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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 163: 26-34, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032814

RESUMO

AIM: Metastasis is the primary cause of treatment failure in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, the current tumour-node-metastasis staging system has limitations in predicting distant metastasis and guiding induction chemotherapy (IC) application. Here, we established a transcriptomics-based gene signature to assess the risk of distant metastasis and guide IC in locoregionally advanced NPC. METHODS: Transcriptome sequencing was performed on NPC biopsy samples from 12 pairs of patients with different metastasis risks. Bioinformatics and qPCR were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), while univariate and multivariate analyses were used to select prognostic indicators for the gene signature. A signature-based nomogram was established in a training cohort (n = 191) and validated in an external cohort (n = 263). RESULTS: Eleven DEGs were identified between metastatic and non-metastatic NPC. Four of these (AK4, CPAMD8, DDAH1 and CRTR1) were used to create a gene signature that effectively categorised patients into low- and high-risk metastasis groups (training: 91.1 versus 70.4%, p < 0.0001, C-index = 0.752; validation: 88.4 versus 73.9%, p = 0.00057, C-index = 0.741). IC with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) improved distant metastasis-free survival in low-risk patients (94.4 versus 85.0%, p = 0.043), whereas patients in the high-risk group did not benefit from IC (72.6 versus 74.9%, p = 0.946). CONCLUSIONS: Our transcriptomics-based gene signature was able to reliably predict metastasis in locoregionally advanced NPC and could be used to identify candidates that could benefit from IC + CCRT.

3.
Radiother Oncol ; 167: 252-260, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvage radiotherapy (RT) is a potentially curative approach for advanced locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but it is associated with severe toxicities. We aimed to develop a model to predict which patients would benefit from salvage RT. METHODS: A total of 809 patients who were diagnosed with advanced locally recurrent NPC and treated with salvage RT or palliative chemotherapy (CT) at a high-volume cancer center were included. Patients were randomly split into a training and validation set and matched using inverse probability of treatment weighting. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Candidate variables associated with heterogeneous treatment effects were identified with interaction terms in Cox model and incorporated into Salvage Radiotherapy Outcome Score (SARTOS). RESULTS: The final model included five interaction terms indicating that female sex, presence of prior RT-induced grade ≥ 3 late toxicities and suboptimal performance status were associated with less benefit from salvage RT. SARTOS from the model significantly predicted treatment effects of salvage RT in matched training (Pinteration < 0.001) and validation cohorts (Pinteration = 0.027). Of patients in high SARTOS subgroup, salvage RT significantly improved survival versus palliative CT in matched training (3-year OS 67.3% vs. 42.0%, HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82, P = 0.005) and validation cohorts (3-year OS 71.8% vs. 22.8%, HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.97, P = 0.042); in low SARTOS subgroup, salvage RT failed to induce survival benefit. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the SARTOS model could identify a subgroup of patients who benefit from salvage RT versus palliative CT, which helps personalize treatment recommendations for patients with recurrent NPC.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101467, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990291

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cumulative doses of 200 mg/m2 for concurrent cisplatin (DDP) were indicated by retrospective studies as sufficient in conferring survival benefit for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). We performed an open-label, phase II, randomized, controlled trial to test the noninferiority of a two-cycle 100 mg/m2 concurrent DDP regimen over three-cycle in patients with low-risk LA-NPC with pretreatment Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels < 4,000 copies/mL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive two cycles or three cycles concurrent DDP-based chemoradiotherapy. The primary end point was 3-year progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary end points included overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, locoregional relapse-free survival, etc. RESULTS: Between September 2016 and October 2018, 332 patients were enrolled, with 166 in each arm. After a median follow-up of 37.7 months, the estimated 3-year PFS rates were 88.0% in the two-cycle group and 90.4% in the three-cycle group, with a difference of 2.4% (95% CI, -4.3 to 9.1, Pnoninferiority = .014). No differences were observed between groups in terms of PFS, overall survival, and the cumulative incidences of locoregional relapse and distant metastasis. Patients in the three-cycle group developed significantly more grade 3-4 mucositis (41 [24.8%] v 25 [15.1%]), hyponatremia (26 [15.8%] v 14 [8.4%]), and dermatitis (9 [5.5%] v 2 [1.2%]). The overall all-grade and grade 3-4 toxicity burdens were heavier in three-cycle group (T-scores, 12.33 v 10.57, P < .001 for all grades; 1.76 v 1.44, P = .05 for grade 3-4). Patients in the three-cycle group also showed more all-grade hearing impairment, dry mouth and skin fibrosis, and impaired long-term quality of life. CONCLUSION: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus two cycles of concurrent 100 mg/m2 DDP could be an alternative treatment option for patients with low-risk LA-NPC.

6.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 32: 59-68, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935776

RESUMO

Purpose: Chemotherapy, when added to radiotherapy, improves survival in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This article presents the second update of the Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in NPC. Methods: Published or unpublished randomized trials assessing radiotherapy (±a second chemotherapy timing) with/without chemotherapy in non-metastatic NPC patients were identified. Updated data were sought for studies included in the previous rounds of the meta-analysis. The primary endpoint was overall survival. All trials were analyzed following the intent-to-treat principle using a fixed-effects model. Treatments were classified in five subsets according to chemotherapy timing. The statistical analysis plan was pre-specified. Results: Eighteen new trials were identified. Individual patient data were available for seven. In total, the meta-analysis now included 26 trials and 7,080 patients. The addition of chemotherapy reduced the risk of death, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) [0.73; 0.85]), and an absolute survival increase at 5 and 10 years of 6.1% [+3.9; +8.3] and + 8.4% [+5.7; +11.1], respectively. The largest effect was observed for concomitant + adjuvant, induction (with concomitant in both arms) and concomitant chemotherapy, with respective HR [95%CI] of 0.68 [0.59; 0.79] (absolute survival increase at 5 years: 12.3% (7.0%;17.6%)), 0.73 [0.63; 0.86] (6.0% (2.5%;9.5%)) and 0.81 [0.70; 0.92] (5.2% (0.8%;9.6%)). The benefit of chemotherapy was also demonstrated by improvement in progression-free survival, cancer mortality, locoregional control and distant control. There was a significant interaction between patient age and chemotherapy effect. Conclusion: This updated meta-analysis confirms the benefit of concomitant chemotherapy and concomitant + adjuvant chemotherapy, and suggests that addition of induction or adjuvant chemotherapy to concomitant chemotherapy improves tumor control and survival. The benefit of chemotherapy decreases with increasing patient age.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1320, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prognostic value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and monitor the early treatment response to induction chemotherapy (IC) with plasma EBV DNA in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). RESULTS: A total of 307 stage III-IVb NPC patients were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent MRI examinations to calculate ADC and plasma EBV DNA measurements pretreatment and post-IC. The participants' ADC value of 92.5% (284/307) increased post-IC. A higher percent change in ADC value (ΔADC%high group) post-IC was associated with a higher 5-year OS rate (90.7% vs 74.9%, p < 0.001) than those in the ΔADC%low group. Interestingly, ΔADC% was closely related to the response measured by RECIST 1.1 (p < 0.001) and plasma EBV DNA level (p = 0.037). The AUC significantly increased when post-IC plasma EBV DNA was added to ΔADC% to predict treatment failure. Thus, based on ΔADC% and plasma EBV DNA, we further divided the participants into three new prognostic response phenotypes (early response, intermediate response, and no response) that correlated with disparate risks of death (p = 0.001), disease progression (p < 0.001), distant metastasis (p < 0.001), and locoregional relapse (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The percentage change in ADC post-IC is indicative of treatment response and clinical outcome. ΔADC% and plasma EBV DNA-based response phenotypes may provide potential utility for early termination of treatment and allow guiding risk-adapted therapeutic strategies for LA-NPC.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138470, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928359

