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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMO

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431906

RESUMO

Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Romã (Fruta) , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499387

RESUMO

Two novel amphiphilic polyethylene amine terephthalate have been prepared via the glycolsis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The product, bis (2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate) (BHET), was converted to the corresponding dialkyl halide, bis(2-chloroethyl) terephthalate (BCET), using thionyl chloride (TC). This dialkyl compound was used for alkylation of dodecyl amine (DOA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) or pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) to form the corresponding polyethylene amine terephthalate, i.e., DOAT and DOAP, respectively. Their chemical structure, surface tension, interfacial tension (IFT), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were determined using different techniques. The efficiency of the prepared polyethylene amine terephthalate to demulsify water in heavy crude (W/O) emulsions was also determined and found to increase as their concentrations increased. Moreover, DOAT showed faster and higher efficiency, and cleaner separation than DOAP.


Assuntos
Petróleo/análise , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Aminas/síntese química , Aminas/química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Emulsões/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Micelas , Estrutura Molecular , Polietilenotereftalatos/síntese química , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tensão Superficial , Tensoativos/síntese química , Tensoativos/química , Águas Residuárias/química
4.
Malays J Pathol ; 42(1): 99-105, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Methanol is a widely available chemical with a range of uses including as solvent, as a fuel, in chemical synthesis and anti-freeze preparations. Most of the cases are accidental exposures to drinking beverages contaminated with methanol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In mid-September 2018, there was a single outbreak of methanol poisoning in Malaysia especially involving the state of Federal Territory Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. There were 33 reported deaths suspected due to methanol poisoning in this current outbreak where 11 of them were brought in to the Institute of Forensic Medicine (NIFM), Kuala Lumpur. The last outbreak was in the year 2013 with 29 deaths reported out of 44 cases. RESULTS: There were 3 cases (27.2%) died in hospital and the remaining 8 cases (72.8%) were found dead at home and were later brought in dead to the hospital. A full autopsy was carried out for each case. Autopsy findings, as well as lab results pertaining to cases that survived and directly brought in dead, were of a different spectrum. CONCLUSION: Methanol related deaths are almost always as a result of greed. The running truism is 'methanol poisoning is a result of deliberate addition/adulteration with industrial methanol'. Prevention of the illegal production of methanol and methylated spirits should be established to curb this matter in the future.


Assuntos
Metanol/envenenamento , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/epidemiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717813

RESUMO

The ionic crosslinked 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid-co-acrylic acid hydrogel, AMPS/AA and its Ag and Fe3O4 composites were synthesized using an in situ technique. The surface charge, particle sizes, morphology, and thermal stability of the prepared AMPS/AA-Ag and AMPS/AA-Fe3O4 composites were evaluated using different analytical techniques and their adsorption characteristics were evaluated to remove the methylene blue cationic dye, MB, from their aqueous solutions at optimum conditions. Also, the same monomers were used to synthesize AMPS/AA microgel and its Ag and Fe3O4 nanocomposites, which were synthesized using the same technique. The AMPS/AA-Fe3O4 nanocomposite was selected as conventional iron-supported catalyst due to the presence of both Fe(II) and Fe(III) species besides its magnetic properties that allow their easy, fast, and inexpensive separation from the aqueous solution. It was then evaluated as a heterogeneous catalyst for complete MB degradation from aqueous solution by heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. It achieved a high rate of degradation, degrading 100 mg L-1 of MB during a short time of 35 min as compared with the reported literature.


