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Chem Biol Interact ; 347: 109617, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391751


PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of Dapagliflozin (Dapa) cardioprotection against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Structural and functional changes in the heart as well as decrease of erythropoietin (EPO) levels were reported in DCM. EPO simultaneously activates three pathways: the Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK2/STAT5), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt), and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK/MAPK) cascades, that result in proliferation and differentiation of cardiac cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: DCM was induced by a high fat diet for 10 weeks followed by administration of streptozotocin. After confirmation of diabetes, rats were divided randomly to 5 groups: Group 1; normal control group, Group 2; untreated diabetic group and Groups (3-5); diabetic groups received Dapa daily (0.75 mg, 1.5 or 3 mg/Kg, p.o) respectively for a month. At the end of the experiment, full anaesthesia was induced in all rats using ether inhalation and ECG was recorded. Blood samples were collected then rats were sacrificed and their heart were dissected out and processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Untreated diabetic rats showed abnormal ECG pattern, elevation of serum cardiac enzymes, decrease EPO levels, downregulation of P-Akt, P-JAK2 and pMAPK pathways, abnormal histological structure of the heart and increase immunostaining intensity of P53 and TNF α in the cardiomyocytes. Dapa in a dose dependent manner attenuated the alterations in the previously mentioned parameters. CONCLUSION: The cardioprotective effect of Dapa could be mediated by increasing EPO levels and activation of P-Akt, P-JAK2 and pMAPK signalling cascades which in turn decrease apoptosis.

Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoetina/sangue , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
Eur Heart J ; 37(24): 1910-9, 2016 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147610


BACKGROUND: Microvascular obstruction (MVO) following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) contributes to infarct expansion, left ventricular (LV) remodelling, and worse clinical outcomes. The REFLO-STEMI trial tested whether intra-coronary (IC) high-dose adenosine or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) reduce infarct size and/or MVO determined by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: REFLO-STEMI, a prospective, open-label, multi-centre trial with blinded endpoints, randomized (1:1:1) 247 STEMI patients with single vessel disease presenting within 6 h of symptom onset to IC adenosine (2-3 mg total) or SNP (500 µg total) immediately following thrombectomy and again following stenting, or to standard PPCI. The primary endpoint was infarct size % LV mass (%LVM) on CMR undertaken 24-96 h after PPCI (n = 197). Clinical follow-up was to 6 months. There was no significant difference in infarct size (%LVM, median, interquartile range, IQR) between adenosine (10.1, 4.7-16.2), SNP (10.0, 4.2-15.8), and control (8.3, 1.9-14.0), P = 0.062 and P = 0.160, respectively, vs. CONTROL: MVO (% LVM, median, IQR) was similar across groups (1.0, 0.0-3.7, P = 0.205 and 0.6, 0.0-2.4, P = 0.244 for adenosine and SNP, respectively, vs. control 0.3, 0.0-2.8). On per-protocol analysis, infarct size (%LV mass, 12.0 vs. 8.3, P = 0.031), major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio, HR, 5.39 [1.18-24.60], P = 0.04) at 30 days and 6 months (HR 6.53 [1.46-29.2], P = 0.01) were increased and ejection fraction reduced (42.5 ± 7.2% vs. 45.7 ± 8.0%, P = 0.027) in adenosine-treated patients compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose IC adenosine and SNP during PPCI did not reduce infarct size or MVO measured by CMR. Furthermore, adenosine may adversely affect mid-term clinical outcome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT01747174;

Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Prospectivos , Trombectomia , Resultado do Tratamento
Trials ; 15: 371, 2014 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25252600


BACKGROUND: Microvascular obstruction (MVO) secondary to ischaemic-reperfusion injury is an important but underappreciated determinant of short- and longer-term outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Several small studies have demonstrated a reduction in the degree of MVO utilising a variety of vasoactive agents, with adenosine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) being most evaluated. However, the evidence base remains weak as the trials have had variable endpoints, differing drug doses and delivery. As such, the results regarding benefit are conflicting. METHODS: The REperfusion Facilitated by LOcal adjunctive therapy in STEMI (REFLO-STEMI) trial is a multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled, open label, study with blinded endpoint analysis: Patients presenting within 6 h of onset of STEMI and undergoing planned primary PCI (P-PCI) with TIMI 0/1 flow in the infarct-related artery (IRA) and no significant bystander coronary artery disease on angiography, are randomised into one of three groups: PCI with adjunctive pharmacotherapy (intracoronary adenosine or SNP) or control (standard PCI). All receive Bivalirudin anticoagulation and thrombus aspiration. The primary outcome is infarct size (IS) (determined as a percentage of total left ventricular mass) measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) undertaken at 48 to 72 h post P-PCI. Secondary outcome measures include MVO (hypoenhancement within infarct core) on CMRI, angiographic markers of microvascular perfusion and MACE during 1-month follow-up. The study aims to recruit 240 patients (powered at 80% to detect a 5% absolute reduction in IS). DISCUSSION: The REFLO-STEMI study has been designed to address the weaknesses of previous trials, which have collectively failed to demonstrate whether adjunctive pharmacotherapy with adenosine and/or SNP can reduce measures of myocardial injury (infarct size and MVO) and improve clinical outcome, despite good basic evidence that they have the potential to attenuate this process. The REFLO-STEMI study will be the most scientifically robust trial to date evaluating whether adjunctive therapy (intracoronary adenosine or SNP following thrombus aspiration) reduces CMRI measured IS and MVO in patients undergoing P-PCI within 6 h of onset of STEMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registered 20th November 2012: Identifier NCT01747174.

Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Nitroprussiato/administração & dosagem , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Adenosina/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio , Nitroprussiato/efeitos adversos , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/diagnóstico , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/etiologia , Fenômeno de não Refluxo/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/diagnóstico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos