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1.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin associated side effects (SASE) are a leading cause of statin discontinuation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient, provider, and facility characteristics associated with SASEs and whether these characteristics impact statin utilization. METHODS: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) receiving care across the Veterans Affairs healthcare system from October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015 were included. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine (a) factors associated with SASE and (b) factors associated with statin use in those with SASE. RESULTS: Our cohort included 1,225,576 patients with ASCVD. Of these, 171,189 (13.7%) had at least 1 reported SASE since year 2000. The most significant odds for SASEs were observed with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36, 1.45), White race (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.41, 1.45), hypertension (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33, 1.41) and ischemic heart disease (IHD: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.43, 1.47). Lower odds were noted with care at a teaching facility (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.88, 0.90). Factors most associated with being on a statin among patients with SASE included having diabetes (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.15, 1.20), IHD (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.35, 1.43) and a higher number of cardiology visits (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07, 1.09), while female sex was associated with lower odds (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.61, 0.69). CONCLUSION: There are significant disparities in statin use by sex, ASCVD type, and comorbidities among secondary prevention patients with SASE, which represent areas for improvement in optimizing statin utilization.

2.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 23(12): 76, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648072

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights select studies presented at the virtual 2021 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress. RECENT FINDINGS: Reviewed studies assess single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging in coronary artery disease (PACIFIC-II); empagliflozin in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (EMPEROR-Preserved); dapagliflozin in chronic heart failure (DAPA-HF); proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor and its lipid lowering effects (NATURE-PCSK9); fixed-dose combination therapies with or without aspirin in primary prevention; overview of contrasting results between REDUCE-IT versus STRENGTH trials; Quadruple UltrA-low-dose tReaTment for hypertension (QUARTET); evolocumab and changes in plaque composition on optical coherence tomography (HUYGENS); and low-dose rivaroxaban during the acute phase of acute coronary syndrome (H-REPLACE). Research presented at the 2021 ESC Congress shows promise in reducing burden of cardiovascular disease and reinforces the value of cardiovascular disease prevention.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021367, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533035

RESUMO

Background Well-conducted meta-analyses are considered to be at the top of the evidence-based hierarchy pyramid, with an expansion of these publications within the cardiovascular research arena. There are limited data evaluating the trends and quality of such publications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the methodological rigor and temporal trends of cardiovascular medicine-related meta-analyses published in the highest impact journals. Methods and Results Using the Medline database, we retrieved cardiovascular medicine-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, The British Medical Journal, Annals of Internal Medicine, Circulation, European Heart Journal, and Journal of American College of Cardiology between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2018. Among 6406 original investigations published during the study period, meta-analyses represented 422 (6.6%) articles, with an annual decline in the proportion of published meta-analyses (8.7% in 2012 versus 4.6% in 2018, Ptrend=0.002). A substantial number of studies failed to incorporate elements of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses or Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines (51.9%) and only a minority of studies (10.4%) were registered in PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). Fewer manuscripts failed to incorporate the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses or Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology elements over time (60.2% in 2012 versus 40.0% in 2018, Ptrend<0.001) whereas the number of meta-analyses registered at PROSPERO has increased (2.4% in 2013 versus 17.5% in 2018, Ptrend<0.001). Conclusions The proportion of cardiovascular medicine-related meta-analyses published in the highest impact journals has declined over time. Although there is an increasing trend in compliance with quality-based guidelines, the overall compliance remains low.

5.
Prev Med ; 153: 106779, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487748

RESUMO

Ensuring healthcare access is critical to maintain health and prevent illness. Studies demonstrate gender disparities in healthcare access. Less is known about how these vary with age, race/ethnicity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We utilized cross-sectional data from 2016 to 2019 CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a U.S. telephone-based survey of adults (≥18 years). Measures of difficulty accessing healthcare included absence of healthcare coverage, delay in healthcare access, absence of primary care physician, >1-year since last checkup, inability to see doctor due to cost, and cost-related medication non-adherence. We studied the association between gender and these variables using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, stratifying by age, race/ethnicity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease status. Our population consisted of 1,737,397 individuals; 54% were older (≥45 years), 51% women, 63% non-Hispanic White, 12% non-Hispanic Black,17% Hispanic, 9% reported atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In multivariable-adjusted models, women were more likely to report delay in healthcare access: odds ratio (OR) and (95% confidence interval): 1.26 (1.11, 1.43) [p < 0.001], inability to see doctor due to cost: 1.29 (1.22, 1.36) [p < 0.001], cost-related medication non-adherence: 1.24 (1.01, 1.50) [p = 0.04]. Women were less likely to report lack of healthcare coverage: 0.71 (0.66, 0.75) [p < 0.001] and not having a primary care physician: 0.50 (0.48, 0.52) [p < 0.001]. Disparities were pronounced in younger (<45 years) and Black women. Identifying these barriers, particularly among younger women and Black women, is crucial to ensure equitable healthcare access to all individuals.

