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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 702-712, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included. RESULTS: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.

2.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263866

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) belong to the group of rare diseases. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) operates an international research database application for continuous long-term documentation of patient data. The system is a web application which runs in a standard browser. Therefore, the system is easy to access from any location. Technically, the system is based on Gails backed by MariaDB with high standard security features to comply with the demands of a modern research platform. AVAILABILITY: The ESID Online Database is accessible via the official website: https://esid.org/Working-Parties/Registry-Working-Party/ESID-Registry.A demo system is available via: https://cci-esid-reg-demo-app.uniklinik-freiburg.de/EERS with user demouser and password Demo-2019.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1713-1730, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050087

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). This disease is characterized by progressive ataxia, telangiectasia, immune deficiency, predisposition to malignancies, and radiosensitivity. However, hypomorphic variants may be discovered associated with very atypical phenotypes, raising the importance of evaluating their pathogenic effects. In this study, multiple functional analyses were performed on lymphoblastoid cell lines from 36 patients, comprising 49 ATM variants, 24 being of uncertain significance. Thirteen patients with atypical phenotype and presumably hypomorphic variants were of particular interest to test strength of functional analyses and to highlight discrepancies with typical patients. Western-blot combined with transcript analyses allowed the identification of one missing variant, confirmed suspected splice defects and revealed unsuspected minor transcripts. Subcellular localization analyses confirmed the low level and abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ATM for most A-T cell lines. Interestingly, atypical patients had lower kinase defect and less altered cell-cycle distribution after genotoxic stress than typical patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the pathogenic effects of the 49 variants, highlighted the strength of KAP1 phosphorylation test for pathogenicity assessment and allowed the establishment of the Ataxia-TeLangiectasia Atypical Score to predict atypical phenotype. Altogether, we propose strategies for ATM variant detection and classification.

4.
Clin Immunol ; 202: 33-39, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) refers to a group of genetic disorders characterized by greatly compromised cellular and humoral immunity. Children with SCID are asymptomatic at birth, but they die from infections within the first months of life if not treated. Quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles is an extremely sensitive screening method for detecting newborns who may have SCID.The goal of the DEPISTREC study was to evaluate the feasibility of nationwide newborn screening for severe T-cell lymphopenia in France as well as its economic and clinical utility. METHODS: The test universally used for neonatal screening for SCID was the quantification of TRECs on Guthrie cards. We compared a group of 190,517 babies from 48 maternities across the country who underwent newborn SCID screening with a control group of 1.4 million babies out of whom 28 were diagnosed with SCID without such screening during the course of the study. RESULTS: Within the screening group, 62 babies were found to be lymphopenic, including three with SCID. The cost of screening ranged from 4.7€ to €8.15 per newborn. The average 18-month cost was €257,574 vs €204,697 in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale study, we demonstrate that routine SCID screening is feasible and effective. This screening offers the additional benefit of aiding in the diagnosis of non-SCID lymphopenia. Economic evaluation allowed us to calculate the cost per test. Newborn screening may also prevent death by SCID before any curative treatment can be administered. The difference in cost between screened and control children could not be ascertained because of the very low numbers and death of one of the children tested.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1986-1995.e3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal-dominant signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency predisposes to recurrent bacterial pneumonia, complicated by bronchiectasis and cavitations. Aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity in these patients. However, its diagnosis, classification, and treatment are challenging. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the prevalence and describe the clinical, mycological, and radiological presentation and related therapy and outcome of Aspergillus infections of the respiratory tract in the STAT3-deficient patients of the National French cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all pulmonary aspergillosis cases in STAT3-deficient patients (n = 74). Clinical and mycological data were collected up to October 2015 and imaging was centralized. RESULTS: Twenty-one episodes of pulmonary aspergillosis in 13 (17.5%) STAT3-deficient patients were identified. The median age at first episode was 13 years (interquartile range, 10-26 years). Ninety percent of patients had previous bronchiectasis or cavitations. Infections were classified as follows: 5 single aspergilloma, 9 chronic cavity pulmonary aspergillosis, 5 allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-like disease, and 2 mixed forms of concomitant allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis-like disease and chronic cavity pulmonary aspergillosis. No invasive aspergillosis cases were identified. Aspergillus species were isolated in 71% of episodes and anti-Aspergillus antibodies in 93%. Eleven episodes were breakthrough infections. Antifungal treatment was prolonged, with a median of 13 months, and 6 patients (7 episodes) required surgery, with a high rate of postsurgical complications. One patient died and 6 had a relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic and allergic forms of aspergillosis occurred in 17.5% of STAT3-deficient patients, mostly in lung cavities. Almost half had recurrences, despite prolonged antifungal treatment and/or surgery.