RESUMO

Importance: Nedaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) regimen at 2 years was noninferior to cisplatin-based regimen in patients with locoregional, stage II to IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and was associated with fewer late adverse events, but longer-term outcomes and toxicity are unclear. Objective: To evaluate the 5-year outcomes and late toxicity profile of nedaplatin-based CCRT in patients with locoregional, stage II to IVB NPC. Design, Settings, and Participants: This 5-year follow-up secondary analysis of an open-label, noninferiority, multicenter randomized clinical trial enrolled patients with nonkeratinizing stage II to IVB NPC between January 16, 2012, and July 16, 2014, with a median follow-up duration of 78 months (IQR, 3-99 months). Data analysis was conducted from November 10, 2020, to July 8, 2021. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive nedaplatin (100 mg/m2)- or cisplatin (100 mg/m2)-based chemotherapy every 3 weeks for 3 cycles concurrently with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points were overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and locoregional relapse-free survival. Results: A total of 402 eligible participants were enrolled (median [IQR] age, 45 [18-65] years; 302 [75.1%] male). Patients were randomly assigned to receive nedaplatin- or cisplatin-based CCRT (n = 201 for each): 196 patients (97.5%) started nedaplatin-based CCRT and 197 patients (98.0%) started cisplatin-based CCRT. Intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated a 5-year progression-free survival rate of 81.4% (95% CI, 75.9%-86.9%) for the cisplatin group and 79.8% (95% CI, 74.1%-85.5%) for nedaplatin group, with a difference of 1.6% (95% CI, -6.3% to 9.5%; P = .002 for noninferiority). No significant survival differences were observed between the cisplatin and nedaplatin groups for 5-year overall survival (89.4% vs 88.8%, P = .63), distant metastasis-free survival (85.9% vs 90.4%, P = .17), and locoregional relapse-free survival (92.6% vs 89.6%, P = .17) rates. The cisplatin group had a higher incidence of grade 3 and 4 auditory toxic effects than the nedaplatin group (35 [17.7%] vs 21 [10.5%], P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, long-term analysis confirmed that nedaplatin-based CCRT could be regarded as an alternative doublet treatment strategy to cisplatin-based CCRT in stage II to IVB NPC. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01540136.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/toxicidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 159: 133-143, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743068

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the prognosis and adverse effects of induction or adjuvant chemotherapy (IC or AC) plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) versus CCRT alone in paediatric nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 549 patients diagnosed from 2005 to 2021 were enrolled. Our primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was applied to derive a risk stratification system. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to assess the cumulative survival rates, and cox analysis was applied to evaluate the relationship between variables and endpoints. RESULTS: The RPA-based risk stratification identified three different risk groups. In the intermediate-risk (stage IVa and EBV<4000 copies/ml) group, patients who received IC followed by CCRT achieved a significantly better 3-year PFS rate than those treated with CCRT alone (87.35% versus 75.89%; P = 0.04). But survival benefit was not obtained from the additional IC or AC in the low-risk (stage II-III and EBV<4000 copies/ml) or high-risk (stage II-IVa and EBV≥4000 copies/ml) group. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in patients treated with CCRT, IC + CCRT, and CCRT + AC were neutropenia (8.1%, 33.0% versus 36.9%, respectively) and leukopenia (14.1%, 26.8% versus 32.3%, respectively) with statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric NPC patients in the intermediate-risk group treated with IC followed by CCRT had significantly better PFS compared with patients treated with CCRT alone. And the overall incidence of acute adverse events in patients treated with IC or AC plus CCRT was higher than in patients treated with CCRT alone.

10.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 9: 2050313X211057704, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777811

RESUMO

Alpha-fetoprotein hardly increased due to nasopharyngeal cancer. In this article, we reported a 57-year-old male nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient who had posttreatment subscapular metastasis with high serum alpha-fetoprotein but negative plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA. Pathology results indicated that the scapular mass was undifferentiated non-keratinizing carcinoma originated in the nasopharynx. Moreover, no liver lesion was detected by imaging examination. In view of the positive alpha-fetoprotein and alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA staining result in the right scapular mass fine needle aspiration biopsy sample, we considered the diagnosis of alpha-fetoprotein-producing nasopharyngeal carcinoma that had never been reported before.

