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1.
Clin Spine Surg ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341326

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Level III-retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of hypothyroidism in patients undergoing 1- to 2-level lumbar fusion (1-2LF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Hypothyroidism is a common cause of morbidity and mortality following surgery. Studies have demonstrated the effects of hypothyroidism following orthopedic surgery, but not 1-2LF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing 1-2LF with hypothyroidism were identified within the Medicare population, and served as the study group. Study group patients were randomly matched to controls in a 1:5 ratio by age, sex, and medical comorbidities. Primary outcomes analyzed included in-hospital lengths of stay (LOS), 90-day readmission rates, 90-day medical complications, and costs of care. Pearson χ tests were used to compare patient demographics. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for medical complications and readmissions. Welch t test was used to test for significance in cost between the cohorts. An α value <0.002 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The query yielded 417,483 patients who underwent 1-2LF with (n=69,584) and without (n=347,899) hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid patients had significantly longer in-hospital LOS (8 vs. 4 d; P<0.0001) compared with controls. In addition, study group patients had significantly higher incidence and odds of 90-day readmissions (20.22% vs. 17.62%; OR, 1.18; P<0.0001) and 90-day medical complications (6.38% vs. 1.89%; OR, 3.53; P<0.0001) compared with controls. Study group patients had higher day of surgery costs ($97,304.01 vs. $95,168.35; P=0.014) and 90-day costs of care ($113,514.15 vs. $108,860.60; P=0.0001) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for age, sex, and medical comorbidities, the study demonstrates patients who have hypothyroidism have longer in-hospital LOS and higher rates of readmissions, complications, and costs. The study is vital as it can allow orthopedic surgeons to adequately counsel and educate these patients of the potential complications that may occur following their procedure.

2.
Clin Sports Med ; 39(2): 353-371, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115089

RESUMO

Carpal fractures of bones other than the scaphoid occur at a much lower rate than scaphoid fractures. The close relationship between the carpus, intrinsic and extrinsic wrist ligaments, and wrist kinematics makes a thorough history, clinical examination, and interpretation of imaging for carpal malalignment essential. Carpal malalignment should be addressed with reduction and fixation. Nondisplaced fractures are often treated nonoperatively and displaced intraarticular fractures are almost always treatment operatively. The physician should keep in mind the athlete's specific goals and needs. Treatment must be individualized. Options for early return to play should be discussed when possible.

3.
Instr Course Lect ; 69: 317-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017735

RESUMO

Scaphoid fractures are common and notorious for their troublesome healing. The aim of this review is to reevaluate the current best evidence for the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of scaphoid fractures and nonunions. MRI and CT are used to establish a "definitive diagnosis" with comparable diagnostic accuracy although neither is 100% specific. Current classifications cannot reliably predict union or outcomes; hence, a descriptive analysis of fracture location, type, and extent of displacement remains most useful. Treatment of a nondisplaced scaphoid waist fracture remains an individualized decision based on shared decision-making. Open reduction and internal fixation may be preferred when fracture displacement exceeds 1 mm, and the fracture is irreducible by closed or percutaneous means. For unstable nonunions with carpal instability, either non-vascularized cancellous graft with stable internal fixation or corticocancellous wedge grafts will provide a high rate of union and restoration of carpal alignment. For nonunions characterized with osteonecrosis of the proximal pole, vascularized bone grafting can achieve a higher rate of union.


Assuntos
Fraturas não Consolidadas , Osso Escafoide , Traumatismos do Punho , Transplante Ósseo , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos
4.
J Hand Surg Am ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948705

