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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238673, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153461

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238953, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153478

RESUMO

Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados ​​pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados ​​foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037080

RESUMO

Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729385

RESUMO

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Verduras , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Solo
7.
JBJS Case Connect ; 10(3): e1900480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910575

RESUMO

CASE: Two patients presenting to the clinic with midfoot pain were found to have pathologic fractures through chondroblastomas of the navicular bone. Patient 1 was a 15-year-old boy who experienced multiple recurrences despite more aggressive interventions. Patient 2 was a 13-year-old boy who experienced full recovery after lesion resection. CONCLUSION: Navicular chondroblastoma is a rare site of presentation, with only 3 documented cases. Given the potential aggressive nature of these lesions with significant cortical destruction and soft-tissue extension, the navicular represents a difficult anatomic location to manage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Condroblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Ossos do Tarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Transplante Ósseo , Condroblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Reoperação , Ossos do Tarso/cirurgia
8.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 40(10): e932-e935, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractures are one of the most common presentations of child abuse second only to soft tissue damage, with ∼60% of fractures being femur, humerus or tibia fractures. Although studies have shown increased health care costs associated with nonaccidental trauma (NAT), there is little data regarding the cost of NAT-associated fractures compared with accidental trauma (AT) related fractures. The purpose of this study was to consider the economic burden of NAT related femoral fractures compared with AT femoral fractures. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of children under the age of one with femoral fractures treated with a spica cast at a Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center between 2007 and 2016. Variables included age, sex, length of hospital stay, and estimated total billing cost obtained from this hospital's billing department. In addition, fracture site (mid-shaft, distal, proximal, and subtrochanteric) and pattern were assessed. RESULTS: Sixty children with a mean age of 7 months were analyzed. NAT was suspected in 19 cases (31.7%) and confirmed in 9 (15%) before discharge. Two groups were analyzed: the NAT group included suspected and confirmed cases of abuse (28) and the AT group contained the remaining 32 cases. There was no significant difference in the demographics between these 2 groups. Children in NAT group had a longer length of stay compared with AT group (78.9 vs. 36.7 h, P<0.001). Overall consumer price index-adjusted hospital costs were $24,726 higher for NAT group compared with AT group (P=0.024), with costs of laboratory workup, radiology, and nonorthopaedic physician fees being the top 3 components contributing to the increased costs. CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of NAT was 46.6% in children presenting with femoral fracture under 1 year of age. The overall hospital cost of treating fractures in the NAT group was 1.5 times higher than the AT group, with imaging charges the most significant contributor to cost difference. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective review.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Criança Espancada/economia , Síndrome da Criança Espancada/terapia , Fraturas do Fêmur/economia , Fraturas do Fêmur/terapia , Moldes Cirúrgicos/economia , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Feminino , Fêmur , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Hospitalares , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Radiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
10.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(3): 913-924, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127771

RESUMO

The current research aims to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of Pleurotus pulmonarius, an edible basidiomycetes mushroom fungi in diabetic induced wistar albino rats. Mycelial Hot Water Extracts (HWE) and Acetone Extracts (AE) of Pleurotus pulmonarius was orally administrated to STZ-NA induced (55 mg/kilogram body weight) diabetic wistar albino rats at a concentration of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The outcomes revealed that the HWE of Pleurotus pulmonarius resulted in a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in blood glucose level. A noteworthy (p < 0.001) reduction in serum lipid profile and elevation in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) after administration with HWE, also demonstrating the protective effects of HWE in diabetes-related complications. Besides all antidiabetic parameters, pathological morphology of the pancreas, liver and kidney are regularised. This observation indicated that HWE of Pleurotus pulmonarius possessed higher antidiabetic activity than AE. Besides, HWE also promoted a significant control of alpha amylase enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum activity of 99.23% inhibition at 1000 µg/ml. The outcomes of the present study indicated that the HWE possesses a potential antidiabetic activity both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, it can be used as a nontoxic complementary drug in the controlling of diabetes and related complications, thus providing scientific authentication of its use as an antidiabetic agent.

11.
J Pediatr Orthop B ; 29(1): 40-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425335

RESUMO

Distal femur physeal fractures are known to have a high incidence of complications. Our previous reported experience (pre-2007) showed a 40% complication risk, which prompted changes in our approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the complication rate and outcome after implementation of these changes. This is a retrospective study of children with distal femur physeal fractures treated at a level 1 pediatric trauma center between 2007 and 2016. Patient demographics, fracture patterns, treatment and outcomes including complications and its risk factors were recorded and analyzed. We compared current results with our previously reported multicenter cohort (n = 73). Patients were male in majority (57/70) with a mean age of 13 ± 4 years. Fractures were most commonly Salter-Harris Type 2 (49/70) and displaced (59/70) on presentation, although neither characteristic was associated with complications. Most patients (63/70) were treated surgically, and the overall complication incidence was 36% (25/70), including growth arrest in 20 patients. The pre-2007 cohort was statistically significantly younger (P < 0.001) and was more commonly treated nonoperatively (P < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in complication incidence between studies (36% versus 40%, respectively, P = 0.751). Despite a lower threshold for surgery for distal femur physeal fractures in the past decade, the complication rate is still high and unchanged at 40%, and presenting patients are older. There were no new prognostic factors that showed statistically significant association with subsequent complications; however, patients with high-energy injury mechanisms and greater fracture displacements did have higher complication rates. These results demonstrate the inherent high complication risk for these injuries. Level of Evidence: III.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Toxicol Rep ; 6: 401-408, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080748

