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1.
Neurol Ther ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Japanese government's current policy is to encourage hospitals to discharge hospital patients with schizophrenia earlier and provide them with community care. This study aims to analyze clinical and economic outcomes of different discharge strategies in psychiatric hospitals in Japan. METHODS: A simulation was conducted to compare patient relapse and hospital revenues for different discharge plans. We constructed a decision tree where each tree consists of a different Markov chain that models hospital revenue for four different discharge plans: discharge of the patient after 1, 2, or 3 months, or 4 months or more. The simulation also included variations in the medical treatment regimen in an outpatient setting as part of the discharge strategy. In particular, we looked at the choice between risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) and generic risperidone (RIS GE). RESULTS: The use of RLAI in an outpatient setting reduced the number of rehospitalizations compared to generic risperidone use under all discharge plans. Different discharge plans were associated with differences in economic outcomes as well. One of the key revenue drivers for the hospital was the continuation of treatment in the outpatient setting after discharge. CONCLUSION: The use of RLAI in an outpatient setting could help to prevent rehospitalization, thereby contributing to better community care. FUNDING: The Rapid Service Fee was funded by Janssen KK.

2.
Adv Ther ; 36(7): 1684-1699, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102203

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study drug survival and associated costs of biologic treatment in a German real-world cohort of biologic-naïve psoriasis patients. METHODS: We utilized a German claims database base with 3,682,561 enrolled patients between 2001 and 2015. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to show the persistence of different biologics. To determine factors that influence persistence, a Cox regression analysis was performed. In addition, associated costs were calculated 12 months before and after treatment start with biologics. RESULTS: Among 75,561 patients with a diagnosis of psoriasis, we identified 347 patients who received a biologic; 176 of them were biologic-naïve prior to initiating therapy. Overall, the 1-year persistence rate was 56%. The highest persistence rate was observed for ustekinumab (80%). Younger patients, and those with a high comorbidity index, had a numerically increased risk of treatment discontinuation. However, parameter values were not statistically significant. While the overall costs after treatment start increased due to the acquisition costs of biologics, we found a strong decrease (- 41%) in sick leave after treatment with biologics had been initiated. CONCLUSION: Observed drug survival rates in this real-world setting were relatively low. In line with previous studies, ustekinumab had a higher persistence rate than other biologics. FUNDING: Janssen-Cilag.

3.
Rheumatol Ther ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have developed a new framework to assess shared decision-making (SDM) as a tool to improve patient satisfaction. This framework is based on a "preference fit" index that relates SDM to patient treatment preferences and patient satisfaction in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Japan. METHODS: We surveyed 500 RA patients in Japan and explored the interactions between the treatment preference fit index, SDM, and overall patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Our new preference fit index reveals significant impact on patient satisfaction: the better the fit between SDM and patient preferences, the higher the patient satisfaction with the current treatment. Patients treated with biologic agents were more satisfied. Patients suffering from depression or migraines scored significantly lower both on our preference fit measure and for overall patient satisfaction. CONCLUSION: The association between depression and a low treatment preference fit suggests that depression may pose challenges to SDM and that doctors in Japan are less attuned to the SDM preferences of depressed patients. FUNDING: Janssen Pharmaceutical KK.

4.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 22, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-insurance rates in Japan decrease when patients turn 70 years of age. We aim to compare changes in medical demand for Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at age 70 prior to 2014, when there was a reduction in co-insurance rates from 30 to 10%, with changes in medical demand at age 70 after 2014 when co-insurance rates decreased from 30% to only 20%. METHODS: We used administrative data from large Japanese hospitals. We employed a discontinuity regression (RD) approach to control for unobserved endogeneity in the data. RESULTS: We identified a total of 7343 patients with RA, 4905 (67%) turned age 70 before April, and found that a 20% decrease in co-insurance was associated with increased utilization of more expensive biologic RA drugs, more outpatient visits and higher total medical costs. However, a 10% decrease in co-insurance for patients who turned 70 after 2014 did not significantly change demand for medical services. CONCLUSIONS: For the younger cohort, we did not observe any changes in medical demand after a price decrease. We therefore conclude that the economic goal of cost sharing, namely a behavioural change towards lower health-care utilization, is not achieved in this particular cohort of chronic patients.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emprego , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão
5.
Pharmacoecon Open ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With progress being made in the treatment of psoriasis, a variety of clinical research and treatment options are being pursued. This study used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to estimate treatment characteristic preferences for both patients and physicians in Japan. Subgroup analysis was also applied in order to examine differences within the range of patients and within the range of physicians. METHODS: The DCE was developed with the input of clinical experts in the treatment of psoriasis to ensure inclusion of the most relevant attributes at appropriate levels in a way that is understandable to both physicians and patients. The study was conducted on parallel samples of Japanese physicians (n = 161) and Japanese psoriasis patients (n = 306) through an online panel. For each sample, a conditional logit statistical model and subgroup analysis were then performed to estimate respondent preferences for treatment attributes. RESULTS: The overall findings are that better treatment efficacy as measured by proportion of patients achieving 90% reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (PASI 90), lower risk of adverse events and the availability of a bio-holiday are important decision factors for both patients and physicians. Low injection frequency is less of a priority for both samples. Also, while both groups demonstrate a preference to receive the treatment injections at a clinic by a healthcare professional rather than self-injection at home, this is more pronounced for the patient sample. The physician sample shows considerably more emphasis on the type of injection, though both samples prefer subcutaneous injections to intravenous injections. IMPLICATIONS: This study reveals the importance of addressing both clinical effectiveness and process factors in systemic, non-topical psoriasis treatments to gain acceptance by both physicians and patients. As well as efficacy (as measured by PASI 90), which remains a consistent priority in treatment, administration and development of new treatments should also consider process factors such as the mode of administration and possibility for a bio-holiday.

