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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926825

RESUMO

The objective was to describe the utility of the chimeric posterior tibial artery flap (CPTAF) in the restoration of compound defects in the oral and maxillofacial region. Patients who underwent head and neck reconstruction using a CPTAF between February 2018 and February 2019 were included. Special consideration was given to the distribution of septocutaneous perforators (SPs), indications, flap survival, and complications. Nine patients were included. All flaps survived. One patient developed a surgical site infection, which was managed conservatively. The CPTAF was raised as a bipaddle skin flap without muscle (n=1), with the gastrocnemius muscle (n=6), or with the soleus muscle (n=2). The number of SPs ranged from three to five (mean 4±0.8). The SPs were mostly located between 4cm and 20cm proximal to the medial malleolus (mean 9.5±3.8cm). The skin paddle was used to reconstruct skin or mucosal defects, whereas the muscle part was used to fill the dead space (n=7) or to support the orbital contents (n=1). The donor site healed with no associated functional complications. The CPTAF is a good option for the restoration of composite tissue defects in the head and neck region. It offers flexibility during flap inset and provides the appropriate bulk to repair defects in multiple planes.

2.
Neoplasma ; 66(5): 776-784, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169018

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) has been demonstrated to be involved in the resistance of various human cancer cells to chemotherapies. However, the correlation between HIF1α and the sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin has not been illuminated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of HIF1α on drug resistance in NSCLC cells. A549 cells were incubated in 21% or 0.5% O2 followed by the assessment of the level of HIF1α with qRT-PCR and western blot and ROS level by DCFH-DA assays. Effects of hypoxia or HIF1α inhibitor LW6 on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells were evaluated via CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. IC50 of A549 cells to cisplatin was determined by MTT assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured via JC-1 staining. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis related protein (Bcl-2, Bax) and drug resistance related proteins (MDR1, MRP1) were measured by western blotting. Exposure of A549 cells to 1% O2 significantly up-regulated HIF1α expression, maintained cell viability to cisplatin but decreased the ROS level, which promoted chemoresistance to cisplatin. LW6-treated A549 cells showed an increase in ROS level that blocked the hypoxia induced resistance to cisplatin and in addition, decreased expression of MDR1 and MRP1 in cisplatin-treated cells. This study revealed that hypoxia-improved cisplatin chemoresistance of NSCLC cells by regulated MDR1 and MRP1 expression via HIF1α/ROS pathway is reversed by LW6, suggesting that LW6 may act as effective sensitizer in chemotherapy for NSCLC.