RESUMO

Chronic excessive alcohol consumption could induce serious liver injury. In this study, therapeutic effect of aqueous methanol extract of Bombax ceiba L. flowers (BCE) (Family: Bombacaceae) was investigated against hepatic steatosis. This study included seven groups, and the research period was eight weeks. The first group served as control. The six remaining groups were divided into two categories, three groups in each. The first category was fed fat diet. The second category was fed fat diet and orally administrated ethanol, which was given in graduate doses from 2 g/kg/d to 6 g/kg/d. Then, one group from each category was orally treated with the standard drug fluvastatin (2 mg/Kg/d). Another group was orally treated with BCE (200 mg/kg/d). The third group left untreated. The results revealed that BCE significantly decrease both the body and liver weight. The treatment with BCE extract also ameliorates the effect of alcohol induced increase of liver enzyme activities. In addition, the extract was significantly increased hepatic liver antioxidants and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Also, serum lipid profiles: triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly decreased after BCE treatment. Histopathological study showed fatty changes induced by alcohol which were improved by BCE treatment. These data suggest that the BCE has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-steatosis potential properties against alcohol induced liver damage. This may be due to the presence of flavonoids and other phenol compounds.

13.
Public Health ; 138: 127-37, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27289258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of healthcare staff regarding pharmaceutical waste management; and to determine the impact of an educational programme on the KAP survey items. DESIGN: Pre-post-test intervention study. METHODS: The pre-intervention phase was performed using a sample of 530 out of 1500 healthcare workers. A predesigned interview questionnaire was used to assess KAP. Next, an educational programme was designed and offered to a subsample of 69 healthcare workers. KAP were re-assessed for the programme attendees using the same interview questionnaire, both immediately (post-test) and six months after the end of the programme (follow-up test). The parametric paired sample t-test was used to assess the difference between pre-test and follow-up test results. RESULTS: Poor knowledge and poor practice levels (scores 50%) detected in the pre-intervention phase were found to improve to satisfactory levels (scores ≥75%) in the follow-up phase. Attitude was found to be positive (score ≥75%) in all phases of the study. CONCLUSION: The educational programme led to a significant improvement in KAP of healthcare staff regarding pharmaceutical waste management (P<0.001).


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol ; 43(2): 429-46, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24260822

RESUMO

A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Cats are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva (e.g., bites or contaminated scratches), feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although cats have been implicated in transmission of zoonosis to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with cats is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions. There is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households with individuals at higher risk of infection, and to educate future veterinarians during their early years in veterinary school about the risks associated with their future jobs. Also, zoonotic disease awareness training is a valuable service to animal shelter workers.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Zoonoses , Microbiologia do Ar , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Gatos , Egito/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol ; 42(2): 417-30, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23214219

RESUMO

Entomophobia or acarophobia, parasitic dermatophobia (PD) or delusional parasitosis (DP) is a disorder in which affected individuals has the mistaken but unshakable belief (delusion) that they are infected by insects, spiders, scorpion, ticks, mites, parasitic worms, bacteria, or other living organisms. As with all delusions, this belief cannot be corrected by reasoning, persuasion, or logical argument. To avoid them, they may always be cleaning rooms, floors, doors, windows and scratching. Many affected individuals are quite functional; for the minority, delusions of parasitic infection may interfere with usual activities. However, most insects are not harmful to humans and pose no threat, those who suffer with this phobia experience extreme anxiety at the mere thought or sight of an insect. Most patients consult dermatologists, veterinarians, pest control specialists, or entomologists. The DP cases are increasing worldwide; it remains an extremely unrepeatable disorder.


Assuntos
Delusões/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Delusões/diagnóstico , Delusões/psicologia , Delusões/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia
16.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol ; 41(2): 327-36, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21980771

RESUMO

Dicrocoeliasis (Lancet liver fluke disease) is caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a trematode living in bile ducts of sheep, cattle and other mammals including man. Human infection is asymptomatic or mild to moderately severe, but being sporadic or rarely reported. This paper reported zoonotic dicrocoeliasis dendriticum among a farmer's family and his domestic animals. The father and mother were successfully treated with Triclabendazole and the children and animals were successfully treated with Mirazid and Oleo-resin solution of Commiphora molmol respectively.