6.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 18(1): 160, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the use of biologics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the use of biologics in the treatment of Japanese patients with IBD. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among Japanese patients with IBD (n = 1035). Socioeconomic as well as treatment related information was collected. Logistic regression was applied to analyze the determinants of biologic treatment. RESULTS: Younger age (≤ 40 years vs. > 65 years; OR:0.24), time since diagnosis (< 2 years vs. < 15 years; OR: 4.16), surgical history (OR:1.98) and visiting university hospitals (university hospitals vs. clinics; OR: 0.47) were associated with biologic treatment for Japanese IBD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, biologics have been used in younger IBD patients which may give rise to the presence of an age bias in biologic treatment. Further studies are required to confirm these results and to define appropriate IBD patients who should be treated with biologic agent.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/cirurgia , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2012, the pharmaceutical reimbursement legislation in Germany has been applying external reference pricing that uses country-specific economic weights for foreign prices. However, the law does not specify technical details. Therefore, we develop a proposal on how national income weights can be taken into consideration. Areas covered: We develop weighting schemes that draw on gross domestic product per capita and adjust for purchasing power parities and exchange rates. In a second step, we populate the weighting schemes with economic data as well as with the price data for a pharmaceutical product (abiraterone acetate). Weighting the price of abiraterone acetate by gross domestic product per capita indicates potential price differentials of up to 43 percentage points across European prices in the German basket. Expert commentary: The weighting of foreign pharmaceutical prices by economic indicators, i.e. gross domestic product per capita, can capture economic differences across countries. It would also allow for differential Ramsey pricing which might foster innovation.

8.
J Glob Oncol ; (4): 1-9, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241183

RESUMO

This article adds the Japanese perspective to our knowledge of shared decision-making (SDM) preferences by surveying patients with prostate cancer (PCA) and physicians in Japan. In 2015, 103 Japanese patients with PCA were asked about their SDM preferences by using an Internet-based 5-point-scale questionnaire. Concurrently, 127 Japanese physicians were surveyed regarding their perceptions of patient preferences on SDM. Drivers of preferences and perceptions were analyzed using univariable ordinal logistic regression and graphing the fitted response probabilities. Although 41% of both patients and physicians expressed and expected a desire for active involvement in treatment decisions (a higher rate than in a similar study for the United States in 2001), almost half the Japanese patients preferred SDM, but only 33% of physicians assumed this was their choice. That is, 29% of Japanese physicians underestimated patients' preference for involvement in making treatment decisions. Patients with lower health-related quality of life (as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate [FACT-P]) expressed a stronger preference for SDM. The study shows that the worse the medical situation, the more patients with PCA prefer to be involved in the treatment decision, yet physicians tend to underestimate the preferences of their patients. Perhaps in contrast to common assumptions, Japanese patients are as interested in being involved in decision making as are patients in the United States.

