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1.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388637

RESUMO

Several risk factors like obesity and hyperlipidemia were described for endometrial cancer. Here, the nuclear NAD-dependent histone-deacetylase Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) seems to be important. SIRT1 is also involved in cell regulatory mechanisms and can serve as tumor promotor or suppressor. Its role in tumor biology is not clear yet. In this study, we evaluated and correlated the SIRT1 expression with patients' tumor characteristics in endometrioid and clear-cell cancer of the uterus. 65 paraffin-embedded samples of patients with endometrial and clear-cell cancer of the uterus were immunohistochemically stained and SIRT1 expression was evaluated by immunoreactive score. The results were correlated to clinical and pathological tumor characteristics as well as to the expression of ARID1A and ß-Catenin. The staining was significantly more intensive in uterine endometrioid carcinoma compared to uterine clear-cell carcinoma (p = 0.007). The expression of SIRT1 correlated significantly with the membranous expression of ß-Catenin (p = 0.028) and ARID1A (p = 0.021). Patients with positive Sirtuin1 expression had a significantly better progression-free survival (p = 0.042), the overall survival showed a trend towards a better prognosis (p = 0.070). SIRT1 expression seems to be associated with improved progression-free survival in uterine cancer (endometrioid and clear-cell) and is correlated to the tumor suppressors ß-Catenin and ARID1A. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of SIRT1 in uterine and ovarian cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target.

2.
Cells ; 9(5)2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429133

RESUMO

Multi drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) expression on tumor cells has been widely investigated in context of drug resistance. However, the role of MDR1 on the immune cell infiltrate of solid tumors remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of a MDR1+ immune cell infiltrate in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to identify the MDR1+ leucocyte subpopulation. MDR1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 156 EOC samples. In addition to MDR1+ cancer cells, we detected a MDR1+ leucocyte infiltrate (high infiltrate >4 leucocytes per field of view). Correlations and survival analyses were calculated. To identify immune cell subpopulations immunofluorescence double staining was performed. The MDR1+ leucocyte infiltrate was associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (cc = 0.258, p = 0.005) and tumor-associated mucin 1 (TA-MUC1) (cc = 0.202, p = 0.022) expression on cancer cells. A high MDR1+ leucocyte infiltrate was associated with impaired survival, especially in patients whose carcinoma showed either serous histology (median OS 28.80 vs. 50.64 months, p = 0.027, n = 91) or TA-MUC1 expression (median OS 30.60 vs. 63.36 months, p = 0.015, n = 110). Similar findings for PFS suggest an influence of MDR1+ immune cells on the development of chemoresistance. A Cox regression analysis confirmed the independency of a high MDR1+ leucocyte infiltrate as prognostic factor. M2 macrophages were identified as main part of the MDR1+ leucocyte infiltrate expressing MDR1 as well as the M2 marker CD163 and the pan-macrophage marker CD68. Infiltration of MDR1+ leucocytes, mostly M2 macrophages, is associated with poor prognosis of EOC patients. Further understanding of the interaction of M2 macrophages, MDR1 and TA-MUC1 appears to be a key aspect to overcome chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244351

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common pregnancy-associated metabolic disorder that negatively impacts on the health of both mothers and their offspring in the long-term. The molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. As in other states of insulin resistance, a disproportionate immune response in GDM leads to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Galectin-2 exerts regulatory effects on different immune cells. This study investigated galectin-2 expression in the placenta of 40 GDM patients and 40 controls, in a sex-specific manner. Immunohistochemistry was used for semi-quantitative analysis of expression strength. The phenotypes of galectin-2 expressing cells were characterized through double immunofluorescence. We found a significant up-regulation of galectin-2 in the fetal syncytiotrophoblast, as well as in the maternal decidua of GDM placentas. Double staining showed a strong galectin-2 expression in extra villous trophoblast cells and fetal endothelial cells in GDM. These findings present the first systematic investigation of galectin-2 in GDM. The findings contribute to the emerging understanding of the role of immunomodulation and inflammation in GDM and of galectin-2 itself. This might also have implications for the long-term cardiovascular health of the offspring.