6.
J Med Genet ; 56(5): 308-316, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disorder. While patients with classic A-T generally die in their 20s, some patients with variant A-T, who have residual ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase activity, have a milder phenotype. We noticed two commonly occurring ATM mutations that appeared to be associated with prolonged survival and decided to study patients carrying one of these mutations. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from the Dutch, Italian, German and French A-T cohorts. To supplement these data, we searched the literature for patients with identical genotypes. RESULTS: This study included 35 patients who were homozygous or compound heterozygous for the ATM c.3576G>A; p.(Ser1135_Lys1192del58) mutation and 24 patients who were compound heterozygous for the ATM c.8147T>C; p.(Val2716Ala) mutation. Compared with 51 patients with classic A-T from the Dutch cohort, patients with ATM c.3576G>A had a longer survival and were less likely to develop cancer, respiratory disease or immunodeficiency. This was also true for patients with ATM c.8147T>C, who additionally became wheelchair users later in life and had fewer telangiectasias. The oldest patient with A-T reported so far was a 78-year-old patient who was compound heterozygous for ATM c.8147T>C. ATM kinase activity was demonstrated in cells from all patients tested with the ATM c.8147T>C mutant protein and only at a low level in some patients with ATM c.3576G>A. CONCLUSION: Compared with classic A-T, the presence of ATM c.3576G>A results in a milder classic phenotype. Patients with ATM c.8147T>C have a variant phenotype with prolonged survival, which in exceptional cases may approach a near-normal lifespan.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1763-1770, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776527

RESUMO

Patient registries are instrumental for clinical research in rare diseases. They help to achieve a sufficient sample size for epidemiological and clinical research and to assess the feasibility of clinical trials. The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry currently comprises information on more than 25,000 patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI). The prerequisite of a patient to be included into the ESID registry is an IEI either defined by a defect in a gene included in the disease classification of the international union of immunological societies, or verified by applying clinical criteria. Because a relevant number of patients, including those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), representing the largest group of patients in the registry, remain without a genetic diagnosis, consensus on classification of these patients is mandatory. Here, we present clinical criteria for a large number of IEI that were designed in expert panels with an external review. They were implemented for novel entries and verification of existing data sets from 2014, yielding a substantial refinement. For instance, 8% of adults and 27% of children with CVID (176 of 1704 patients) were reclassified to 22 different immunodeficiencies, illustrating progress in genetics, but also the previous lack of standardized disease definitions. Importantly, apart from registry purposes, the clinical criteria are also helpful to support treatment decisions in the absence of a genetic diagnosis or in patients with variants of unknown significance.

12.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 55-64, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552536