11.
MedComm (2020) ; 2(2): 175-206, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766141

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a squamous carcinoma with apparent geographical and racial distribution, mostly prevalent in East and Southeast Asia, particularly concentrated in southern China. The epidemiological trend over the past decades has suggested a substantial reduction in the incidence rate and mortality rate due to NPC. These results may reflect changes in lifestyle and environment, and more importantly, a deeper comprehension of the pathogenic mechanism of NPC, leading to much progress in the preventing, screening, and treating for this cancer. Herein, we present the recent advances on the key signal pathways involved in pathogenesis of NPC, the mechanism of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) entry into the cell, and the progress of EBV vaccine and screening biomarkers. We will also discuss in depth the development of various therapeutic approaches including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. These research advancements have led to a new era of precision medicine in NPC.

12.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 41(11): 1195-1227, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699681

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor originating in the nasopharynx and has a high incidence in Southeast Asia and North Africa. To develop these comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and management of NPC, the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) arranged a multi-disciplinary team comprising of experts from all sub-specialties of NPC to write, discuss, and revise the guidelines. Based on the findings of evidence-based medicine in China and abroad, domestic experts have iteratively developed these guidelines to provide proper management of NPC. Overall, the guidelines describe the screening, clinical and pathological diagnosis, staging and risk assessment, therapies, and follow-up of NPC, which aim to improve the management of NPC.

13.
Head Neck ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether patients with post-treatment metastasis are suitable for GP first-line palliative chemotherapy (PCT) after undergoing GP IC. METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-six patients with post-treatment metastasis after undergoing GP IC were eligible. Survival outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Significant differences in survival rates were observed between patients treated with GP and non-GP chemotherapy (2-year progression-free survival [PFS]: 0.7% vs. 9.7%). We investigated survival outcomes of patients treated with GP PCT within 2 years after undergoing GP IC, treated with GP PCT 2 years after undergoing GP IC, and those of non-GP PCT patients (2-year PFS: 0.0%, 2.3%, 9.7%). However, there was no difference in the 2-year PFS between the patients that received GP PCT 2 years after undergoing GP IC and the non-GP PCT treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: GP is not recommended for patients that have received GP IC within 2 years. Two years after undergoing GP IC, GP can be considered.

14.
Head Neck ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prognostic value of the dynamic change in absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) and absolute monocyte counts (AMCs) and identify patients with N stage and plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who are at risk of treatment failure. METHODS: A total of 1124 eligible patients with Stage II-IVb NPC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were enrolled. Percentage changes in the ALC (ΔALC%) and AMC (ΔAMC%) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with high ΔALC% were correlated with poorer 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates than those with low ΔALC%. Likewise, high ΔAMC% was significantly associated with worse outcome than low ΔAMC% (OS, p = 0.001; PFS, p = 0.001; DMFS, p = 0.034). Multivariate analyses revealed that ΔALC% (p = 0.046), ΔAMC% (p = 0.019), and EBV DNA level (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for OS. With respect to PFS, ΔALC% (p = 0.036), ΔAMC% (p = 0.011), N classification (p = 0.016), and EBV DNA level (p < 0.001) were also independent prognosticators. Based on the aforementioned independent risk factors (ΔALC% ≥ 83.33%, ΔAMC% ≥ 40.00%, Stage N2-3, EBV DNA ≥ 4000 copies/ml), patients were divided into three different risk groups (low-risk group [with <1 risk factor], intermediate risk group [with 1-3 risk factors], and high-risk group [with 4 risk factors]) that correlated with disparate risks of death (p < 0.001), disease progression (p < 0.001), and distant metastasis (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High ΔALC% and ΔAMC% were correlated with poor prognosis in patients with NPC. Risk stratification based on ΔALC%, ΔAMC%, N classification, and plasma EBV DNA levels could provide potential utility for risk-adapted therapeutic strategies for NPC.