4.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(5): 1267-1274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277253

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although thrombocytosis in patients with primary ovarian cancer has been widely investigated, there are only very few data about the role of thrombocytosis in recurrent ovarian cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment thrombocytosis prior to chemotherapy on clinical outcome in patients with recurrent platinum eligible ovarian cancer. METHODS: In our retrospective analysis we included 300 patients who were treated by AGO Study Group Centers within three prospective, randomized phase-III-trials. All patients included had been treatment-free for at least 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy. We excluded patients who underwent secondary cytoreductive surgery before randomization to the trial. Thrombocytosis was defined as a platelet count of ≥ 400⋅109/L. RESULTS: Pretreatment thrombocytosis was present in 37 out of 300 (12.3%) patients. Patients with thrombocytosis responded statistically significantly less to chemotherapy (overall response rate 35.3% and 41.6%, P = 0.046). The median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with thrombocytosis was 6.36 months compared to 9.00 months for patients without thrombocytosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-1.69, P = 0.336). Median overall survival (OS) of patients with thrombocytosis was 16.33 months compared to 23.92 months of patients with a normal platelet count (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.00-2.14, P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis suggests that pretreatment thrombocytosis is associated with unfavorable outcome with regard to response to chemotherapy and overall survival in recurrent ovarian cancer.

5.
J Reprod Immunol ; 139: 103124, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the sex specific expression of histone protein modifications responsible for rapid gene expression in IUGR placentas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We screened for fetal sex-specific expression of the histone proteins H3K4me3 and H3K9ac in 23 IUGR and 40 control placentas via immunohistochemistry. The trophoblast-like cell line BeWo was used in order to analyze a potential effect of stimulation with prednisolone on H3K4me3 and H3K9ac in vitro. Calculating regression models with additional adjustment for potential confounders were used. RESULTS: A significantly decreased level of H3K4me3 was detectable in female syncytiotrophoblasts, whereas H3K9ac was reduced predominantly in male extravillous throphoblast (EVT). No association to the gestational age existed. CONCLUSION: Our data showed a reduced expression of the histone proteins H3K4me3 (female) and H3K9ac (male) in IUGR, furthermore elevated cortisol levels may lead to a sex-specific down-regulation of histone proteins in IUGR placentas.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(5): 699-709, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: State-of-the art therapy for recurrent ovarian cancer suitable for platinum-based re-treatment includes bevacizumab-containing combinations (eg, bevacizumab combined with carboplatin-paclitaxel or carboplatin-gemcitabine) or the most active non-bevacizumab regimen: carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. The aim of this head-to-head trial was to compare a standard bevacizumab-containing regimen versus carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin combined with bevacizumab. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, was done in 159 academic centres in Germany, France, Australia, Austria, and the UK. Eligible patients (aged ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma with first disease recurrence more than 6 months after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Patients were stratified by platinum-free interval, residual tumour, previous antiangiogenic therapy, and study group language, and were centrally randomly assigned 1:1 using randomly permuted blocks of size two, four, or six to receive six intravenous cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg, day 1) plus carboplatin (area under the concentration curve [AUC] 4, day 1) plus gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8) every 3 weeks or six cycles of bevacizumab (10 mg/kg, days 1 and 15) plus carboplatin (AUC 5, day 1) plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (30 mg/m2, day 1) every 4 weeks, both followed by maintenance bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks in both groups) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. There was no masking in this open-label trial. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Efficacy data were analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This completed study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01837251. FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2013, and July 31, 2015, 682 eligible patients were enrolled, of whom 345 were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-bevacizumab (experimental group) and 337 were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin-gemcitabine-bevacizumab (standard group). Median follow-up for progression-free survival at data cutoff (July 10, 2018) was 12·4 months (IQR 8·3-21·7) in the experimental group and 11·3 months (8·0-18·4) in the standard group. Median progression-free survival was 13·3 months (95% CI 11·7-14·2) in the experimental group versus 11·6 months (11·0-12·7) in the standard group (hazard ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·68-0·96; p=0·012). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were hypertension (88 [27%] of 332 patients in the experimental group vs 67 [20%] of 329 patients in the standard group) and neutropenia (40 [12%] vs 73 [22%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 33 (10%) of 332 patients in the experimental group and 28 (9%) of 329 in the standard group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in one patient in the experimental group (<1%; large intestine perforation) and two patients in the standard group (1%; one case each of osmotic demyelination syndrome and intracranial haemorrhage). INTERPRETATION: Carboplatin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-bevacizumab is a new standard treatment option for platinum-eligible recurrent ovarian cancer. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245092