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of exploring the axillary nerve (AN) at the 6 o'clock position (blind spot) using the deltopectoral approach, with the interval lateral to the conjoint tendon (CJT) or combined with the axillary approach. METHODS: Four ANs were dissected combining the deltopectoral approach-medial to the CJ (A), the deltopectoral approach-lateral to the CJT (B) and the axillary approach (C) in 3 sequences: A-B-C, B-A-C, and C-B-A. After the first approach was completed, the proximal and distal margins were marked. Additional exposure with the second and third approaches and the 6 o'clock position were also marked. Then, the AN was excised and the amount of exposed nerve with the 3 approaches was measured. RESULTS: The deltopectoral approach-medial to the conjoint tendon did not allow exposure of the AN at the 6 o'clock position. Six o'clock position exposure was accomplished using the lateral interval of the deltopectoral and the axillary approaches. A deltopectoral approach lateral to the CJT allowed exploration of the AN at the blind spot, but not the terminal branches. The axillary approach was able to expose the AN at the 6 o'clock position, the terminal branches, but not the nerve-muscle junction. Combining the 3 approaches exposed 81% to 94% of the total length of the AN. CONCLUSIONS: The deltopectoral approach allowed visualization of the AN at the 6 o'clock position when explored lateral to the CJT. The axillary approach allowed visualization of the terminal branches of the AN and the 6 o'clock position of the glenoid. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The deltopectoral approach lateral to the conjoint tendon allows the surgeon to assess continuity of the AN at the 6-o'clock position and to perform a neurolysis. If nerve repair, nerve grafting, or nerve transfer is attempted, a combination of the 3 approaches could be used.

5.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 36(5): 311-315, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimizing axon count is essential for successful nerve transfer surgery, and a donor-to-recipient axon count ratio greater than 0.7:1 has been associated with improved outcomes. A gracilis free functioning muscle transfer (FFMT) is an option to restore elbow flexion, but its axon count has not been evaluated. Our aim was to quantify the axon count of the nerve to the gracilis muscle. METHODS: The nerve to the gracilis was dissected in 10 fresh frozen adult cadaveric hindquarter specimens (four females and six males). The length of the nerve to the gracilis was measured and a biopsy taken. A validated histologic preparation technique was utilized, and axons were counted. The mean length and axon counts were calculated. RESULTS: The average axon count in the nerve to the gracilis was 818 (range = 684-1,000, standard deviation [SD] = 116). The average length was 98 mm (range = 81-115 mm, SD = 13 mm). CONCLUSION: Our study found the average axon count in the nerve to the gracilis was 818. Prior literature suggests axon count ratio greater than 0.7:1 is associated with better clinical outcomes. Using data from prior studies, the spinal accessory, three intercostal, and two intercostal nerves are all sufficient for the transfer to the nerve to the gracilis with donor to recipient ratios of 1.7:1, 1.3:1, and 0.9:1, respectively.

6.
J Knee Surg ; 33(3): 279-283, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727020

RESUMO

Newer generation cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implants continue to develop with demonstrated clinical success in multiple recent reports. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) survivorship, (2) complications, and (3) clinical outcomes of a newer generation cementless and highly porous titanium-coated base plate manufactured using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. We reviewed a single-surgeon, longitudinally maintained database of patients who underwent primary TKA using cementless, highly porous titanium-coated base plate implants from July 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016. A total of 523 patients were identified. Of this cohort, 496 patients had a minimum of 2-year follow-up and were included in our final analysis. Among these patients, 72 had bilateral TKA yielding a total of 568 TKAs. There were 133 men and 363 women who had a mean body mass index of 33 kg/m2 (range, 20-61 kg/m2). The mean age was 66 years (range, 33-88 years). Average follow-up was 36 months (range, 24-48 months). Indications for TKA included osteoarthritis in 432 patients (87%), rheumatoid arthritis in 40 patients (8%), and knee osteonecrosis in 24 (5%) patients. Implant survivorship was defined as any revision leading to explantation of the base plate for any reason. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine all-cause implant survivorship at final follow-up for every patient. Complications were assessed using the Knee Society standardized list of TKA complications. Clinical outcomes were determined using the Knee Society pain and function scores. Range-of-motion values were also collected. There were a total of four failures, all were due to aseptic loosening with a survivorship rate of 99% at mean follow-up of 3 years (95% confidence interval = 0.984-0.999). In addition, there were a total of 12 surgical and 10 medical complications. Surgical complications did not affect the base plate or result in any additional implant revisions. A total of nine patients had thromboembolic disease complications; all received medical treatment and recovered adequately. Radiological evaluation did not show any signs of loosening or failures in other patients at final follow-up. Knee Society Scores for pain and function improved from 55 and 56 points preoperatively to 92 and 84 points at 2 years postoperatively. Our results are in concordance with the excellent clinical outcomes and survivorship demonstrated for the newer generation cementless TKA implants. In our experience, 3D printed titanium base plates demonstrated clinical success and excellent survivorship at minimum follow-up of 2 years.