15.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 627935, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512316

RESUMO

Background: Despite the development of such multiple therapeutic approaches, approximately 20% patients experience recurrence. Identification of molecular markers for stratifying the different risks of tumour recurrence and progression is considered imperative. Methods: We used a RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array that simultaneously detected the levels of 297 proteins and profiled the conditioned medium of HONE1 cells and the radioresistant NPC cells HONE1-IR. We found Angiogenin(ANG) expression to be significantly increased in HONE1-IR and HONE1-IR cells exposed to 4-Gy X-ray radiation. Results: We investigated the expression of ANG in NPC tissues and explored its prognostic significance in patients with NPC. We found that ANG expression was increased in recurrent NPC tissues. Elevated expression of ANG induced radio-resistance in NPC cells, in addition to being significantly associated with shorter PFS, OS, and LRFS in patients with NPC. Multivariate analysis results revealed that ANG was an independent prognostic factor that predicted PFS, OS, and LRFS. Furthermore, a nomogram model was generated to predict OS in terms of ANG expression. Conclusion: Our results found the radioresistant function of ANG and proved the clinical prognostic significance of ANG, and the results could help predict radio-sensitivity and stratify high-risk patients or tumour recurrence.

16.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105539, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to explore the benefits of S-1/capecitabine as maintenance therapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with different risks of treatment failure. METHODS: A total of 2205 eligible, locoregionally advanced NPC patients were recruited for this retrospective study. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to identify optimal predictors of overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for constructing the nomograms. Patients were stratified into high-risk or low-risk groups based on the total score of the nomograms. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to match the maintenance and non-maintenance cohorts in different risk groups. A log-rank test was performed to evaluate correlations between maintenance therapy and survival. RESULTS: A nomogram for OS was established (C-index, 0.664; 95% confidence interval, 0.635-0.693). The 5-year OS rate was significantly higher in the low-risk group than in the high-risk group (83.5% vs. 67.2%, P < 0.001). Patients in the high-risk group who received S-1/capecitabine maintenance therapy achieved significant improvement in the 5-year OS rate (82.8% vs. 67.1%, p = 0.034), whereas patients in the low-risk group did not (86.7% vs. 80.9%, P = 0.081). There was no significant difference in OS, DMFS, progression-free survival (PFS), or toxicities between the S-1 and capecitabine groups (all P > 0.05), and overall treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were not severe (grade 1-2). CONCLUSION: S-1/capecitabine maintenance therapy could prolong OS for locoregionally advanced NPC patients in the high-risk group. The toxicities of S-1/capecitabine maintenance therapy were mild and tolerable. Our findings can help guide maintenance therapy in locoregionally advanced NPC.

17.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1536-1543, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341578

RESUMO

Gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy is the standard first-line systemic treatment for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC). In this international, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03581786), 289 patients with RM-NPC and no previous chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic disease were randomized (1/1) to receive either toripalimab, a monoclonal antibody against human programmed death-1 (PD-1), or placebo in combination with GP every 3 weeks for up to six cycles, followed by monotherapy with toripalimab or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by a blinded independent review committee according to RECIST v.1.1. At the prespecified interim PFS analysis, a significant improvement in PFS was detected in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm: median PFS of 11.7 versus 8.0 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.74), P = 0.0003. An improvement in PFS was observed across key subgroups, including PD-L1 expression. As of 18 February 2021, a 40% reduction in risk of death was observed in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm (HR = 0.603 (95% CI: 0.364-0.997)). The incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (89.0 versus 89.5%), AEs leading to discontinuation of toripalimab/placebo (7.5 versus 4.9%) and fatal AEs (2.7 versus 2.8%) was similar between the two arms; however, immune-related AEs (39.7 versus 18.9%) and grade ≥3 infusion reactions (7.5 versus 0.7%) were more frequent in the toripalimab arm. In conclusion, the addition of toripalimab to GP chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for patients with RM-NPC provided superior PFS compared to GP alone, and with a manageable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
18.
Hepatology ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Androgen receptor (AR) has been reported to play an important role in the development and progression of man's prostate cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is also male-dominant, but the role of AR in HCC remains poorly understood. Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) also has been reported to be highly activated in HCC. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of AR phosphorylation and its relationship with mTORC1 in hepatocarcinogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In vitro experiment, we observed that mTORC1 interacts with hepatic AR and phosphorylates it at S96 in response to nutrient and mitogenic stimuli in HCC cells. S96 phosphorylation promotes the stability, nuclear localization, and transcriptional activity of AR, which enhances de novo lipogenesis and proliferation in hepatocytes and induces liver steatosis and hepatocarcinogenesis in mice independently and cooperatively with androgen. Furthermore, high ARS96 phosphorylation is observed in human liver steatotic and HCC tissues and is associated with overall survival and disease-free survival, which has been proven as an independent survival predictor for patients with HCC. CONCLUSION: AR S96 phosphorylation by mTORC1 drives liver steatosis and HCC development and progression independently and cooperatively with androgen, which not only explains why HCC is man-biased but also provides a target molecule for prevention and treatment of HCC and a potential survival predictor in patients with HCC.