9.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 5(3): 169-179, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study assessed persistence rates of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Japan and compared resource utilization and treatment costs between persistence and non-persistence groups. METHODS: Data were extracted from a Japanese claims database between 2009 and 2015. bDMARD-naïve patients were identified and included in the final analysis. Survival analysis was used to estimate 1-year persistence rates for current bDMARDs. Propensity score matching was applied to control for potential treatment selection bias. Resource utilization and healthcare costs were calculated 1 year before and after initiation of bDMARDs and compared between persistence and non-persistence groups. RESULTS: A total of 6153 bDMARD-naïve patients were identified and the overall 1-year persistence rate was 85% (95% CI 84-86). Overall, 1-year outpatient visits increased from 10 at baseline to 16 after bDMARD treatment, while the number of hospital admissions declined from 3.3 to 1.6. The non-persistence group had a larger increase in outpatient visits after bDMARD initiation compared with the persistence group (8-16 vs. 10-16, respectively) and a smaller decrease in hospital admissions (3.1-1.9 vs. 3.5-1.4, respectively). Persistence was associated with a reduction in total healthcare costs of US$760. CONCLUSIONS: Japanese bDMARD-naïve patients with RA have a high persistence rate with those treatments. The reduction in medication costs in non-persistent patients is offset by higher hospitalization costs, making non-persistence more expensive.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(29): e11491, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify factors that impact the total health care costs associated with hospitalization of young Japanese children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: Children admitted between April 2014 and March 2015 with at least a confirmed diagnosis of RSV and 2 days of hospital stay were considered for inclusion. Data analyses of hospital claims were performed using a structural equation modeling approach. RESULTS: A total of 6811 Japanese inpatients (<5 years old) diagnosed with RSV were included. The average length of stay was 7.5 days with a mean total health care cost of US Dollars (USD) $3344 per hospitalization. Intensive care unit hospitalizations were associated with greater costs (USD +$4951) compared to routine hospitalizations. The highest procedure-related cost drivers were blood transfusions (USD +$6402) and tube feedings (USD +$3512). CONCLUSION: The economic burden of RSV-related infection hospitalizations in Japan is considerable. Efforts should be toward immunization and therapeutic treatment strategies that reduce severity, prevent, or reduce the duration of hospitalization.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/economia , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
BMC Dermatol ; 18(1): 5, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological therapies (BTs) including infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADL), secukinumab (SCK) and ustekinumab (UST) are approved in Japan for the treatment of psoriasis. Although the persistence rates and medical costs of BTs treatment have been investigated in multiple foreign studies in recent years, few such studies have been conducted in Japan and the differences between patients who adhered to treatment and those who did not have not been reported. This study is aimed at investigating the persistence rates and medical costs of BTs in the treatment of psoriasis in Japan, using the real-world data from a large-scale claims database. METHODS: Claims data from the JMDC database (August 2009 to December 2016) were used for this analysis. Patient data were extracted using the ICD10 code for psoriasis and claims records of BT injections. Twelve-month and 24-month persistence rates of BTs were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methodology, and 12-month-medical costs before and after BT initiation were compared between persistent and non-persistent patient groups at 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 205 psoriasis patients treated with BTs (BT-naïve patients: 177) were identified. The 12-month/24-month persistence rates for ADL, IFX, SCK, and UST in BT-naïve patients were 46.8% ± 16.6%/46.8 ± 16.6%, 53.0% ± 14.9%/41.0% ± 15.5%, 55.4%/55.4% (95% CI not available) and 79.4% ± 9.9%/71.9% ± 12.2%, respectively. Statistically significant differences in persistence were found among different BT treatments, and UST was found to have the highest persistence rate. The total medical costs during the 12 months after BT initiation in BT-naïve patients were (in 1000 Japanese Yen): 2218 for ADL, 3409 for IFX, 465 for SCK, 2824 for UST (average: 2828). Compared with the 12-month persistent patient group, the total medical costs in the persistent group was higher (Δ:+ 118), but for some medications such as IFX or UST cost increases were lower for persistent patients. CONCLUSIONS: UST was found to have the highest persistence rate among all BTs for psoriasis treatment in Japan. The 12-month medical costs after BT initiation in the persistent patient group may not have increased as much as in the non-persistent patient group for some medications.

12.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 16: 19, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881328

RESUMO

Background: Health-care utilities differ considerably from country to country. Our objective was to examine the association of cultural values based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions' theory with utility values that were identified using the time trade off method. Methods: We performed a literature search to determine preference-based value algorithms in the general population of a given country. We then fitted a second-order quadratic function to assess the utility function curve that links health status with health-care utilities. We ranked the countries according to the concavity and convexity properties of their utility functions and compared this ranking with that of the Hofstede index to check if there were any similarities. Results: We identified 10 countries with an EQ-5D-5L-based value set and 7 countries with an EQ-5D-3L-based value set. Japan's degree of concavity was highest, while Germany's was lowest, based on the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L value sets. Japan also ranked first in the Hofstede long-term orientation index, and rankings related to the degree of concavity, indicating a low time preference rate. Conclusions: This is the first evaluation to identify and report an association between different cultural beliefs and utility values. These findings underline the necessity to take local values into consideration when designing health technology assessment systems.