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but severe demyelinating disease caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV) in immunocompromised patients. We report a series of patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) who developed PML. METHODS: Retrospective observational study including PID patients with PML. Clinical, immunological, imaging features, and outcome are provided for each patient. RESULTS: Eleven unrelated patients with PIDs developed PML. PIDs were characterized by a wide range of syndromic or genetically defined defects, mostly with combined B and T cell impairment. Genetic diagnosis was made in 7 patients. Before the development of PML, 10 patients had recurrent infections, 7 had autoimmune and/or inflammatory manifestations, and 3 had a history of malignancies. Immunologic investigations showed CD4+ lymphopenia (median 265, range 50-344) in all cases. Six patients received immunosuppressive therapy in the year before PML onset, including prolonged steroid therapy in 3 cases, rituximab in 5 cases, anti-TNF-α therapy, and azathioprine in 1 case each. Despite various treatments, all but 1 patient died after a median of 8 months following PML diagnosis. CONCLUSION: PML is a rare but fatal complication of PIDs. Many cases are secondary to immunosuppressive therapy warranting careful evaluation before initiation subsequent immunosuppression during PIDs.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/etiologia , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Vírus JC/imunologia , Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva/terapia , Linfopenia/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 201, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a group of rare innate disorders characterized by specific antibody deficiency and increased rates of infections, comorbidities and mortality. The burden of CVID in Europe has not been previously estimated. We performed a retrospective analysis of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry data on the subset of patients classified by their immunologist as CVID and treated between 2004 and 2014. The registered deaths and comorbidities were used to calculate the annual average age-standardized rates of Years of Life Lost to premature death (YLL), Years Lost to Disability (YLD) and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY=YLL + YLD). These outcomes were expressed as a rate per 105 of the CVID cohort (the individual disease burden), and of the general population (the societal disease burden). RESULTS: Data of 2700 patients from 23 countries were analysed. Annual comorbidity rates: bronchiectasis, 21.9%; autoimmunity, 23.2%; digestive disorders, 15.6%; solid cancers, 5.5%; lymphoma, 3.8%, exceeded the prevalence in the general population by a factor of 34.0, 7.6, 8.1, 2.4 and 32.6, respectively. The comorbidities of CVID caused 8722 (6069; 12,363) YLD/105 in this cohort, whereas 44% of disability burden was attributable to infections and bronchiectasis. The total individual burden of CVID was 36,785 (33,078, 41,380) DALY/105. With estimated CVID prevalence of ~ 1/ 25,000, the societal burden of CVID ensued 1.5 (1.3, 1.7) DALY/105 of the general population. In exploratory analysis, increased mortality was associated with solid tumor, HR (95% CI): 2.69 (1.10; 6.57) p = 0.030, lymphoma: 5.48 (2.36; 12.71) p < .0001 and granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease: 4.85 (1.63; 14.39) p = 0.005. Diagnostic delay (median: 4 years) was associated with a higher risk of death: 1.04 (1.02; 1.06) p = .0003, bronchiectasis: 1.03 (1.01; 1.04) p = .0001, solid tumor: 1.08 (1.04; 1.11) p < .0001 and enteropathy: 1.02 (1.00; 1.05) p = .0447 and stayed unchanged over four decades (p = .228). CONCLUSIONS: While the societal burden of CVID may seem moderate, it is severe to the individual patient. Delay in CVID diagnosis may constitute a modifiable risk factor of serious comorbidities and death but showed no improvement. Tools supporting timely CVID diagnosis should be developed with high priority.

15.
Infection ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency (PID) in adults is rare and mostly revealed by infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adults without predisposing factors who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for infection were screened for PID. RESULTS: Six PID cases were diagnosed, mostly revealed by encapsulated bacterial infections. CONCLUSION: Investigation of PID after ICU discharge should be considered to improve early detection.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8007-E8016, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072435

RESUMO

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is the only known human developmental defect exclusively affecting a lymphoid organ. In 2013, we showed that private deleterious mutations in the protein-coding region of RPSA, encoding ribosomal protein SA, caused ICA by haploinsufficiency with complete penetrance. We reported seven heterozygous protein-coding mutations in 8 of the 23 kindreds studied, including 6 of the 8 multiplex kindreds. We have since enrolled 33 new kindreds, 5 of which are multiplex. We describe here 11 new heterozygous ICA-causing RPSA protein-coding mutations, and the first two mutations in the 5'-UTR of this gene, which disrupt mRNA splicing. Overall, 40 of the 73 ICA patients (55%) and 23 of the 56 kindreds (41%) carry mutations located in translated or untranslated exons of RPSA. Eleven of the 43 kindreds affected by sporadic disease (26%) carry RPSA mutations, whereas 12 of the 13 multiplex kindreds (92%) carry RPSA mutations. We also report that 6 of 18 (33%) protein-coding mutations and the two (100%) 5'-UTR mutations display incomplete penetrance. Three mutations were identified in two independent kindreds, due to a hotspot or a founder effect. Finally, RPSA ICA-causing mutations were demonstrated to be de novo in 7 of the 23 probands. Mutations in RPSA exons can affect the translated or untranslated regions and can underlie ICA with complete or incomplete penetrance.