Assuntos
Azul de Metileno/química , Nanocompostos/química , Prata/química , Catálise , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Microgéis/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652612

RESUMO

A facile method for synthesis of environmentally friendly magnetite nanomaterials (MNMs) was applied using hydrophobic biocomponents as capping and stabilizing agents. The biocomponents were extracted from Matricaria aurea (MAE) and Ochradenus baccatus (OBE) and used for the surface modification of MNMs to increase their dispersion efficiency on the collection of heavy crude oil spills. Synthesized MNM samples (MAE-MNMs and OBE-MNMs) were verified using thermogravimetric analysis; Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy; dynamic light scattering, and vibrating-sample magnetometry. The application of these nanomaterials in the collection of oil spill showed that the MAE-MNMs and OBE-MNMs successfully collected 95% and 91% of the oil spill, respectively. These results support the potential use of these materials as eco-friendly composites for the successful collection of oil spills that might occur during offshore operations.

7.
Malays J Pathol ; 41(2): 177-183, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a known cause of major cardiovascular events and calcium score (CS) has been developed as a marker of coronary atherosclerosis. Yet, the relationship between post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) CS with histologically observed calcification and the severity of coronary artery stenosis has not been widely explored and is still unclear. This study aims to determine the association between coronary artery PMCT CS with histologically observed calcification and degree of stenosis of coronary arteries in post-mortem cases. MATERIALS & METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 101 subjects recruited from the National Institute of Forensic Medicine (IPFN) Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) over a period of 15 months, from December 2012 until April 2014. PMCT CS of the coronary arteries was calculated using Agatston-Janowitz score. Histological presence of calcification was observed and the degree of stenosis was calculated using an image analysis technique. RESULTS: PMCT CS increased with increasing severity of stenosis (p<0.001). PMCT CS showed a positive correlation with the presence of calcification (r=-0.82, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Calcium score is strongly associated with coronary artery calcification and the degree of luminal stenosis in post mortem subjects. Thus, PMCT may be useful as a non-invasive tool in diagnosing CAD in the event that an autopsy is not possible.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Adulto , Autopsia , Calcinose/patologia , Cálcio , Estenose Coronária/patologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 220: 117101, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150923

RESUMO

In this work, a new method for the preparation of ZnO hexagonal nanocrystals by using Sn(IV) as a catalyst was established, which resulted in tranformation of Porous to nanorod-like structures of ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersion X-ray analysis (EDX), and FT-IR measurements showed that all ZnO nanostructures were of hexagonal phase structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) studies revealed that morphology of porous-like ZnO (100-200 nm) was converted into nanorod-like (length ~2 µm, diameter ~80 nm) structures upon addition of Sn(IV) as a catalyst. Spectroscopic studies demonstrated that the Zinc(II) compound yields high-quality porous ZnO which upon addition of Sn(IV) catalyst changes into crystalline hexagonal nanorods. The band gap of ZnO nanoparticles calculated employing UV spectrum was found to be 3.31 eV. Moreover, the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation was performed, which confirmed higher photodegradation of hexagonal ZnO than porous ZnO nanostructures. Furthermore, DFT/TDDFT calculations of MB dye and the expected photodegradation product were also assessed, which were consistent with the kinetic studies. Additionally, zeta potential of the ZnO nanoparticles was measured in the dispersion medium of SDS surfactant which supported high stability of particles are in solution.

9.
Malays J Pathol ; 41(1): 51-54, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025638

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare event and commonly associated with pregnancy and female gender. This condition can reduce or completely obstruct the blood flow to the heart, causing a myocardial ischaemia, abnormalities in heart rhythm or sudden death. We present a case of a 28-year-old Indian male with no previous medical illness who complained sudden onset of chest pain prior to his death. Autopsy revealed a left anterior descending coronary artery dissection associated with plaque rupture. The anterior wall of left ventricle showed contraction band necrosis. There was also atheroma present in the right coronary artery which was insignificant. Histologically, dissection was associated with atherosclerosis. There was no evidence of vasculitis. The cause of death was given as coronary artery dissection due to coronary artery atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Adulto , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/mortalidade , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/patologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Vasculares/patologia
10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(2)2019 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717327