19.
Radiother Oncol ; 163: 185-191, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsatisfactory tumor response to induction chemotherapy (IC) is an adverse prognostic factor of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC). A re-induction strategy which applies additional cycles of an alternative IC regimen prior to radiotherapy (RT) has been adopted. METHODS: A total of 419 LANPC patients who attained suboptimal response (stable disease or disease progression) according to the Response Evaluation in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline after initial IC were retrospectively included. They were divided into those who received additional cycles of re-induction regimen prior to RT (re-induction group, n = 87) and those who had no additional chemotherapy (direct to RT group, n = 332). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to adjust for potential confounders. Tumor response and long-term survival were compared between two groups. RESULTS: After receiving a second IC regimen, 39.1% of the patients in re-induction group attained partial response; however, the tumor control of subsequent RT was not significantly improved when compared with direct to RT group (patients attaining complete response after RT 55.2% vs. 52.5%, P = 0.757). Patients who received re-induction therapy showed worse locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than those proceeded directly to RT (3-year LRFS 75.7% vs. 83.1%, P = 0.005; 3-year PFS 62.4% vs. 68.3%, P = 0.037). The increased hematological toxicities were observed in re-induction group that included grade 3-4 anemia, thrombocytopenia and liver enzyme increase. CONCLUSION: Re-induction therapy decreased LRFS and PFS and increased toxicities among patients who attain suboptimal response to initial IC regimen, as compared with direct to RT strategy.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(15): 4186-4194, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that a cumulative cisplatin dose of 200 mg/m2 might be adequate in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) era for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC). However, two cycles of once-every-3-weeks cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 has never been prospectively compared with standard once-a-week cisplatin regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This trial was conducted at three hospitals from 2011 to 2016. Patients who met the eligibility criteria were recruited (ChiCTR-TRC-12001979) and randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated sequence to receive once-every-3-weeks cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 for two cycles or once-a-week cisplatin at 40 mg/m2 for six cycles concurrently with IMRT. Primary endpoint was failure-free survival and between-group absolute difference of 10% as the noninferiority margin. RESULTS: A total of 510 patients were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 58.3 months with 85.4% of 3-year failure-free survival in the once-every-3-weeks group and 85.6% in the once-a-week group. An absolute difference of -0.2% (95% confidence interval, -6.3 to 5.9; P noninferiority = 0.0016). Acute toxicities of grade 3 or higher occurred in 55.8% in the once-every-3-weeks group and 66.3% in the once-a-week group (P = 0.015). The most common acute toxicities were hematologic abnormalities, including leukopenia (16% vs. 27%; P = 0.0022) and thrombocytopenia (1% vs. 5%; P = 0.015). The late grade 3-4 auditory loss rate was significantly lower in the once-every-3-weeks group than the once-a-week group (6% vs. 13%; P = 0.0039). CONCLUSIONS: Once-every-3-weeks cisplatin as concurrent chemoradiotherapy is noninferior to once-a-week cisplatin in the treatment efficacy in the LANPC. Although both regimens are well tolerated, severe acute toxicities and late-onset auditory loss are higher in the once-a-week group.

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