7.
J Hand Surg Am ; 44(12): e7, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806124
8.
J Arthroplasty ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of hospital volume with revision surgery for infection and superficial incisional infections. METHODS: A review of 12,541 primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) at a large integrated health system from 2014 to 2017 was conducted. Sixteen hospitals were classified as low-volume, medium-volume, or high-volume hospitals according to the mean number of TKAs/year (<250, 250-500, and >500, respectively). Thresholds were guided by percentiles and the literature on volume-outcome relationships. Medical records were reviewed for revision surgery for infection and superficial incisional infections during a mean 2-year review period. Multivariate analyses, adjusted for clinical and patient characteristics, were performed to evaluate the association between hospital volume and infection. RESULTS: The overall rate of revision surgery for infection was 0.7% (n = 82), and the overall rate of superficial incisional infection was 2.6% (n = 324). After accounting for potential confounders, hospital volume was not found to have a significant association with revision surgery for infection when comparing high-volume and low-volume hospitals (odds ratio, 1.615; 95% confidence interval, 0.761-3.427; P = .212) as well as when comparing high-volume and medium-volume hospitals (odds ratio, 1.464; 95% confidence interval, 0.853-2.512; P = .166). Moreover, the risk of superficial incisional infection at high-volume hospitals was similar to that at low-volume (P = .107) and medium-volume (P = .491) hospitals. CONCLUSION: Infection outcomes are quality metrics that are frequently used to compare hospitals including those of varying volumes. Using contemporary thresholds, this study found that infection rates after TKA at high-volume hospitals are comparable to low-volume and medium-volume hospitals.

9.
J Spine Surg ; 5(3): 365-371, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663048

RESUMO

Sacral insufficiency fractures are a common source of back pain in the elderly and are associated with significant morbidity due to poor recognition and delays in diagnosis. Previous treatment modalities have centered primarily on bed rest, oral analgesia, early mobilization and physical therapy. However, in recent years sacroplasty has emerged as a viable treatment option for sacral insufficiency fractures. Earlier recovery with sacroplasty, reduced incidence of deep venous thrombosis, and earlier return to activities of daily living are some of the features that made this treatment modality more appealing than traditional conservative management. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to examine the efficacy of sacroplasty for treatment of sacral insufficiency fractures in the elderly population. Thirty-one articles were included in this study for final analysis. Cement extravasation was the most commonly reported complication; however, it was not found to have clinical significance in the majority of studies that reported this outcome. Two studies reported S1 radicular pain after the procedure while only one study reported a patient with persistent pain requiring reoperation (1/8 incidence, 12.5%). The mean reduction in pain score from pre-procedure to latest follow-up post-procedure [reported as visual analog scale (VAS)] was 5.8+1.3 for those studies that reported this figure. Overall, sacroplasty is a safe and effective procedure associated with low complication rate and consistent pain relief in patients with sacral insufficiency fractures.