Assuntos
Acetanilidas , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Cisplatino , Células A549 , Acetanilidas/farmacologia , Adamantano/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia
3.
Radiother Oncol ; 136: 161-168, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Detailed knowledge of target motion is important for improved accuracy and decreased toxicity of esophageal cancer radiotherapy. This study uses the 3D trajectories of implanted markers during setup CBCT scans to investigate the intra- and interfractional tumor motion in esophageal cancer radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For 21 esophageal cancer patients with implanted fiducial markers, 60-s 3D marker trajectories were estimated from the 2D marker positions in the projections of daily setup CBCT scans by a probability-based method. The motion was separated into respiratory and cardiac components by frequency analysis and motion magnitude (2nd-98th percentile) was extracted for each marker. The mean motion was calculated over all markers. The daily mean setup interfraction error for bony-anatomy and soft-tissue setup was used to estimate the margin accounting for interfractional motion. RESULTS: A total of 1036 marker trajectories were extracted using 427 CBCT scans and 63 markers. The mean motion magnitude over all markers was 2.9 mm (left-right (LR)), 8.8 mm (cranio-caudal (CC)) and 4.1 mm (anterior-posterior (AP)) for the full motion during CBCT acquisition with mean magnitudes of 2.7 mm (LR), 8.4 mm (CC) and 3.5 mm (AP) for respiratory motion and 1.0 mm (LR), 1.5 mm (CC) and 1.4 mm (AP) for cardiac motion. Substantial daily marker shifts relative to bones resulted in margins of 8.9 mm (LR), 9.5 mm (CC), and 7.3 mm (AP). Soft-tissue based setup in and near the CTV combined with rescanning of patients with anatomical changes reduced the margins to 6.9 mm (LR), 6.8 mm (CC), and 5.6 mm (AP). CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal tumor motion was mapped with unprecedented detail throughout the radiotherapy course. Respiratory motion dominated and was largest in the CC direction. Soft-tissue matching and an adaptive strategy reduced interfractional margins by 2-3 mm compared to bony-anatomy matching.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e022580, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore health literacy as a marker of voter confusion in order to understand the basis for public opposition to community water fluoridation. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Conducted in three large US cities of San Antonio, Texas (602 voting precincts); Wichita, Kansas (171 voting precincts); and Portland, Oregon (132 voting precincts). Precinct-level voting data were compiled from community water fluoridation referendums conducted in San Antonio in 2002, Wichita in 2012 and Portland in 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Voter turnout expressed as a percentage of registered voters was 38% in San Antonio (n=2 92 811), 47% in Wichita (n=129 199) and 38% in Portland (n=164 301). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The dependent variable was the percentage of votes in favour of fluoridating drinking water. Precinct-level voting data were mapped to precinct scores of health literacy, and to US Census and American Community Survey characteristics of race/ethnicity, age, income and educational attainment. Multilevel regression with post-stratification predicted the precinct mean health literacy scores, with weights generated from the National Association of Adult Literacy health literacy survey, with item response theory computed scoring for health literacy. Predictive models on voter support of community water fluoridation were compared using robust linear regression to determine how precinct-level characteristics influenced voter support in order to determine whether health literacy explained more variance in voting preference than sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Precinct-level health literacy was positively associated with voter turnout, although sociodemographic characteristics were better predictors of turnout. Approximately 60% of voters opposed community water fluoridation in Wichita and Portland, whereas in San Antonio, a small majority (53%) voted in favour of it. Models suggest that a one SD increase in health literacy scores predicted a 12 percentage point increase support for community water fluoridation. CONCLUSION: Educational attainment and health literacy are modifiable characteristics associated with voting precincts' support for community water fluoridation.


Assuntos
Fluoretação/estatística & dados numéricos , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluoretação/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Opinião Pública , Estados Unidos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(2)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717300

RESUMO

Repetitive DNA including tandem repeats (TRs) is a significant part of most eukaryotic genomes. TRs include rapidly evolving satellite DNA (satDNA) that can be shared by closely related species, their abundance may be associated with evolutionary divergence, and they have been widely used for chromosome karyotyping using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The recent progress in the development of whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics tools enables rapid and cost-effective searches for TRs including satDNA that can be converted into molecular cytogenetic markers. In the case of closely related taxa, the genome sequence of one species (donor) can be used as a base for the development of chromosome markers for related species or genomes (target). Here, we present a pipeline for rapid and high-throughput screening for new satDNA TRs in whole-genome sequencing of the donor genome and the development of chromosome markers based on them that can be applied in the target genome. One of the main peculiarities of the developed pipeline is that preliminary estimation of TR abundance using qPCR and ranking found TRs according to their copy number in the target genome; it facilitates the selection of the most prospective (most abundant) TRs that can be converted into cytogenetic markers. Another feature of our pipeline is the probe preparation for FISH using PCR with primers designed on the aligned TR unit sequences and the genomic DNA of a target species as a template that enables amplification of a whole pool of monomers inherent in the chromosomes of the target species. We demonstrate the efficiency of the developed pipeline by the example of FISH probes developed for A, B, and R subgenome chromosomes of hexaploid triticale (BBAARR) based on a bioinformatics analysis of the D genome of Aegilops tauschii (DD) whole-genome sequence. Our pipeline can be used to develop chromosome markers in closely related species for comparative cytogenetics in evolutionary and breeding studies.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Poaceae/genética , DNA Satélite , Marcadores Genéticos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Poliploidia , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem
6.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(Suppl 1): 29-45, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506126

