were detected. Individual prevalence ranged between 7 and 20%, with most infections observed in mature male chimpanzees. These preliminary findings suggest detailed investigation of enterobacterial infections in people, primates and livestock in this ecosystem is warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pan troglodytes/microbiologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição por Sexo , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 394, 2017 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs are the definitive hosts of Neospora caninum and play an important role in the transmission of the parasite. Despite the high sensitivity of existing molecular tools such as quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), these techniques are not suitable for use in many countries because of equipment costs and difficulties in implementing them for field diagnostics. Therefore, we developed a simplified technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), for the rapid visual detection of N. caninum. METHODS: LAMP specificity was evaluated using a panel containing DNA from a range of different organisms. Sensitivity was evaluated by preparing 10-fold serial dilutions of N. caninum tachyzoites and comparing the results with those obtained using qPCR. Assessment of the LAMP results was determined by recognition of a colour change after amplification. The usefulness of the LAMP assay in the field was tested on 396 blood and 115 faecal samples from dogs, and one placenta from a heifer collected in Lopburi, Nakhon Pathom, Sa Kaeo, and Ratchaburi provinces, Thailand. RESULTS: Specificity of the LAMP technique was shown by its inability to amplify DNA from non-target pathogens or healthy dogs. The detection limit was the equivalent of one genome for both LAMP and qPCR. LAMP and qPCR detected positive N. caninum infection in 15 of 396 (3.8%) blood samples; LAMP detected 9/115 (7.8%) positive faecal samples, while qPCR detected 5/115 (4.3%) positive faecal samples. The placental tissue was shown to be positive by both techniques. Agreement between LAMP and qPCR was perfect in blood samples (kappa value, 1.00) and substantial in faecal samples (kappa value, 0.697). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known LAMP assay developed for the amplification of N. caninum. The technique effectively and rapidly detected the parasite with high sensitivity and specificity and was cost-effective. This assay could be used in the field to confirm the diagnosis of canine or bovine neosporosis.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Neospora/virologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Colorimetria , Corantes/metabolismo , Primers do DNA , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Genes de Protozoários , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Neospora/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Temperatura , Tailândia
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 233: 73-79, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28043391

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic intestinal pathogen infecting humans and a variety of animals. Its mode of transmission and zoonotic potential are not completely understood. E. bieneusi has been frequently identified in pigs. The objective of our study was to investigate E. bieneusi in pigs and humans in Western and Central Thailand to determine its presence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential. A total of 277 human and 210 pig faecal samples were collected and analysed. E. bieneusi was found in 5.4% and 28.1% of human and pig samples, respectively, by nested PCR. Genotyping based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of the small subunit ribosomal RNA demonstrated three known genotypes (D, H, PigEb10) and eight novel genotypes (TMH1-8) in humans, and five known genotypes (D, EbpA, EbpC, H, O) and 11 novel genotypes (TMP1-11) in pigs. All known genotypes identified in humans and pigs had zoonotic potential. Further studies are needed to evaluate zoonotic risk of novel genotypes, as pigs may play an important role in the transmission of E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Enterocytozoon/patogenicidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Tailândia , Zoonoses/transmissão
17.
Eye Contact Lens ; 43(2): 81-88, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26925535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the general knowledge, behavior, and presence of potentially pathogenic amoebae in cosmetic contact lens (CCL) wearers. METHODS: One hundred CCL asymptomatic wearers were randomly selected. A questionnaire regarding their lens use, and a pair of their CCL was obtained. Identification of free-living amoeba (FLA) strains was based on morphological diagnosis, enflagellation tests (for non-Acanthamoeba strains), and sequencing of the small-subunit rRNA gene fragments. RESULTS: Most (92%) of the participants surveyed were women, and the average age of the participants was 21.5±0.2 years. The CCL wearers generally showed a moderate (47%) or good (35%) level of knowledge, and good (51%) or excellent (40%) use of CCL. Two CCL samples were positive for Acanthamoeba genotype T3 or Vahlkampfia. The Acanthamoeba-contaminated CCL was from a wearer who used saline for treating lenses, and the Vahlkampfia-contaminated CCL was from a wearer who used CCL while swimming. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of the presence of potentially pathogenic FLA in used CCL from asymptomatic wearers in Thailand. Although there was satisfactory knowledge and practice of lens care use, the public should be aware of CCL contaminated with potentially pathogenic FLA that can directly or indirectly cause keratitis.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Lentes de Contato/microbiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Korean J Parasitol ; 54(4): 455-60, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658597