Assuntos
Éxons , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Penetrância , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Baço/anormalidades , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores de Laminina/biossíntese , Proteínas Ribossômicas/biossíntese , Baço/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: V(D)J recombination ensures the diversity of the adaptive immune system. Although its complete defect causes severe combined immunodeficiency (ie, T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency), its suboptimal activity is associated with a broad spectrum of immune manifestations, such as late-onset combined immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. The earliest molecular diagnosis of these patients is required to adopt the best therapy strategy, particularly when it involves a myeloablative conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at developing biomarkers based on analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) α repertoire to assist in the diagnosis of patients with primary immunodeficiencies with V(D)J recombination and DNA repair deficiencies. METHODS: We used flow cytometric (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis to quantify TCR-Vα7.2-expressing T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and developed PROMIDISα, a multiplex RT-PCR/next-generation sequencing assay, to evaluate a subset of the TCRα repertoire in T lymphocytes. RESULTS: The combined fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PROMIDISα analyses revealed specific signatures in patients with V(D)J recombination-defective primary immunodeficiencies or ataxia telangiectasia/Nijmegen breakage syndromes. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the TCRα repertoire is particularly appropriate in a prospective way to identify patients with partial immune defects caused by suboptimal V(D)J recombination activity, a DNA repair defect, or both. It also constitutes a valuable tool for the retrospective in vivo functional validation of variants identified through exome or panel sequencing. Its broader implementation might be of interest to assist early diagnosis of patients presenting with hypomorphic DNA repair defects inclined to experience acute toxicity during prehematopoietic stem cell transplantation conditioning.

18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 85, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary use of data collected in Electronic Health Records opens perspectives for increasing our knowledge of rare diseases. The clinical data warehouse (named Dr. Warehouse) at the Necker-Enfants Malades Children's Hospital contains data collected during normal care for thousands of patients. Dr. Warehouse is oriented toward the exploration of clinical narratives. In this study, we present our method to find phenotypes associated with diseases of interest. METHODS: We leveraged the frequency and TF-IDF to explore the association between clinical phenotypes and rare diseases. We applied our method in six use cases: phenotypes associated with the Rett, Lowe, Silver Russell, Bardet-Biedl syndromes, DOCK8 deficiency and Activated PI3-kinase Delta Syndrome (APDS). We asked domain experts to evaluate the relevance of the top-50 (for frequency and TF-IDF) phenotypes identified by Dr. Warehouse and computed the average precision and mean average precision. RESULTS: Experts concluded that between 16 and 39 phenotypes could be considered as relevant in the top-50 phenotypes ranked by descending frequency discovered by Dr. Warehouse (resp. between 11 and 41 for TF-IDF). Average precision ranges from 0.55 to 0.91 for frequency and 0.52 to 0.95 for TF-IDF. Mean average precision was 0.79. Our study suggests that phenotypes identified in clinical narratives stored in Electronic Health Record can provide rare disease specialists with candidate phenotypes that can be used in addition to the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical Data Warehouses can be used to perform Next Generation Phenotyping, especially in the context of rare diseases. We have developed a method to detect phenotypes associated with a group of patients using medical concepts extracted from free-text clinical narratives.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193729, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534076

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of adolescents with a severe chronic disease has increased in high-income countries due to improvements in the prognosis of childhood-onset chronic conditions. The transition from childhood to adulthood is a critical period that may be associated with increased mortality and morbidity. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of adolescents with a long-term disease (LTD) in France and assess their mortality and hospitalization risks relative to the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted a population-based cohort from the French national health insurance database that included 61,119 subjects who reached 14 years of age between 2005 and 2014. LTDs are diagnosed by patients' physicians and then confirmed and registered by a physician of the national health insurance system. We assessed mortality and hospitalizations using data of patients who were between 14 and 21 years-old. RESULTS: Among 14-year-old adolescents, 3.30% (95% confidence interval: 3.16-3.44) had a LTD. Their mortality rate between the ages of 14 and 21 years was 20.9/10,000 person-years (13.7-32.1) versus 1.9 (1.5-2.5) for adolescents without a LTD. Mortality was higher in males than females in youths without a LTD, but not in those with a LTD. We found a similar pattern for the risk of hospitalization for an external cause. The five-year probability of hospitalization was 61.8% among youths with a LTD versus 42.7% for those without. The rate of planned hospitalizations sharply fell at 19 years-of-age among youths with a LTD, whereas the rate of unplanned hospitalizations remained stable. CONCLUSION: The 3% of youths with a LTD have ten-fold higher mortality than those without and a high risk of hospitalization. The decrease in the rate of planned hospitalizations at age 19 among youths with a LTD may indicate differences in medical practice after transfer to adult care or a break in medical care.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Risco
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