RESUMO

Superhydrophobic nanomaterials are promising in the important pursuit to alleviate the environmental pollution caused by the petroleum crude oil industry, especially to clean-up oil spills. In this work, asphaltenes isolated from crude oil were modified to act as capping agents during the synthesis of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (HSNPs). The chemical structure, surface morphology, particle size, and surfaces charge of HSNPs were investigated. The contact angles of water droplets on HSNP film surfaces were measured to investigate their wetting properties. Finally, superhydrophobic sand and polyurethane sponge were prepared by coating them with HSNPs and applied in the cleanup of oil spills of viscous heavy Arabian crude oil.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 127: 529-535, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654036

RESUMO

Anti-amyloidogenic activity of safranal towards induced HSA amyloids has been observed using a variety of techniques including fluorescence, UV-visible, CD, DLS and microscopies. The HSA solution was pre-incubated at 65 °C for 120 h and, in between, the growth of amyloid fibrils, using ThT aggregation kinetics, was monitored at different time intervals. It was found that the amyloid fibril formation of HSA diminishes in presence of safranal and the inhibition was concentration dependent. The surface hydrophobicity of HSA amyloid fibrils also decreased in presence of safranal. The increased CR binding of HSA fibrils also decreased and high concentration of safranal causes the CR binding to resemble like that of native HSA. Both RLS and turbidity intensities were also in inverse relation to the safranal concentration. Safranal also has a good impact to protect the secondary structure of incubated HSA. From the electron microscopy it was seen that the fibrillar network of HSA amyloids gradually vanishes as the concentration of safranal increased. The largely decreased population of HSA aggregates in safranal containing solution as compared to the one without it also suggests the inhibition of formation of large fibrillar aggregates.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Crocus/química , Cicloexenos/química , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Terpenos/química , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
12.
Trop Biomed ; 36(4): 845-849, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597456

RESUMO

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a relatively uncommon disease, but has been challenging to diagnose over the years. With the increasing incidence, variety of causative agents and the resistance of microorganisms towards antibiotics, there is still an occurrence of sudden death due to undiagnosed IE. The most common microorganism causing IE is Staphylococcus aureus. However, there is increasing prevalence of other microorganisms causing IE. This case report highlights a case of sudden death due to IE caused by a rare pathogen, Streptococcus constellatus which belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group (Milleri group). A study noted the crude incidence of IE in 6 world regions ranged between 1.5 and 11.6 cases per 100,000 people. To date, there has been no previous report on sudden death due to IE caused by Streptococcus constellatus in Malaysia, neither in the forensic nor clinical setting. This case report underlined the characteristics and pathological features of this microorganism. The increasing incidence and variety of causative organisms in IE are important public health issues. It is vital for future studies to examine the risk factors of IE related to Streptococcus constellatus, to enhance better understanding, insight and awareness regarding the course of this disease. This in turn may facilitate preventive measures to avoid morbidity and mortality from this condition.

13.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(10)2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347724

RESUMO

In this study, an easy, rapid and eco-friendly method was used successfully to synthesize the magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs). In order to fine-tune the synthesized MNPs for the collection of heavy crude oil spills, the particles' surface was modified with green hydrophobic biocomponents that were extracted from Anthemis pseudocotula (AP). The surface modified reaction carried with that of the MNPs in the presence of n-hexane extract (APH) resulted in the formation of APH-MNPs, while in the presence of chloroform extract (APC), resulted in APC-MNPs formation. The as-formed MNPs were thoroughly characterized using transmittance electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and thermogravimetric analysis. The efficiency of the surface-modified MNPs for the collection of oil spills in the presence of an external magnetic field was evaluated by taking different ratios of MNPs:crude oil. From the analysis of the results, we found that the APH-MNPs particles have higher efficiency in the collection of heavy crude oil than the corresponding APC-MNPs.