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a common zoonotic enteric protozoan that has been classified into 17 distinct subtypes (STs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and subtype distributions of Blastocystis in villagers living along the Chao Phraya River, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand, and to assess the risk of zoonotic infection. In total, 220 stool samples were collected, and DNA was extracted. PCR and sequencing were performed with primers targeting the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes. Blastocystis was present in 5.9% (13/220) of samples, and ST3 (5.0%; 11/220) was the predominant subtype, followed by ST2 (0.45%; 1/220) and ST6 (0.45%; 1/220). Phylogenetic trees were constructed with the maximum-likelihood method based on the Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano + G + I model, neighbor-joining, and maximum parsimony methods. The percentage of bootstrapped trees in which the associated taxa clustered together was relatively high. All the sequences of the Blastocystis-positive samples (KU051524-KU051536) were closely related to those from animals (pig, cattle, and chicken), indicating a zoonotic risk. Therefore, the villagers require proper health education, especially regarding the prevention of parasitic infection, to improve their personal hygiene and community health. Further studies are required to investigate the Blastocystis STs in the animals living in these villages.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Algas/química , DNA de Algas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Korean J Parasitol ; 53(1): 13-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25748704

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a common zoonotic intestinal protozoa which has been classified into 17 subtypes (STs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in villagers living on the Thai-Myanmar border, where the risk of parasitic infection is high. A total of 207 stool samples were collected and DNA was extracted. PCR and sequencing using primers targeting small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene were performed. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection was 37.2% (77/207). ST3 (19.8%; 41/207) was the predominant subtype, followed by ST1 (11.6%; 24/207), ST2 (5.3%; 11/207), and ST4 (0.5%; 1/207). A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the maximum likelihood (ML) method based on the Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano + G + I model. The percentage of bootstrapped trees in which the associated taxa clustered together was relatively high. Some sequences of Blastocystis positive samples (TK18, 39, 46, 71, and 90) were closely related to animals (pig and cattle) indicating zoonotic risks. Therefore, proper health education in parasitic prevention for the villagers should be promoted to improve their personal hygiene. Further longitudinal studies are required to monitor the prevalence of parasitic infections after providing health education and to investigate Blastocystis ST in animals living in these villages.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Blastocystis/imunologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , População Rural , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0120997, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25822175

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Detection of N. fowleri using conventional culture and biochemical-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, while molecular techniques, such as PCR, require laboratory skills and expensive equipment. We developed and evaluated a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the virulence-related gene for N. fowleri. Time to results is about 90 min and amplification products were easily detected visually using hydroxy naphthol blue. The LAMP was highly specific after testing against related microorganisms and able to detect one trophozoite, as determined with spiked water and cerebrospinal fluid samples. The assay was then evaluated with a set of 80 water samples collected during the flooding crisis in Thailand in 2011, and 30 natural water samples from border areas of northern, eastern, western, and southern Thailand. N. fowleri was detected in 13 and 10 samples using LAMP and PCR, respectively, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.855. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LAMP assay for N. fowleri. Due to its simplicity, speed, and high sensitivity, the LAMP method described here might be useful for quickly detecting and diagnosing N. fowleri in water and clinical samples, particularly in resource-poor settings.


Assuntos
Naegleria fowleri/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Água/análise , Água/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tailândia , Virulência/genética , Água/química
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