13.
Am J Mens Health ; 12(4): 1094-1101, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774804

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the concordance of treatment preferences between patients and physicians in prostate cancer (PCa) in Japan. An internet-based discrete choice experiment was conducted. Patients and physicians were asked to select their preferred treatment from a pair of hypothetical treatments consisting of four attributes: quality of life (QOL), treatment effectiveness, side effects, and accessibility of treatment. The data were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression model to calculate coefficients and the relative importance (RI) of each attribute. A total of 103 PCa patients and 127 physicians responded. The study looked at 37 patients considered as advanced PCa and 66 who were non-advanced PCa. All of the physicians were urologists. Advanced PCa patients ranked the attributes as follows: treatment effectiveness (RI: 32%), accessibility of treatment (RI: 26%), QOL (RI: 23%), and side effects (RI: 19%). For physicians, the RI ranking was the same as for advanced PCa patients; treatment effectiveness (RI: 29%), accessibility of treatment (RI: 27%), QOL (RI: 26%), and side effects (RI: 18%). For non-advanced PCa patients, accessibility of treatment ranked the highest RI (27%) and treatment effectiveness ranked as the lowest RI (14%). Our study suggests that the ranking of the attributes was consistent between advanced PCa patients and physicians. The most influential attribute was treatment effectiveness. Treatment preferences also vary by disease stage.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195789, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited availability of real-world data that describe treatment patterns of Japanese prostate cancer (PCA) patients. METHODS: A biweekly transition analysis of PCA treatment was performed for patients with PCA diagnosis and a specific treatment between 2010 and 2015. To account for different cancer stages, two patient populations were analyzed. The first group consisted of patients on medication for hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC). The second group is comprised of patients who ended up receiving specific therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). For each treatment, the average of treatment duration and the portion of patients transitioning to a consecutive treatment was calculated. RESULTS: We identified 59,626 patients from the Japanese administrative database with a PCA diagnosis and specific treatment. In the first year of our observational study 786 patients commenced a HSPC treatment and 695 received a CRPC specific therapy Among the HSPC group, we found that combination hormonal therapy, comprised of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist or antagonist with an antiandrogen was more common than monotherapy. The results of the CRPC group indicated that chemotherapy administration was for a shorter time period in a real-world setting as compared to published clinical studies. CONCLUSION: Utilizing a novel method to visualize real-world treatment pathways for PCA patients we found that real treatment pathways are in line with international guidelines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Ment Health ; : 1-5, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When a family member is diagnosed with schizophrenia, it causes stress to the caregiver that can eventually result in missed work days and lower work performance. AIM: This study aims at revealing productivity costs for caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Japan. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of caregivers was conducted and resulted in 171 respondents. The assessment of work productivity included calculating the costs of absenteeism, presenteeism and total productivity costs. This was accomplished using the "Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire" (WPAI). RESULTS: A relative majority of caregivers in the sample provided care for their spouse (47%), 18% cared for their brother or sister and 16% provided care for their child. Per capita productivity costs totaled JPY 2.42 million, with JPY 2.36 million (97%) of that amount being due to presenteeism. CONCLUSIONS: The burden on caregivers is substantial enough to warrant structured support programs aimed at maintaining careers' physical and mental health, helping them provide more effective care to schizophrenia patients and eventually increase productivity at work.

16.
Rheumatol Ther ; 5(1): 171-183, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To determine the cost of depression comorbidity among Japanese adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A retrospective database study of 8968 patients diagnosed with RA between 2010 and 2015 and treated with any RA medication was conducted. Health care utilization characteristics were compared between patients with and without a comorbidity of depression. Propensity score matching was applied to ensure a balanced comparison between the two cohorts. RESULTS: The prevalence of a depression comorbidity was found for 5% of the total RA patients. This comorbidity was associated with 62% (56%) higher total outpatient visits and 66% (163%) higher rate of emergency room visits after 6 (12) months. CONCLUSIONS: Burden of depression among RA patients in Japan is relatively high and awareness for depression as a comorbidity of RA needs to be reinforced. FUNDING: Janssen Pharmaceutical KK.