RESUMO

Posttranslational histone modification plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Histone modification is a dynamic response of chromatin to various signals, such as the exposure to calcitriol (1α,25(OH)2D3). Recent studies suggested that histone modification levels could be used to predict patient outcomes in various cancers. Our study evaluated the expression level of histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in a cohort of 156 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases by immunohistochemical staining and analyzed its correlation to patient prognosis. The influence of 1α,25(OH)2D3 on the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells was measured by BrdU proliferation assay in vitro. We could show that higher levels of H3K4me3 were correlated with improved overall survival (median overall survival (OS) not reached vs. 37.0 months, p = 0.047) and identified H3K4me3 as a potential prognostic factor for the present cohort. Ovarian cancer cell 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment induced H3K4me3 protein expression and exhibited antiproliferative effects. By this, the study suggests a possible impact of H3K4me3 expression on EOC progression as well as its relation to calcitriol (1α,25(OH)2D3) treatment. These results may serve as an explanation on how 1α,25(OH)2D3 mediates its known antiproliferative effects. In addition, they further underline the potential benefit of 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation in context of ovarian cancer care.

8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 2117-2123, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The incidence of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been increasing in the last decades. Analysis of oral brushing or rinsing samples for screening or stratification could potentially improve screening and prevention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Oral brushes and mouthwashes were taken from 20 patients with HPV-associated HNSCC before definite therapy. HPV genotyping was performed for the detection of 14 high-risk HPV subtypes and correlated to DNA isolated from tumor tissue. RESULTS: Ten of 20 patients were tested HPV positive by using either method. There was a significant correlation between macroscopic visibility of tumor and positive HPV detection (p<0.001) and HPV detection and tumor size (p<0.001). HPV was detected in all macroscopically visible tumors. Half of the HPV cases who had macroscopically invisible tumors were missed by both methods. CONCLUSION: Both techniques are limited in the detection of macroscopically non-visible and small tumors. Therefore, the application of these techniques for screening or diagnosis of HNSCC is not recommended.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/genética , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Idoso , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 16/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/análise , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331236

RESUMO

KLF11 (Krüppel-like factor 11) belongs to the family of Sp1/Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in a variety of cell types and tissues. KLF11 was initially described as a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) inducible immediate early gene (TIEG). KLF11 promotes the effects of TGF-ß on cell growth control by influencing the TGFß-Smads signaling pathway and regulating the transcription of genes that induce either apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. In carcinogenesis, KLF11 can show diverse effects. Its function as a tumor suppressor gene can be suppressed by phosphorylation of its binding domains via oncogenic pathways. However, KLF 11 can itself also show tumor-promoting effects and seems to have a crucial role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Here, we review the current knowledge about the function of KLF11 in cell growth regulation. We focus on its transcriptional regulatory function and its influence on the TGF-ß signaling pathway. We further discuss its possible role in mediating crosstalk between various signaling pathways in normal cell growth and in carcinogenesis.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157438

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ligand-dependent corepressor (LCoR) and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140/NRIP1) play an important role in the regulation of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways and the development of cancer. LCoR and RIP140 form a nuclear complex in breast cancer cells and are of prognostic value in further prostate and cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the regulation of these proteins in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I-III). METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was obtained to quantify RIP140 and LCoR expression in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia samples. Tissue (n = 94) was collected from patients treated in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, between 2002 and 2014. Correlations of expression levels with clinical outcome were carried out to assess for prognostic relevance in patients with CIN2 progression. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Nuclear LCoR overexpression correlates significantly with CIN II progression. Nuclear RIP140 expression significantly increases and nuclear LCoR expression decreases with higher grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cytoplasmic RIP140 expression is significantly higher in CIN III than in CIN I or CIN II. CONCLUSION: A decrease of nuclear LCoR expression in line with an increase of dedifferentiation of CIN can be observed. Nuclear LCoR overexpression correlates with CIN II progression indicating a prognostic value of LCoR in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Nuclear and cytoplasmic RIP140 expression increases significantly with higher grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia underlining its potential role in the development of pre-cancerous lesions. These findings support the relevance of LCoR and RIP140 in the tumorigenesis indicating a possible role of LCoR and RIP140 as targets for novel therapeutic approaches in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