6.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(17): 1926-1936, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between hospital endovascular lower extremity revascularization (eLER) volume and outcomes after eLER for critical limb ischemia (CLI). BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on the relationship between hospital procedural volume and outcomes of eLER for CLI. METHODS: The authors queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (2013-2015) for hospitalized patients who underwent eLER for CLI. Hospitals were divided into tertiles according to annual eLER volume: low volume (<100 eLER procedures), moderate volume (100-550 eLER procedures), and high volume (>550 eLER procedures). Stepwise multivariable regression models were used. The main outcomes were in-hospital mortality and 30-day readmission with major adverse limb events, defined as the composite of amputation, acute limb ischemia, or repeat revascularization. RESULTS: Among 145,785 hospitalizations for eLER for CLI, 5,199 (3.6%) were at low-volume eLER hospitals, 27,857 (19.1%) at moderate-volume eLER hospitals, and 112,728 (77.3%) at high-volume eLER hospitals. On multivariable analysis, there was no difference with regard to in-hospital mortality among moderate-volume hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.60-1.01) and high-volume hospitals (adjusted OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.64-1.05) compared with low-volume hospitals. There was lower risk of in-hospital major amputation (adjusted OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.96) and minor amputation at high- versus low-volume hospitals. The length of hospital stay was shorter and discharges to nursing facilities were fewer among moderate- and high-volume hospitals compared with low-volume hospitals. Compared with low-volume hospitals, eLER for CLI at high-volume hospitals had a lower risk for 30-day readmission with major adverse limb events (adjusted OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-0.99), while there was no difference among moderate-volume hospitals (adjusted OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.77-1.10). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide observational analysis suggests that annual eLER volume does not influence in-hospital mortality after eLER for CLI. However, high eLER volume (>550 eLER procedures) was associated with better rates of limb preservation after eLER for CLI.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Doença Arterial Periférica , Amputação , Estado Terminal , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/cirurgia , Salvamento de Membro , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(9): 115, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269884

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The concept of telehealth has been around since the early twentieth century and has been used in different healthcare specialties. However, with the recent COVID-19 pandemic necessitating physical distancing, there has been an increased emphasis and utilization of this mode of healthcare delivery. With increasing reliance on telehealth services, data from investigator groups have brought to light several merits as well as failings of telehealth. RECENT FINDINGS: Telehealth services have been associated with improved healthcare outcomes while remaining a cost-effective mode of healthcare delivery. Improving access and timeliness of care has also been observed by multiple telehealth-related studies. Finally, telehealth services are also anticipated to serve as part of emergency preparedness protocol and have shown to reduce provider-patient supply-demand mismatch, prevalent in certain subspecialties. With these benefits come certain challenges that have been highlighted in the literature. Indiscriminate utilization of telehealth services may widen public health disparities among minority groups and may increase overall healthcare expenditure due to overutilization of care, and the digital platform may jeopardize security of patient data. COVID-19 has been a catalyst in increasing utilization of telehealth services. As we move forward from the current pandemic, lessons learned from the studies demonstrating benefits and challenges associated with telehealth should be taken into account when drafting post-pandemic telehealth policies. Special attention should be paid to ensure that telehealth narrows, and not widens, the currently existing disparities in access to healthcare.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(4): 492-500, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ensuring adequate access to health care is essential for timely delivery of preventive services. It is important to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of difficulty in accessing medical care in the overall U.S. population and among those with high-risk chronic conditions. METHODS: The study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2016-2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a nationally representative telephone-based survey of adults aged ≥18 years. The prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics associated with difficulty in receiving medical care were assessed, including regional variations across U.S. states. RESULTS: The prevalence of difficulty in accessing medical care was 14% overall, 15% among those with hypertension, 15% among those with diabetes mellitus, and 17% among those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Age 18-34 years, having less than high school education, having annual household income <$75,000, unemployment, and living in a state without Medicaid expansion were all associated with a higher risk of not accessing medical care. The prevalence of difficulty in accessing medical care was 27% among individuals with ≥3 of these sociodemographic characteristics. There was regional variation across the U.S. states in the distribution of difficulty in accessing medical care with a median of 13.6% (IQR=11.3%-15.9%) for the overall population: 16.3% (IQR=14.1%-19.0%) among those living in states without Medicaid expansion versus 12.7% (IQR=10.9%-15.6%) among those living in states with Medicaid expansion (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In total, 1 in 7 adults report difficulty in accessing medical care. This prevalence is nearly 1 in 4 adults with ≥3 sociodemographic characteristics related to difficulty in accessing medical care. There are regional variations in the distribution of the difficulty in accessing medical care, especially among individuals living in states that have not undergone Medicaid expansion.