Assuntos
Dicrocelíase/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Búfalos , Commiphora/química , Dicrocelíase/tratamento farmacológico , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Equidae , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Resinas Vegetais , Ovinos , Triclabendazol
17.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol ; 37(1): 143-50, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17580574

RESUMO

This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly pathogenic Entamoeba sp. (E. histolytica), in patients attending three hospitals in Jeddah City, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital and King Fahad Hospital for gastro-intestinal troubles. 186 stool specimens were examined microscopically for parasites and by ELISA kit (E. histolytica II) for true E. histolytica. 83 samples (44.6%) were positive by microscopy for at least one parasite. Of which, 23 (12.4%) showed two parasites and 15 (8.1%) three parasites. Eight different parasite species were identified. The most prevalent were E. histolytica/dispar (n = 26, 31.3%) and Giardia lamblia (n = 13, 15.7%). Others were Blastocytosis hominis (n = 12, 14.5%), Entamoeba coli (n = 11, 13.3%), Trichuris trichuria (n = 8, 9.6%), Endolymax nana (n = 6, 7.2%), Hymenolepes nana (n = 4, 4.8%) and Chilomastix mesnili (n = 3, 3.6%). Only five stool samples (19%) from those identified by microscopy to contain E. histolytica/dispar, were E. histolytica positive by E. histolytica II ELISA. For the first time to the authors' knowledge the true prevalence of E. histolytica in Saudi Arabia was 2.7%. E. histolytica II ELISA proved to be a highly useful technique to differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from non pathogenic E. dispar.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Entamoeba histolytica/imunologia , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol ; 36(2): 655-72, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16927875

RESUMO

Ninety Egyptian patients were classified into 7 groups, 6 with different parasitic infection and 10 normal controls. Forty patients with different schistosomiasis stages (1, 2 & 3) with compensated but the last one (stage 4) of decompansated schistosomiasis. Gs3 & 4 of mixed infections with schistosomiasis and HCV & HBV respectively. The last 3 patients groups were infected with toxoplasmosis, filariasis and hymenolepiasis nana. IL2, IL4 & Ig E levels were measured. The results showed significant increase in IL2 (P < 0.05), (P < 0.01), P < 0.01) & (P < 0.001) among stages (1, 2, 3 & 4) versus control respectively. In chronic schistosomiasis with HCV & HBV, significance was P = < 0.001 & P < 0.05 respectively, among toxoplasmosis, filariasis and hymenolepiasis patients, it was P = < 0.001, 0.05 & 0.01 respectively. The IL 4 level showed highly significant increase (P< 0.001) among stage 1, 2, Gs 2, 3 & 6. There was significant increase (P < 0.01) with stage 3 in Gs 4 & 5 but, without significance (P > 0.05) increased in decompensate schistosomiasis patients. IgE level and test of significance versus controls were given and results were discussed.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Doenças Parasitárias/sangue , Doenças Parasitárias/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite/complicações , Hepatite/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Masculino , Esquistossomose/sangue , Esquistossomose/complicações , Esquistossomose/imunologia
19.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol ; 36(1): 113-26, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16605105

RESUMO

House dust mites are common inhalant allergens, which can precipitate atopic disease episodes. The present study revealed presence of four mites. These are Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Acheles gracilis and Ornithonyssus bacoti. Population densities of different live adult mites were investigated in different house habitats. In urban houses, pyroglyphid mites were the predominant in bedrooms and D. farinae was the most abundant. A. gracilis was more abundant in living rooms followed by D. farinae then D. pteronyssinus. A. gracilis was the most prevalent in kitchens. While in rural houses, O. bacoti was the most abundant species followed by pyroglyphid mites. Since Dermatophagoides species and A. gracilis were present in numbers high enough to allow their ecological consideration, their seasonal abundance in urban bed-rooms was investigated and revealed that both D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus have two peaks of abundance, one slightly higher in spring and the second in autumn. A. gracilis has two peaks but the higher occurred in autumn and the second in spring.


Assuntos
Habitação , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pyroglyphidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dermatophagoides farinae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Egito , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , População Rural , Estações do Ano , População Urbana
20.
J Egypt Soc Parasitol ; 35(3 Suppl): 1199-207, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16363294

RESUMO

Animal fascioliasis has been reported in Saudi Arabia among imported and local sheep. The paper demonstrated the parasitological and clinical features of human fascioliasis in nine out of ten male immigrant manual workers with manifestations suggesting fascioliasis. The sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques proved effect in diagnosing Fasciola species eggs in human stool. The common clinical features were abdominal distension, flatulence, tender right-upper quadrant and easy fatigability and the least was the tinge of jaundice. Others as right upper quadrant pains, colicky abdominal pains & vomiting, epi-gastric pain and mild fever, and tympanitic abdomen were encountered. Anaemia and eosinophlia were also encountered in the ten patients. Fascioliasis patients (nine) were successfully treated with Mirazid as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days. Follow-up clinically and parasitologically was available in only seven fascioliasis patients who were completely cured. Follow-up for the other two fascioliasis patients was out in hand. Other parasites recovered in the stained (eosin, iodine and Zeihl-Nelson stains) smear stool samples was Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Besides, three were free from intestinal protozoan. The results were discussed on the light of the other work carried out regionally.


Assuntos
Fasciola/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Emigração e Imigração , Fasciolíase/sangue , Fasciolíase/tratamento farmacológico , Fasciolíase/urina , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Arábia Saudita
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