11.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 94, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the nuclear receptor PPARγ, together with that of the cyclooxygenases Cox-1 and Cox-2, in breast cancer (BC) tissues and to correlate the data with several clinicobiological parameters including patient survival. METHODS: In a well characterized cohort of 308 primary BC, PPARγ, Cox-1 and Cox-2 cytoplasmic and nuclear expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlations with clinicopathological and aggressiveness features were analyzed, as well as survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: PPARγ was expressed in almost 58% of the samples with a predominant cytoplasmic location. Cox-1 and Cox-2 were exclusively cytoplasmic. Cytoplasmic PPARγ was inversely correlated with nuclear PPARγ and ER expression, but positively with Cox-1, Cox-2, and other high-risk markers of BC, e.g. HER2, CD133, and N-cadherin. Overall survival analysis demonstrated that cytoplasmic PPARγ had a strong correlation with poor survival in the whole cohort, and even stronger in the subgroup of patients with no Cox-1 expression where cytoplasmic PPARγ expression appeared as an independent marker of poor prognosis. In support of this cross-talk between PPARγ and Cox-1, we found that Cox-1 became a marker of good prognosis only when cytoplasmic PPARγ was expressed at high levels. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these data suggest that the relative expression of cytoplasmic PPARγ and Cox-1 may play an important role in oncogenesis and could be defined as a potential prognosis marker to identify specific high risk BC subgroups.

12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(3): 569-577, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025868

RESUMO

AIM: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has become a widely used predictive biomarker for therapy with checkpoint inhibitors in a variety of cancers. Here, we studied the expression of PD-L1 in squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva (SCCV) with regard to HPV status via its surrogate marker p16. Additionally, the status of PD-L1 and p16 were analyzed for prognostic information and potential correlation to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). METHODS: PD-L1 was analyzed in 128 cases of SCCV using the tumor proportion score (TPS), the immune cell score (ICS) and the combined positive score (CPS). Cases were immunostained for p16 and analyzed for stromal TILs. PD-L1, p16, and TILs were compared to clinico-pathological parameters and patient's survival. RESULTS: TPS ≥ 50% and CPS ≥ 50 were correlated to a worse grading (p = 0.028 and p = 0.031), but not to FIGO-stage. CPS ≥ 50 was associated to a worse prognosis with overall survival (p = 0.021) but was not correlated to the progression-free survival. P16-positivity was correlated to a longer progression-free survival (p = 0.006) and overall survival (p = 0.023). PD-L1 expression was independent from p16 status. TILs ≥ 50% were present in 24% of the cases and were strongly correlated to PD-L1 (TPS p = 0.02, ICS p < 0.001, CPS p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that PD-L1 expression is frequent in SCCV and independent from p16 status. High PD-L1 expression was associated with an unfavorable outcome whereas p16-positivity turned out to be an independent positive prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Vulvares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Vulvares/virologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947762

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of thyroid hormone receptor ß1 (THRß1) by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer (BC) tissues and to correlate the results with clinico-biological parameters. In a well-characterized cohort of 274 primary BC patients, THRß1 was widely expressed with a predominant nuclear location, although cytoplasmic staining was also frequently observed. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic THRß1 were correlated with high-risk BC markers such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki67 (also known as MKI67), prominin-1 (CD133), and N-cadherin. Overall survival analysis demonstrated that cytoplasmic THRß1 was correlated with favourable survival (p = 0.015), whereas nuclear THRß1 had a statistically significant correlation with poor outcome (p = 0.038). Interestingly, in our cohort, nuclear and cytoplasmic THRß1 appeared to be independent markers either for poor (p = 0.0004) or for good (p = 0.048) prognosis, respectively. Altogether, these data indicate that the subcellular expression of THRß1 may play an important role in oncogenesis. Moreover, the expression of nuclear THRß1 is a negative outcome marker, which may help to identify high-risk BC subgroups.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1154, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980713