Assuntos
Prevalência , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Prev Med ; 153: 106715, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242664

RESUMO

Medication nonadherence is highly prevalent among patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Poor adherence has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Medication cost is a major driver for medication nonadherence. Utilizing data from the 2016 to 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, we estimated the prevalence of cost-related medication nonadherence (CRMNA) among the overall population and among individuals who reported a history of diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), or hypertension. We then performed multivariable logistic regression to analyze sociodemographic factors associated with CRMNA. Our study population consisted of 142,577 individuals of whom 24% were older than 65 years, 47% were men, 66% were White, 17% Black, 35% had hypertension, 13% had diabetes mellitus, and 10% had ASCVD. CRMNA was reported in 10% of the overall population, 12% among those with hypertension, 17% among those with diabetes, and 17% among those with ASCVD. Age below 65 years, female gender, unemployment, lower income, lower educational attainment, having at least 1 comorbidity, and living in a state that did not expand Medicaid were independently associated with CRMNA. The prevalence of CRMNA increased with greater number of these high-risk sociodemographic factors. We conclude that the prevalence of CRMNA is 10% among U.S. adults overall and is higher among those with common chronic diseases. Risk factors associated with CRMNA should be addressed in order to improve adherence rates and health outcomes among high-risk individuals.

11.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 23(9): 50, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226979

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights late-breaking science presented at the Virtual American College of Cardiology Scientific Sessions 2021 that demonstrated advancements in preventative cardiology and introduced novel therapeutic modalities for the management of chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: The studies reviewed include clinical trials that assessed the use of dapagliflozin in patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19 (DARE-19 trial); evinacumab for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis; effect of genotype-guided oral P2y12 inhibitors vs conventional clopidogrel on long-term ischemic outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (TAILOR-PCI trial); anticoagulation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (ACTION trial); atorvastatin vs placebo in patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU (INSPIRATION-S trial); rehabilitation therapy in older acute heart failure patients (REHAB-HF trial); and aspirin dosing: a patient-centric trial assessing benefits and long-term effectiveness (ADAPTABLE trial). In addition, we review the results of the American College of Cardiology Global Heart Attack Initiative (GHATI). Finally, we discuss the secondary analysis of the STRENGTH trial assessing the association of achieved levels of omega-3 fatty acid levels and major cardiovascular outcomes. The studies presented at the virtual American College of Cardiology Scientific Session 2021 represent remarkable contributions in the field of cardiovascular disease and prevention.

13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059910

RESUMO

AIM : The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and risk of cancer in young adults. METHODS : We utilized data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a nationally representative US telephone-based survey to identify participants in the age group of 18-55 years who reported a history of ASCVD. These patients were defined as having premature ASCVD. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to study the association between premature ASCVD and cancer including various cancer subtypes. RESULTS : Between 2016 and 2019, we identified 28 522 (3.3%) participants with a history of premature ASCVD. Compared with patients without premature ASCVD, individuals with premature ASCVD were more likely to be Black adults, have lower income, lower levels of education, reside in states without Medicaid expansion, have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and had delays in seeking medical care. Individuals with premature ASCVD were more likely to have been diagnosed with any form of cancer (13.7% vs 3.9%), and this association remained consistent in multivariable models (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 2.08 [1.72-2.50], P < 0.01); this association was significant for head and neck (21.08[4.86-91.43], P < 0.01), genitourinary (18.64 [3.69-94.24], P < 0.01), and breast cancer (3.96 [1.51-10.35], P < 0.01). Furthermore, this association was consistent when results were stratified based on gender and race, and in sensitivity analysis using propensity score matching. CONCLUSION : Premature ASCVD is associated with a higher risk of cancer. These data have important implications for the design of strategies to prevent ASCVD and cancer in young adults.