15.
R Soc Open Sci ; 5(3): 171430, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657757

RESUMO

The theme of this work is to highlight the significance of green plant extracts in the synthesis of nanostructures. In asserting this statement, herein, we report our obtained results on the synthesis of hexagonal CdSe nanorods preferably oriented along (0002) plane through henna leaf extract-mediated reaction along with a discussion about the structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanorods. The possible mechanism for the synthesis of CdSe nanorods was explored. The formation of nanorods along (0002) plane was confirmed by the relatively high intensity of the (0002) peak in X-ray diffraction pattern. To account for the experimentally realistic condition, we have calculated the surface energies of hexagonal CdSe surface slabs along the low indexed (0002), [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] plane surfaces using density functional theory approach and the calculated surface energy value for (0002) surface is 802.7 mJ m-2, which is higher than [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] surfaces. On realizing the calculated surface energies of these slabs, we determined that the combination of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] planes with lower surface energies will lead to the formation of CdSe nanorods growth along (0002) orientation. Finally, we argue that the design of new greener route for the synthesis of novel functional nanomaterials is highly desired.

16.
Malays J Pathol ; 38(1): 1-10, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27126658

RESUMO

A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of the people; and overwhelms the capacity of the community to cope with the event. The recent tragic aviation accidents in 2014 involving Malaysia Airlines flights MH370 and MH17 shocked the world in an unprecedented manner. This paper focuses on the Malaysian experience in the MH17 mission in Ukraine as well as the first ever international Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) operation for the Malaysian DVI team. The DVI operations in Hilversum, the Netherlands were well described in stages. The Netherlands' Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing as the lead DVI team in Hilversum operated systematically, ensuring the success of the whole mission. This paper discusses the lessons learned by the Malaysian team on proper DVI structure, inter- and intra-agency cooperation, facilities planning and set up, logistics and health and safety aspects, as well as effective communication and collaboration with other international delegates. Several issues and challenges faced by the Malaysian team were also documented. In addition, the authors shared views, opinions and recommendations for a more comprehensive DVI operation in the future.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Agências Internacionais , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Autopsia , Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Antropologia Forense/organização & administração , Medicina Legal/organização & administração , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Agências Internacionais/organização & administração , Cooperação Internacional , Malásia , Países Baixos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Ucrânia
17.
Malays J Pathol ; 36(3): 213-6, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25500522

RESUMO

Ruptured dissecting aortic aneurysm more commonly occur in men in the 40 to 70 age group, and most commonly is associated with atherosclerosis. Uncommon causes are previous heart surgery, connective tissue disorders and aortitis. Despite its rarity, Clostridium spp aortitis progresses very rapidly with a mortality rate of approximately 79% in adults, typically occurring within 48 hours of infection. We present a case of sudden death due to clostridial aortitis causing ruptured aortic dissection in an apparently healthy adult female, 7 weeks post-spontaneous vaginal delivery. This case highlights the pathology of aortic dissection and cystic media necrosis as presentations of clostridium spp infection in young female adult.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/microbiologia , Ruptura Aórtica/microbiologia , Aortite/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Adolescente , Morte Súbita , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 41(7): 1225-9, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19225903

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, an infection caused by Toxoplasma (T.) gondii Apicomplexa protozoan, is widespread in humans and other animal species, having already been reported in many countries and different climates. In Pakistan, no data is available on this aspect among food animals. This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats. A total of 200 serum samples from sheep and goats, were collected from urban area of Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab), Pakistan and tested for Toxoplasmosis with a commercial latex agglutination kit (Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd. Japan). The overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis was 19%. Goats had a significantly higher (p < 0.01) prevalence (25.4%) as compared to the sheep (11.2%); and higher (p < 0.01) in the female (24%) than in the males (19%) for both species. In the present study the male (both in sheep and goat) are found less seropositive T. gondii (OR = 0.23; 99% C.I. = 0.01, 1.81) as compared to female sheep and goat. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in adult sheep than younger animals. Among both the sheep and goats the group from 1-1.5 years are highly seropositive (OR = 1.75; 99% C.I. = 0.47, 6.51) as compared to the group less than one year of age followed by the 2-2.5 years age group (OR = 1.63; 99% C.I. = 0.50, 5.74) whereas group with more than 3 years of age least seropositive.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Cabras , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
19.
Vaccine ; 25(44): 7629-35, 2007 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17913306