10.
J Orthop Trauma ; 33(7): 361-365, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple studies have shown the impact of hip fractures on geriatric mortality. Few evaluate mortality after proximal humerus (PH) or distal humerus (DH) fractures, and fewer determine differences in mortality based on management. We aim to evaluate a statewide cohort of elderly patients with PH or DH fractures to evaluate mortality, length of stay, discharge data, readmission, and differences based on management. METHODS: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was used to identify patients 60 years and older admitted with a PH or DH fracture. Patient demographics, including age, gender, sex, race, weight, and insurance status, along with comorbid conditions using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, were determined. Seven-day, 30-day, and 1-year mortality was determined for operative and nonoperative cohorts. Logistic regression determined the competing risk of mortality when controlling for patient demographics, comorbid conditions, and treatment. RESULTS: Forty-two thousand five hundred eleven PH and 7654 DH fractures were evaluated. PH fractures had higher mortality than DH. Nonoperative treatment occurred in 76.2% of PH fractures and 53% of DH fractures. There were more comorbid conditions, longer length of stay, and higher mortality at 7 days, 30 days, and 1 year in patients treated nonoperatively. After controlling for patient demographics and comorbid conditions, there was no difference in mortality between PH and DH fractures, but operative treatment for either PH or DH was associated with lower mortality at all time points. DISCUSSION: Fewer PH than DH fractures were treated operatively. Operative treatment was associated with improved survival in patients hospitalized with PH or DH fracture even after controlling for patient demographic and comorbid factors. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overuse of healthcare resources is burdensome on society. Prior research has demonstrated that many patients with traumatic musculoskeletal injuries continue to seek care long after appropriate healing is well established, suggesting an overuse of services. However, few studies have examined the factors-including patient-reported outcomes-associated with an increased number of clinic visits for traumatic hand and wrist conditions. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) After accounting for surgical treatment, surgeon, and demographic factors, is a patient's PROMIS Pain Interference score associated with the total number of office visits? (2) Is PROMIS Depression, combination of PROMIS Depression and Pain Interference, or Physical Function scores associated with the number of office visits? METHODS: Between June 2015 and May 2018, 1098 patients presenting for a new patient visit at a single, urban academic medical center for distal radius fracture, wrist or hand sprain, tendon rupture, traumatic finger amputation, or scaphoid fracture were identified. Of those, 823 (75%) patients completed all PROMIS domains and presented before the trailing period and thus were included in this retrospective study. We recorded a number of variables including: Total number of office visits, age, sex, race, marital status, diagnosis, provider, and operative or nonoperative treatment. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis was conducted to determine whether Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pain Interference (PROMIS PI), Physical Function (PROMIS PF), and Depression scores measured at the first visit were associated with the total number of office visits, after accounting for the other factors we measured. RESULTS: Higher PROMIS PI scores were associated with greater number of clinic visits (0.0077; 95% CI, 0.0018-0.014; p = 0.010). Although PROMIS Depression scores were not associated with the number of office visits (0.0042; 95% CI, -0.0099 to 0.0094; p = 0.112), higher PROMIS PF scores were associated with fewer office visits when accounting for confounding variables (-0.0077; 95% CI, -0.0012 to -0.0029; p = 0.001). Additionally, across all individual PROMIS models, there was an association between the variables "operative treatment" (PI: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-0.98; p < 0.001; Depression: 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74-1.0; p < 0.001; PF: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99; p < 0.001) and "traumatic finger amputation" (PI: 0.22; 95% CI, 0.016-0.42; p = 0.034; Depression: 0.2; 95% CI, 0.086-0.47; p = 0.005; PF: 0.21; 95% CI, 0.014-0.41; p = 0.036) with an increased total number of office visits. Provider team 5 (PI: -0.62; 95% CI, -0.98 to -0.27; p = 0.001; Depression: -0.61; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.26; p = 0.001; PF: -0.60; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.25; p = 0.001) was associated with fewer office visits. In both the PROMIS Depression and PROMIS PF regression models, increasing age (Depression: -0.0048; 95% CI, -0.0088 to -0.00081; p = 0.018; PF: -0.0045; 95% CI, -0.0085 to -0.0006; p = 0.024) was also associated with fewer total number of office visits. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps surgeons understand that patients who present at their initial office visit for traumatic hand and wrist conditions displaying worse pain coping strategies and decreased physical function will have more office visits. We recommend that surgeons engage in a comprehensive care approach that is empathetic, fosters effective pain coping strategies (and so might decrease PROMIS PI scores), and educates patients about expectations by providing educational materials and/or including other health professionals (such as, social work, physical therapy, mental health professional) as needed. This may decrease healthcare use in patients with traumatic hand and wrist conditions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, prognostic study.