RESUMO

Recently our study identified EP3 receptor and galectin-3 as prognosticators of cervical cancer. The aim of the present study was the analysis of EP2 as a novel marker and its association to EP3, galectin-3, clinical pathological parameters and the overall survival rate of cervical cancer patients. Cervical cancer tissues (n = 250), as also used in our previous study, were stained with anti-EP2 antibodies employing a standardized immunohistochemistry protocol. Staining results were analyzed by the IRS scores and evaluated for its association with clinical-pathological parameters. H-test of EP2 percent-score showed significantly different expression in FIGO I-IV stages and tumor stages. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses indicated that EP3-negative/EP2-high staining patients (EP2 IRS score ≥2) had a significantly higher survival rate than the EP3-negative/EP2-low staining cases (p = 0.049). In the subgroup of high galectin-3 expressing patients, the group with high EP2 levels (IRS ≥2) had significantly better survival rates compared to EP2-low expressing group (IRS <2, p = 0.044). We demonstrated that the EP2 receptor is a prognostic factor for the overall survival in the subgroup of negative EP3 and high galectin-3 expressed cervical cancer patients. EP2 in combination with EP3 or galectin-3 might act as prognostic indicators of cervical cancer. EP2, EP3, and galectin-3 could be targeted for clinical diagnosis or endocrine treatment in cervical cancer patients, which demands future investigations.

16.
Oncol Rep ; 43(2): 747, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894277

RESUMO

Subsequently to the publication of this paper, the authors have realized that the name of the fifth listed author, Theresa Vilsmaier, was spelt incorrectly (it appeared as "Vilsmeier" in print). The corrected author list, as it shown have appeared in the paper, is shown above. The authors regret that the name of the fifth author on the paper was spelt incorrectly, and apologize to the readers for any inconvenience caused. [The original article was published in Oncology Reports 41: 387-396, 2019; DOI: 10.3892/or.2018.6789].

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731733

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact that hormone receptor (HR) expressions have on the two different breast cancer (BC) entities-multifocal versus unifocal BC. As the prognosis determining aspects, we investigated the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) by univariate and multivariate analysis. To underline the study's conclusions, we additionally considered the histopathological grading and the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging. A retrospective analysis was performed on survival-related events in a series of 320 breast cancer patients treated at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the Ludwig Maximillian University in Munich between 2000 and 2002. All three steroid receptors analyzed by immunohistochemistry, namely, the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR), showed a significantly positive influence on the course of the disease, but only for the unifocal breast tumor patients. The prognosis of patients with multifocal breast cancer was either not affected by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor expression or even involved a worse etiopathology for the vitamin D receptor-positive patients. The estrogen receptor in unifocal breast cancer and the vitamin D receptor in multifocal breast cancer were especially identified as an independent prognostic marker for overall survival, when adjusted for age, grading, and staging. Altogether, our results strengthen the need to further investigate the behavior of the hormone receptors in breast cancer and understand why they have different effects on each focality type. Moreover, the studies for an adopted vitamin D supplementation due to breast cancer focality type must be enlarged to fully comprehend the remarkable and interesting role played by the vitamin D receptor.

18.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586203

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) accounts for the most gynecological cancer-related deaths in developed countries. Unfortunately, the lack of both evident early symptoms and effective asymptomatic population screening results in late diagnosis and inevitably poor prognosis. Hence, it is urgent to identify novel molecular markers to support personalized prognosis. In the present study, we have analyzed the clinical significance of miR-203 in OC using two institutionally-independent cohorts. miR-203 levels were quantified in a screening (n=125) and a validation cohort (n=100, OVCAD multicenter study). Survival analysis was performed using progression and death as clinical endpoint events. Internal validation was conducted by bootstrap analysis, and decision curve analysis was used to evaluate the clinical benefit. Increased miR-203 levels in OC patients were correlated with unfavorable prognosis and higher risk for disease progression, independently of FIGO stage, tumor grade, residual tumor after surgery, chemotherapy response and age. The analysis of the institutionally-independent validation cohort (OVCAD study) clearly confirmed the shorter survival outcome of the patients overexpressing miR-203. Additionally, integration of miR-203 levels with the established disease prognostic markers led to a superior stratification of OC patients that can ameliorate prognosis and benefit patient clinical management. In this regard, miR-203 expression constitutes a novel independent molecular marker to improve patients' prognosis in OC.