17.
Clin Ther ; 40(2): 296-308.e2, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the progress being made in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other complex cancers, a variety of clinical research and treatment options are being pursued. This study uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to estimate treatment characteristic preferences of hematologists in Japan. METHODS: A 2-stage process was applied within this study. The first stage is an attribute-rating exercise in which each of the full list of 21 attributes is rated on its importance by the clinicians when selecting a first-line therapy. The top 8 rated attributes from a stepwise logistic regression model are then used to develop a DCE to estimate hematologists' willingness to trade-off characteristics of the treatment options in their recommendation of a first-line treatment. A logit model was used to identify the attribute levels that were the strongest determinants of the physicians' treatment preferences. FINDINGS: From among the potential treatment attributes presented, improved overall survival had the most significant impact on the treatment choice of participating Japanese hematologists. Improvement in the ability to promptly reduce M-protein is also a highly prioritized treatment characteristic, with hematologists willing to sacrifice just over 1 month extra overall survival for this. Additionally, the hematologists' value improved suitability for chromosomal abnormalities with poor prognosis, suitability of the mechanism of action in initial treatment, and promptly improving calcium-renal-anemia-bone symptoms each at roughly 0.9 months extended overall survival. The reduction of adverse events is among the other significant factors in choice of treatment, though it was not found to be as strong a determinant as those mentioned. IMPLICATIONS: This study reinforces the expectation that clinical research and treatment options should continue to focus on overall survival and are key priorities in multiple myeloma treatment development. However, clinicians are willing to consider and trade off other clinical factors and markers in their choice of treatment. The potential improvements presented were also found to have a greater impact on treatment choice than aversion to the potential worse outcomes presented.

18.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 5(1): 35-43, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorders (MDDs) including treatment-resistant depression (TRD) are common disabling conditions, but data on their epidemiology in Japan are limited. This study investigated the incidence, epidemiology, and direct medical costs of TRD and pharmaceutically-treated depression (PTD) in Japan to increase our health economic understanding of this phenotype of MDD. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from a private health insurance claims database estimated the 1-year incidence of PTD and TRD and described the health services used and direct medical costs associated with these conditions. RESULTS: In the year from 1 April 2012 through 31 March 2013, we identified 1143 incident PTD cases among 98,552 eligible subjects, i.e. 11.59 cases/1000 patient-years. Of the PTD patients, 51.4% were women. Within the 1-year observation interval 137 patients failed more than two antidepressive treatment approaches and thus developed TRD. Though co-morbid conditions and age were similar among PTD and TRD patients, medical costs per patient (patient-year) during their treatment intervals were 1.01 million JPY (0. 540 million JPY) in the TRD population and 0.643 JPY million JPY (0.645 million JPY) in the PTD population who did not convert into TRD. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the PTD and TRD patient populations in a large claims database in Japan and highlights an unmet medical need for the treatment of TRD to provide better preventative measures and interventions for the treatment of depression.

19.
Mod Rheumatol ; 28(3): 482-489, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was (1) to determine productivity costs due to absenteeism and presenteeism among Japanese workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (2) to identify additional factors associated with productivity loss among workers with RA. METHODS: An online survey of 500 RA Japanese patients was used. The Japanese version of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ) was used to measure patients' functional disability. The patient health questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9) was used to measure symptoms and severity of depression. To assess work productivity the 'work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire' for rheumatoid arthritis (WPAI-RA), a six-item validated instrument was used. RESULTS: Percentages of absenteeism and presenteeism were found to be 1% and 23%, respectively. The annual combined productivity costs of both absenteeism and presenteeism was 7877 USD per patient. Factors significantly associated with a higher productivity loss were functional disability, depressive symptoms, and time since RA diagnosis, while age, and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) treatment were significantly associated with a lower productivity loss. CONCLUSION: Treatment of RA with bDMARDs would likely result in decreased productivity loss among Japanese patients.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Eficiência , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 18(3): 339-348, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug price setting is one of the key challenges faced by the Japanese health care system. This study aims to identify the determinants of drug price in Japan using the example of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment market. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In order to compare prices across different products, we calculated prices per defined daily dose using WHO methodology. Price determinants were calculated both at launch and over time using IMS quarterly data on medicines approved for RA treatment in Japan from 2012 to 2015. Pharmaceutical pricing was modeled as a function of clinical and economic variables using regression analysis. RESULTS: For prices at the launch we found that differences in efficacy are not reflected in price differentials. We also report that the number of products within a molecule class had a negative effect on prices while originator drugs maintained higher prices. CONCLUSION: Although the existing pricing rules in Japan are very comprehensive they do not necessarily capture differences in product characteristics. The findings here support the notion that competitive forces are weak in highly regulated markets such as Japan.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Comércio , Farmacoeconomia , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Competição Econômica , Humanos , Japão , Análise de Regressão
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