12.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(11): 2544-2551, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Patient-reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) continues to be an important universal patient-reported outcomes measure (PROM) in orthopaedic surgery. However, there is concern about the performance of the PROMIS as a general health questionnaire in hand surgery compared with the performance of region- and condition-specific PROMs such as the Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ) and the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), respectively. To ensure that PROMIS domains capture patient-reported outcomes to the same degree as region- and condition-specific PROMs do, comparing PROM performance is necessary. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Which PROMs demonstrate high responsiveness among patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (CTR)? (2) Which of the PROMIS domains (Physical Function [PF], Upper Extremity [UE], and Pain Interference [PI]) demonstrate concurrent validity with the HHQ and BCTQ domains? METHODS: In this prospective study, between November 2014 and October 2016, patients with carpal tunnel syndrome visiting a single surgeon who elected to undergo CTR completed the BCTQ, MHQ, and PROMIS UE, PF, and PI domains at each visit. A total of 101 patients agreed to participate. Of these, 31 patients (31%) did not return for a followup visit at least 6 weeks after CTR and were excluded, leaving a final sample of 70 patients (69%). We compared the PROMIS against region- and condition-specific PROMs in terms of responsiveness and concurrent validity. Responsiveness was determined using Cohen's d or the effect-size index (ESI). The larger the absolute value of the ESI, the greater the effect size. Using the ESI allows surgeons to better quantify the impact of CTR, with a medium ESI (that is, 0.5) representing a visible clinical change to a careful observer. Concurrent validity was determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient with correlation strengths categorized as excellent (> 0.7), excellent-good (0.61-0.70), good (0.4-0.6), and poor (< 0.4). Significance was set a priori at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Among PROMIS domains, the PI demonstrated the best responsiveness (ESI = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.39-1.08), followed by the UE (ESI = -0.66; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.31). For the MHQ, the Satisfaction domain had the largest effect size (ESI = -1.48; 95% CI, -1.85 to -1.09), while for the BCTQ, the Symptom Severity domain had the best responsiveness (ESI = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91). The PROMIS UE and PI domains demonstrated excellent-good to excellent correlations to the total MHQ and BCTQ-Functional Status scores (preoperative UE to MHQ: ρ = 0.68; PI to MHQ: ρ = 0.74; UE to BCTQ-Functional Status: ρ = 0.74; PI to BCTQ-Functional Status: ρ = 0.67; all p < 0.001), while the PROMIS PF demonstrated poor correlations with the same domains (preoperative PF to MHQ; ρ = 0.33; UE to BCTQ-Functional Status: ρ = 0.39; both p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The PROMIS UE and PI domains demonstrated slightly worse responsiveness than the MHQ and BCTQ domains that was nonetheless acceptable. The PROMIS PF domain was unresponsive. All three PROMIS domains correlated with the MHQ and BCTQ, but the PROMIS UE and PI domains had notably stronger correlations to the MHQ and BCTQ domains than the PF domain did. We feel that the PROMIS UE and PI can be used to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing CTR, while also providing more robust insight into overall health status because they are general PROMs. However, we do not recommend the PROMIS PF for evaluating patients undergoing CTR. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, diagnostic study.

13.
J Hand Surg Am ; 44(8): 635-640, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Uncertainty exists about what change in Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scores represents a clinically relevant improvement (minimal clinically important difference [MCID]) in hand surgery care. Using a region-specific patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) (Michigan Hand Question [MHQ]) and a condition-specific PROM (Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire [BCTQ]), MCID values were determined for PROMIS Physical Function (PF), Upper Extremity (UE), and Pain Interference (PI) computerized adaptive testing among patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (CTR). METHODS: Patients undergoing CTR with a single surgeon from November 2014 to April 2017 were asked to complete the BCTQ, MHQ, and PROMIS PF, UE, and PI at each visit. Patients who had completed questionnaires both at a preoperative and either a 6-week or a 3-month postoperative visit were included. The PROMIS PF, UE, and PI MCID values were calculated using previously determined MCID estimates in the literature with both region- (ie, MHQ) and condition-specific (ie, BCTQ) PROM anchors. The PROMIS domain MCID estimates were also determined using the distribution-based method. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients fit our inclusion criteria. Using MHQ Function and Pain, PROMIS UE, PF, and PI MCIDs were 6.3, 1.8, and -8.9, respectively. Using the average of the 2 BCTQ domains, PROMIS UE, PF, and PI MCIDs were 8.0, 2.8, and -9.7, respectively. Using the distribution-based method, PROMIS UE, PF, and PI MCIDs were 4.2, 2.7, and -4.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using region- and condition-specific PROMs, we were able to provide MCID estimates of PROMIS UE, PF, and PI for patients undergoing CTR. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Estimating PROMIS UE, PF, and PI MCIDs in CTR using validated region- and condition-specific PROMs provides hand surgeons a way to evaluate CTR outcomes not previously described in the literature. Surgeons should understand that these values are only estimates and future work is needed to verify whether they reflect clinical improvement.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(4): 73, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963068