19.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 7673-7684, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616183

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the potential prognostic impact of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and progesterone receptor A (PRA)/progesterone receptor B (PRB) in ovarian cancer patients which might be the rationale for putative new treatment strategies. Patients and methods: The presence of NRF2 and PRA/PRB was investigated in 156 ovarian cancer samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Staining of NRF2 and PRA/PRB was rated using the semi-quantitative immunoreactive score (IR score, Remmele's score) and correlated to clinical and pathological data. NRF2 and PRA/PRB expression were compared with respect to the overall survival (OS). Results: NRF2 staining was different in both, the cytoplasm and nucleus between the histological subtypes (p=0.001 and p=0.02, respectively). There was a significant difference in the PRA expression comparing all histological subtypes (p=0.02). Histological subtypes showed no significant differences in the PRB expression. A strong correlation of cytoplasmic NRF2 and PRA expression was detected (cc=0.247, p=0.003) as well as of cytoplasmic NRF2 and PRB expression (cc=0.25, p=0.003), confirmed by immunofluorescence double staining. Cytoplasmic NRF2 expression was associated with a longer OS (median 50.6 vs 32.5 months; p=0.1) as it was seen for PRA expression (median 63.4 vs 33.1 months; p=0.08), although not statistically significant. In addition, high PRB expression (median 80.4 vs 32.5 months; p=0.04) and concurrent expression of cytoplasmic NRF2 and PRA were associated with a significantly longer OS (median 109.7 vs 30.6 months; p=0.02). The same relationship was also noted for NRF2 and PRB with improved OS for patients expressing both cytoplasmic NRF2 and PRB (median 153.5 vs 30.6 months; p=0.009). Silencing of NFE2L2 induced higher mRNA expression of PGR in the cancer cell line OVCAR3 (p>0.05) confirming genetic interactions of NRF2 and PR. Conclusion: In this study, the combination of cytoplasmic NRF2 and high PRA/PRB expression was demonstrated to be associated with improved overall survival in ovarian cancer patients. Further understanding of interactions within the NRF2/AKR1C1/PR pathway could open new additional therapeutic approaches.

20.
Front Oncol ; 9: 832, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552170

RESUMO

Background: Stabilized mutant p53 protein (mutp53) is a novel target in epithelial ovarian cancer. Due to aberrant conformation, mutp53 proteins depend on folding support by the Hsp90 chaperone. Hsp90 blockade induces degradation of mutp53, resulting in tumor cell cytotoxicity and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. Preclinical synergy of the Hsp90 inhibitor ganetespib combined with paclitaxel provided the rationale for testing the combination in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) patients in the GANNET53 trial (NCT02012192). Methods: Eligible patients had high-grade PROC with ≤ 4 prior lines of chemotherapy. Weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) and increasing doses of ganetespib (100, 150 mg/m2) were given i.v. on days 1, 8, 15 in a 28 days cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Endpoints were safety and determination of phase II dose. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as grade 4 toxicity (with exceptions) occurring in cycles 1&2. Results: Ten patients (median age 59 years; range 43-70) were enrolled. No DLT occurred in cohort 1 (4 patients treated with paclitaxel + ganetespib 100 mg/m2), nor in cohorts 2 and 3 (6 patients treated with paclitaxel + ganetespib 150 mg/m2). The most common adverse event (AE) related to ganetespib was transient grade 1/2 diarrhea (n = 6). Related grade 1/2 AEs in >2 patients included QTc prolongation (n = 4), nausea (n = 3), anemia (n = 3), headache (n = 3), fatigue (n = 3), and dyspnoea (n = 3). Most frequently related grade 3/4 AEs were diarrhea (n = 3) and neutropenia (n = 2). There was 1 death on study due to hemorrhage from a duodenal ulcer. Three patients discontinued study treatment due to serious AEs (digestive hemorrhage n = 1, cardiac failure n = 1, abdominal pain and vomiting n = 1), 6 due to progressive disease, one due to investigator and patient decision. Two patients achieved a partial response (ORR 20%) and 4 patients a stable disease (disease control rate of 60%). Median PFS was 2.9 months (1.6 months in cohort 1 at 100 mg/m2 ganetespib, 5.1 months in cohorts 2+3 at 150 mg/m2 ganetespib). Conclusions: The combination of ganetespib 150 mg/m2 with paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 once weekly for 3 out of 4 weeks was generally well-tolerated with no DLTs, and therefore chosen for the randomized phase II trial.

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