14.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 39-44, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030884

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can present with various clinical symptoms, including chest pain, syncope, and sudden cardiac death, particularly in those without atherosclerotic risk factors. In this contemporary analysis, we aimed to identify the causes and predictors of 30-day hospital readmission in SCAD patients. We utilized the latest Nationwide Readmissions Database from 2016 - 2017 to identify patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of SCAD. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission. Among 795 patients admitted with a principal discharge diagnosis of SCAD, 85 (11.3%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge from index admission (69.8% women, mean age of 54.3 ± 0.8). More than half of the readmissions (57%) were cardiac-related readmissions. Common cardiac causes for 30-day hospital readmission were acute coronary syndrome (27.3%), chest pain/unspecified angina (24.6%), heart failure (17.5%), and recurrent SCAD (8.3%). In conclusion, we found that following hospitalization for SCAD, almost one-tenth of patients were readmitted within 30 days, largely due to cardiac cause . Risk stratifying patients with SCAD, identifying high-risk features or atypical phenotypes of SCAD, and using appropriate management strategies may prevent hospital readmissions and reduce healthcare-related costs. Further studies are warranted to confirm these causes of readmission in SCAD patients.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Preços Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Recidiva , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/terapia
15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(7): 782-790, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881448

RESUMO

Importance: There is a paucity of data regarding secondary prevention care disparities in women with premature and extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), defined as an ASCVD event at 55 years or younger and 40 years or younger, respectively. Objective: To evaluate sex-based differences in antiplatelet agents, any statin, high-intensity statin (HIS) therapy, and statin adherence in patients with premature and extremely premature ASCVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter, nationwide VA health care system-based study with patients enrolled in the Veterans With Premature Atherosclerosis (VITAL) registry. The study assessed patients who had at least 1 primary care visit in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system from October 1, 2014, to September 30, 2015. Participants included 147 600 veteran patients with premature ASCVD, encompassing ischemic heart disease (IHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Exposures: Women vs men with premature and extremely premature ASCVD. Main Outcomes and Measures: Antiplatelet use, any statin use, HIS use, and statin adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC] ≥0.8). Results: We identified 10 413 women and 137 187 men with premature ASCVD (age ≤55 years) and 1340 women and 8145 men with extremely premature (age ≤40 years) ASCVD. Among patients with premature and extremely premature ASCVD, women represented 7.1% and 14.1% of those groups, respectively. When compared with men, women with premature ASCVD had a higher proportion of African American patients (36.1% vs 23.8%) and lower proportions of Asian patients (0.5% vs 0.7%) and White patients (56.1% vs. 68.1%). In the extremely premature ASCVD group, women had a comparatively higher proportion of African American patients (36.8% vs 23.2%) and lower proportion of White patients (55.0% vs 67.8%) and Asian patients (1.3% vs 1.5%) than men. Among patients with premature IHD, women received less antiplatelet (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.47, 95% CI, 0.45-0.50), any statin (AOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.59-0.66), and HIS (AOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.59-0.66) therapy and were less statin adherent (mean [SD] PDC, 0.68 [0.34] vs 0.73 [0.31]; ß coefficient: -0.02; 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.01) compared with men. Similarly, women with premature ICVD and premature PAD received comparatively less antiplatelet agents, any statin, and HIS. Among patients with extremely premature ASCVD, women also received less antiplatelet therapy (AOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.53-0.70), any statin therapy (AOR,0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.58), and HIS therapy (AOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.37-0.54) than men. There were no sex-associated differences in statin adherence among patients with premature ICVD, premature PAD, or extremely premature ASCVD. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study revealed that women veterans with premature ASCVD and extremely premature ASCVD receive less optimal secondary prevention cardiovascular care in comparison with men. Women with premature ASCVD, particularly those with IHD, were also less statin adherent. Multidisciplinary and patient-centered interventions are needed to improve these disparities in women.