RESUMO

Antibiotic-loaded cement (ABLC) has been widely utilized as an adjuvant treatment for patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) but has also evolved to play a prophylactic role against infection in primary total joint arthroplasties (TJA). Nevertheless, there is currently a paucity of studies that systematically investigated this concept. This review aimed at answering the following questions: (I) Can routine use of ABLC help reduce the current infection rates in primary TJA? (II) What are the risks associated with this approach? And (III) can routine use be justified in primary TJA from an economic standpoint? Multiple databases were queried including PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO Host, and SCOPUS. Studies published between January 1, 1990 and March 31, 2018 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were studies reporting: (I) clinical outcomes of routine use of ABLC in primary hip and knee arthroplasty with 2-year minimum follow-up, (II) complications related to the use of ABLC, (III) cost of using ABLC. The final analysis included 24 studies. Data from multiple studies demonstrate contradictory results for infection rates when ABLC is used in all primary procedures with a majority of studies showing similar infection rates between ABLC and plain cement. The main concerns associated with routine use of ABLC are negative effects on the mechanical stability of cement, possible systemic and local toxicity of the absorbed antibiotic, and development of resistant bacterial strains. However, current literature has not clinically validated these concerns. Lastly, with an estimated increase in 117 million dollars with the routine use of ABLC in only 50% of TJAs performed each year, it is difficult to justify the use of ABLC without clear superiority in reducing infection. The use of ABLC has undeniably changed the way orthopaedic surgeons deal with PJI today. However, the large-scale, prophylactic use of ABLC in primary TJAs requires further research and justification.

15.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(7): 1605-1612, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA), increasing attention has been directed recently toward identifying specific patient-related risk factors that may predispose patients to periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Currently, it is unclear whether having a history of a treated native septic arthritis is a risk factor for PJI after TJA in the same joint. Previous studies have reported contradictory evidence and results varied between a substantially higher rates of PJIs to very low or no reported PJIs. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the risk of PJI in patients who received TJA and had a history of treated same-joint native joint septic arthritis and (2) What are the associated risk factors for these patients developing PJI? METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients who received primary THA or TKA between January 2000 and December 2016 and who had a history of treated native joint septic arthritis in the same joint. Patients were included in the study only if they were considered to have resolved their joint infection based on a preoperative evaluation that included: (1) the absence of clinical symptoms and signs of active infection or local joint inflammation, (2) recent plain radiographs showing only advanced degenerative changes without evidence of active osteolysis or bone infection, (3) preoperative laboratory investigations for infection, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and total leukocyte counts within normal ranges. Patients were reviewed for the occurrence of postoperative PJI. The final cohort included 62 patients who had a mean followup of 4.4 years (range, 3 months-17 years) from the time of TJA. A total of 21 patients (34%) had less than 2 years of followup, including six (10%) mortalities. In total, eight patients (13%) died during the study period, none of which were due to PJI. Patient characteristics, time interval from treatment of septic arthritis to TJA, and Charlson comorbidity index adjusted for age were collected. We used a Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate the overall survivorship among all TJAs as well as those who underwent THA versus TKA, and we performed a statistical comparison using the Mantel-Cox log-rank test. We performed a Cox regression hazard ratio (HR) survival analysis to identify risk factors for PJI. The PJI odds ratios (OR) for patients who underwent TJA within 2 years of septic arthritis were calculated as an additional temporal analysis. RESULTS: In patients with a history of treated same-joint native septic arthritis, the proportion of PJI was five of 62 patients (8%). The Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated an overall survivorship free from PJI of 92% at 14.5 ± 1.14 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.3-16.8 years). All PJI cases occurred only in patients who underwent TKA, which when analyzed separately, yielded a survivorship of 85% at 10.5 ± 0.9 years (95% CI = 8.7-12.3 years) versus 100% in patients who underwent THA (p = 0.068). Mean time to PJI occurrence was 10 months (range, 2-20 months). After controlling for relevant confounding variables, such as age, sex, affected joint and comorbidities, we found smoking (HR, 8.06; 95% CI, 1.33-48.67; p = 0.023) to be associated with increased risk for PJI development. CONCLUSION: Patients with history of native joint infections are at higher risk of PJI, especially smokers. Despite our limitations, this study suggests careful assessment of several other factors in these patients, including allowing a minimum interval of 2 years from the time of resolving native joint septic arthritis to TJA. Patients who are undergoing TKA seem to be more prone to the PJI risk and may benefit from more aggressive planning. In addition, medical optimization of comorbidities that may confer additional risk, such as diabetes, become exceptionally important in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