RESUMO

The efficacy of different doses of oral DNA vaccines carrying VP2 gene of vvIBDV delivered by E. coli DH5alpha was studied and compared with purified VP2 recombinant expression plasmid DNA vaccine injected intradermally and whole virus vaccine either from homologous virus or from commercial source. The recombinant plasmid pRc-VP2 was transformed in a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli, the DH5alpha and designated as EC/pRC-VP2. Oral immunization of maternal antibody free broiler chickens at 7 and 14-day-old with different dosages of EC/pRc-VP2 elicited specific humoral immune response as measured by ELISA. Protection in different groups was calculated through clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions, bursa of Fabricius to body weight ratio, humoral and cellular immune responses and mortality in the chickens. Vaccination with EC/pRc-VP2 at the dose rate of 10(9)CFU per chicken conferred 95.4% protection of the chickens against the challenge with homologous virulent field strain of vvIBDV. Protection afforded by attenuated vero cell adapted UAF-06 strain of vvIBDV was comparable (94%) to that by EC/pRc-VP2 and pRc-VP2 vaccines, which was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the protection provided by a commercial attenuated IBDV stain D-78 vaccine (D-78 vaccine was used as positive control due to its frequent use in the field for vaccination of poultry chickens) and other control groups in the study. The results revealed that DNA vaccines against IBDV may be successfully done by adopting bacterial-vectored oral delivery system and vaccination with homologous vvIBDV (UAF-06) conferred significantly higher protection as compared with imported non-homologous commercial IBDV vaccine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas/virologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Birnaviridae/prevenção & controle , Galinhas/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Plasmídeos , Vacinação , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/imunologia
20.
Vaccine ; 24(22): 4838-46, 2006 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16600440

RESUMO

In the present study the efficacy of recombinant plasmids DNA vaccine encoding VP2 gene of very virulent strain of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolated from Pakistan was investigated with or without coadministration of cytocine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) to protect the chickens against the disease. VP2 gene of vvIBDV was successfully amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and was cloned into eukaryotic expression plasmid vector, which consisted of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early enhancer and promoter, adenopartite leader sequences and SV-40 polyadenylation signal, and this was designated as pRc-VP2. Seven-day-old maternal antibodies free chickens were intramuscularly injected with 500 microg of pRc-VP2 with or without CpG ODN twice at 1-week interval. At the age of 21 days the broiler chickens were challenged with 10(5) EID(50) of homologous strain of IBDV and observed for 14 days post-challenge. Immunization with pRc-VP2 plus CpG ODN conferred protection in 93% of the chickens as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, atrophy of bursa of Fabricius (BF) and mortality followed by the group vaccinated with attenuated IBD vaccine and boosted with killed oil based IBDV vaccine, which conferred 90% protection. The protection of chickens injected with pRc-VP2 alone was 67% where as only 20% of the chickens in the negative control group were protected. However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titre in the group vaccinated with pRc-VP2 plus CpG ODN were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the group vaccinated with pRc-VP2 alone as well as the group vaccinated with commercial attenuated IBDV vaccine boosted with commercial oil adjuvanted killed IBDV vaccine. Responsiveness to a mitogenic lectin, phytoheamagglutinin-P was significantly reduced in group immunized with conventional vaccines (live boosted with killed) as compared to all the other groups (P<0.05). The results revealed that co-administration of recombinant plasmids with CpG ODN could protect chickens efficiently from IBDV challenge.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Birnaviridae/prevenção & controle , Peso Corporal , Ativação Linfocitária , Plasmídeos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
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