16.
Am J Med ; 134(8): 1047-1051.e2, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent literature has shown an association between atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and inflammatory bowel disease, potentially mediated through chronic inflammatory pathways. However, there is a paucity of data demonstrating this relationship among young patients with premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Using data from the nationwide Veterans wIth premaTure AtheroscLerosis (VITAL) registry, we assessed the association between extremely premature and premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (age at diagnosis: ≤40 years and ≤55 years, respectively) and inflammatory bowel disease. Patients were compared with age-matched controls without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Multivariable regression models adjusted for traditional risk factors. RESULTS: We identified 147,600 patients and 9485 patients with premature and extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, respectively. Compared with controls, there was a higher prevalence of overall inflammatory bowel disease among premature (0.96% vs 0.84%; odds ratio [OR] 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.21) and extremely premature (1.36% vs 0.75%; OR 1.82; 95% CI, 1.52-2.17) patients. After adjustment, these associations attenuated in both premature and extremely premature groups (OR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14 and OR 1.61; 95% CI, 1.34-1.94, respectively). CONCLUSION: Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with higher odds of extremely premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, especially for those age ≤40 years. With increasing age, this risk is attenuated by traditional cardiometabolic factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia. Prospective studies are needed to assess the role of early intervention to decrease cardiovascular risk among young patients with inflammatory bowel disease.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
18.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(4): 559-570, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565901

RESUMO

Introduction: As the leading cause of death globally, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) carries substantial cost burden for patients and the healthcare system. Although overall mortality rates have recently decreased in certain groups, such improvements were not observed in younger ASCVD patients. This review focuses on premature ASCVD and explores risk factors affecting this younger cohort of patients.Areas covered: We performed a literature search for studies assessing premature ASCVD, defined as ischemic heart disease (IHD), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD), or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) occurring in men aged ≤55 years and women aged ≤65 years.Expert opinion: Premature ASCVD patients often suffer from multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in addition to genetic predisposition or unique non-traditional features, such as substance abuse and chronic inflammatory conditions. Consequently, identification and management of at-risk individuals pose a great challenge for clinicians. In this younger patient cohort, control of traditional risk factors, optimization of primary and secondary prevention therapies, and lifestyle modifications are imperative to saving potential disability-adjusted life years and other costs associated with premature atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Heart ; 107(8): 650-656, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite an upsurge in the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) among young adults, the attributable risk of recreational substance use among young patients has been incompletely evaluated. We evaluated the association of all recreational substances with premature and extremely premature ASCVD. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis using the 2014-2015 nationwide Veterans Affairs Healthcare database and the Veterans wIth premaTure AtheroscLerosis (VITAL) registry, patients were categorised as having premature, extremely premature or non-premature ASCVD. Premature ASCVD was defined as having first ASCVD event at age <55 years for men and <65 years for women. Extremely premature was defined as having first ASCVD event at age <40 years while non-premature ASCVD was defined as having first ASCVD event at age ≥55 years for men and ≥65 years for women. Patients with premature ASCVD (n=135 703) and those with extremely premature ASCVD (n=7716) were compared against patients with non-premature ASCVD (n=1 112 455). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to study the independent association of all recreational substances with premature and extremely premature ASCVD. RESULTS: Compared with patients with non-premature ASCVD, patients with premature ASCVD had a higher use of tobacco (62.9% vs 40.6%), alcohol (31.8% vs 14.8%), cocaine (12.9% vs 2.5%), amphetamine (2.9% vs 0.5%) and cannabis (12.5% vs 2.7%) (p<0.01 for all comparisons). In adjusted models, the use of tobacco (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.94 to 2.00), alcohol (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.47 to 1.52), cocaine (OR 2.44, 95% CI 2.38 to 2.50), amphetamine (OR 2.74, 95% CI 2.62 to 2.87), cannabis (OR 2.65, 95% CI 2.59 to 2.71) and other drugs (OR 2.53, 95% CI 2.47 to 2.59) was independently associated with premature ASCVD. Patients with polysubstance use had a graded response with the highest risk (~9-fold) of premature ASCVD among patients with use of ≥4 recreational substances. Similar trends were observed among patients with extremely premature ASCVD. Gender interactions with substance use were significant (p-interaction <0.05), with recreational substance use and premature ASCVD showing stronger associations among women than in men with premature ASCVD. CONCLUSIONS: All subgroups of recreational substances were independently associated with a higher likelihood of premature and extremely premature ASCVD. Recreational substance use confers a greater magnitude of risk for premature ASCVD among women. A graded response relationship exists between increasing number of recreational substances used and higher likelihood of early-onset ASCVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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