16.
Hand (N Y) ; : 1558944719831345, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a concern that patients may answer patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires differently depending on the purpose-clinical care or research (eg, "Hawthorne effect"). We sought to determine whether Patient-Reported Outcomes Management Information System (PROMIS) scores differ at the same clinic visit based on whether a patient was completing the PRO tool for study or clinical care purposes. METHODS: Patients presenting to one surgeon at an academic medical center hand clinic were asked to complete PROMIS Physical Function (PF) and Pain Interference (PI) questionnaires as part of routine care. Those diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome from February 2015 to April 2017 were then asked to participate in a clinical research project, which had them complete PROMIS PF and PROMIS PI again. Data from those who completed both routine and research PROs at each visit were compared. Between the 2 settings, test-retest reliability was determined using Pearson correlation coefficients ( r), and internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach α. RESULTS: A total of 128 unique office visits representing 67 patients fit our inclusion criteria. There was a strong correlation between PROMIS PF and PI in the research and patient care setting (PF: r = 0.82, P < .01; PI: r = 0.83, P < .01). Both domains had a Cronbach α of 0.90. The PROMIS PF scores were not different between the 2 groups ( P = .19), but the PROMIS PI scores were slightly different ( P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients appear to be consistent when completing PROMIS for both clinical care and research, supporting the idea that data obtained in either setting are generalizable and appropriate for research purposes.

17.
J Orthop ; 16(1): 45-48, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30662237

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the: 1) RVUs; 2) lengths-of-surgery; 3) RVU per minute between revision hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasties; and 4) perform an annualized surgeon cost analysis. Using the ACS-NSQIP from 2008 to 2015, 8081 revision TKAs, 7233 THAs were compared. Revision THA had greater mean RVUs (30.27 vs. 27.10 RVUs, p < 0.001), operative times (152 vs. 149 min, p < 0.001), and RVU/minute (0.3 vs. 0.2 RVUs per minute, p < 0.001). Cost analysis yielded and annual $89,922.73 difference. Revision THA, therefore, is reimbursed at a significantly higher "hourly rate," when compared to revision TKA.

18.
Surg Technol Int ; 34: 397-402, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472724

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Placental and amniotic membrane-based tissues have gained widespread popularity for their ability to promote healing and tissue regeneration and have manifested multiple applications in wound care, burn treatment, and management of various ocular conditions. Recently, there have been multiple studies that investigated the nonoperative uses of placental tissue-based products in orthopaedic sports injuries. However, there is a relative paucity of studies that have attempted to evaluate their adjuvant operative uses. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate the use of placental and amniotic tissue-based products as an adjuvant treatment to the operative management of orthopaedic sports injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed, EBSCO Host, EMBASE, and SCOPUS. Studies published between January 1, 2000 and June 1, 2018 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were that studies should have reported on: 1) operative uses of placental tissue matrix therapy in tendons and ligaments injuries; and 2) clinical outcomes; in 3) human subjects. In addition, the following studies were excluded: 1) animal studies; 2) basic science studies; 3) non-English language studies; 4) review studies; and 5) duplicate studies across databases. Additionally, to determine the various product compositions and indications for use, we searched publicly available manufacturer's website content, marketing literature, FDA registration documents, and Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services submissions to assess the key differences for each of the products. RESULTS: Current evidence has led to investigation of various placental and amniotic membrane products used as an adjuvant treatment to surgical reconstruction of various types of tendon injuries, with a demonstrated effectiveness found mostly in the short-term, with follow up ranging between five weeks and two years. In addition, their safety and minimal complication profile have been demonstrated. Marked differences exist among the currently available products due to variations in their formulations, tissue source, processing methodology, sterilization method, preservation and storage methods, indications for use, and FDA regulation. CONCLUSION: Operative uses of placental and amniotic membrane-derived tissues appear to be safe when utilized as an adjuvant or augmentation option along with surgical reconstruction. However, several factors may come into play when considering the diversity of commercially available products. Future clinical trials will need to confirm the safety and demonstrate clearer indications and specific guidelines for use in each clinical scenario involving operative management of tendon injuries. Nevertheless, this review will serve as an up-to-date reference and provide an impetus for future investigations.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/cirurgia , Curativos Biológicos , Placenta , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Traumatismos dos Tendões/fisiopatologia
19.
J Hand Surg Am ; 44(5): 366-373, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581054

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcomes are important to assess improvement after surgery. Common instruments for carpal tunnel syndrome include the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (CTQ). The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) are newer measures. We evaluated how the PROMIS Pain Interference (PI) and Upper Extremity (UE) scores change after carpal tunnel release. METHODS: All adult patients with carpal tunnel syndrome treated surgically were asked to participate in this prospective study. PROMIS instruments, MHQ, and CTQ were completed by 101 patients. Estimated means and standard errors were calculated, and piecewise linear fixed effects regression models were applied to the data. Standardized response means were calculated for each outcome measure. RESULTS: The MHQ Total Score did not show a considerable change from the preoperative to 1-week postoperative visit but improved from the 1-week to 3-month postoperative visit (55 to 80). The CTQ Functional Status Score (FSS) worsened from 2.3 preoperatively to 2.6 at the 1-week postoperative visit before improving through the 3-month postoperative visit (1.6). PROMIS UE showed responsiveness similar to the CTQ FSS with a decline at the 1-week visit, 38 to 33, followed by improvement (45 at 3 mo). However, the standardized response mean values were greater for the CTQ FSS compared with PROMIS UE. The average administration time was shortest for PROMIS UE. The CTQ Symptom Severity Scale and MHQ Pain Scores showed improvements as early as the 1-week visit. The CTQ Symptom Severity Scale improved from 3.1 to 2.3, and MHQ Pain Scores improved from 55 to 46. PROMIS PI did not change at the 1-week visit but improved at 6 weeks and 3 months, from 56 to 52 and 49. The standardized response means for PROMIS PI achieved a large effect size only at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The CTQ FSS is more responsive than PROMIS UE and the MHQ, with the CTQ FSS showing the largest effect sizes. PROMIS PI does not show the responsiveness seen in the CTQ Symptom Severity Scale and MHQ Pain Score. PROMIS instruments require less time to complete. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrates the change in PROMIS scores after carpal tunnel release and how they compare with legacy outcome instruments.

20.
J Arthroplasty ; 33(8): 2616-2622, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have shown that prolonged operative times can lead to an increased risk of complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), they only evaluated a few complications. It is also unclear whether a distinctive operative time exists after which complications increase. Therefore, this study was performed to (1) assess whether higher operative time increases the risk of complications within 30 days of TKA and (2) explore the relationship between operative time and various complications to identify possible operative times where complication rates increase. METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried from 2011 to 2015 to identify 140,199 primary TKAs. The effect of operative time (skin-to-skin) on various medical and surgical complications within 30 days was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Spline regression models were created to further study the relationship between operative time and complications. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding factors, longer operative times were associated with higher risks of readmission (P < .001), reoperation (P < .001), surgical site infection (P < .001), wound dehiscence (P < .001), and transfusion (P < .001). The majority of the complications demonstrated an increase throughout the range of operative time, with a slightly pronounced increase in the risk of complications when the operative time was longer than 80 minutes. CONCLUSION: Prolonged operative times were associated with an increased risk of a number of important complications such as readmissions, reoperations, surgical site infections, and wound complications. Based on our results, an operative time goal of less than 80 minutes is helpful for minimizing these complications after TKA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Duração da Cirurgia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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