RESUMO

Objectives Since the 1990s, programs for the control of micronutrient deficiencies became a public health priority for many governments, including the countries partnering the project "Sustainable Micronutrient Interventions to Control Deficiencies and Improve Nutritional Status and General Health in Asia" (SMILING): Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos-PDR, Thailand and Vietnam. The aim of this study was to map which micronutrient deficiencies have been addressed and which interventions were in place in the SMILING countries. Methods The mapping covered the period up to 2012. Updated information from relevant surveys after 2012 is included in this paper after the completion of the SMILING project. The mapping of micronutrient status was limited to either national or at least large-scale surveys. Information on nutrition interventions obtained through a systematic mapping of national programs combined with a snowball collection from various sources. Results Among the five SMILING countries, Thailand differed historically by an early implementation of a nationwide community-based nutrition program, contributing to reductions in undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. For Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, and Vietnam, some national programs addressing micronutrients have been implemented following adjusted international recommendations. National surveys on micronutrient status were scattered and inconsistent across the countries in design and frequency. Conclusion for practice In conclusion, some micronutrient deficiencies were addressed in national interventions but the evidence of effects was generally lacking because of limited nationally representative data collected. Improvement of intervention programs to efficiently reduce or eliminate micronutrient deficiencies requires more systematic monitoring and evaluation of effects of interventions in order to identify best practices.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Ferro , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva , Ásia Sudeste , Criança , Feminino , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Deficiência de Vitamina A/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dalton Trans ; 47(44): 15791-15800, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357190

RESUMO

The gas-phase atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique is strongly emerging as a viable approach to fabricate new exciting inorganic-organic hybrid thin-film materials. However, much less effort has been made to develop new precursors specifically intended for ALD/MLD; this applies to both the organic and inorganic precursors, and in the latter case in particular to transition metal precursors. Here we introduce copper bisdimethylaminopropoxide (Cu(dmap)2) as a promising transition metal precursor for ALD/MLD to be combined with a variety of organic precursors with different backbones and functional groups, i.e. hydroquinone (HQ), terephthalic acid (TPA), 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), p-phenylenediamine (PPDA) and 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). Hybrid Cu-organic thin films were obtained from all five organic precursors with appreciably high growth rates ranging from 1.0 to 2.6 Å per cycle. However, the Cu(dmap)2 + HQ process was found to yield hybrid Cu-organic films only at temperatures below 120 °C, while at higher temperatures metallic Cu films were obtained. The films were characterized by XRR, GIXRD, FTIR, Raman, XPS and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(3): 289-294, 2018 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609241

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the acceptance and personal demand for cancer screening service among the urban residents who had never been involved in any national level cancer screening programs in China and identify the key factors influencing the sustainability of cancer screening. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the local people aged 40-69 years selected through convenience sampling in 16 provinces of China to collect the general information about their demands for the screening service and others. Results: A total of 16 394 qualified questionnaires were completed. The average age of the people surveyed was (53.8±8.0) years, and men accounted for 44.6%. Without concerning the cost, 4 831 people (29.5%) had no demands for cancer screening services, the reasons are as follow: they would like to go to see doctors only when they were ill (61.8%); they had already received similar medical examinations (36.8%) and they would like to receive cancer screening directly without pre-health risk assessment (33.0%). Among the people surveyed, 10 795 (65.8%) had demands for cancer screening services, but they had choice on the screening settings, 43.7% wanted to receive the service in a general hospitals, while 36.5% would like to go to cancer-specialized hospitals. As for the level of medical institutes providing cancer screening service, 61.4% of the people surveyed would choose a higher level one, while 36.4% would choose an ordinary one. On screening procedures, 61.5% of the people surveyed would accept the mode of "clinical examination after questionnaire-assessment" . Conclusion: Most people surveyed had demands for cancer screening services and they would like to receive the screening services in higher level medical institutes. It is suggested to spread cancer screening know ledge, and strengthen the capability building of screening in grass root medical institutes to attract more people to receive cancer screening.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(3): 295-301, 2018 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609242

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the constituent and workload of service providers engaged in cancer screening in China and provide evidence for the assessment of the sustainability of national cancer screening project. Methods: Using either questionnaire or online approach, the survey was conducted in 16 provinces, where Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) was conducted, from 2014 to 2015. The medical institutes surveyed included hospitals [71.1% were class Ⅲ(A) hospitals], centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) and community centers where cancer screening was undertaken during 2013-2015. The questionnaire survey was conducted among the staffs responsible for the overall coordination, management and implementation of the screening project to collect the information about the allocation, workload and compensation of the service providers from different specialties. Results: A total of 4 626 staffs were surveyed in this study, their average age was (37.7±9.5) years, and males accounted for 31.0%. Human resources allocated differed with province. The number of senior staff ranged from 6 (Chongqing) to 43 (Beijing) among the 8 comparable provinces. Among the staffs surveyed, 2 192 were from hospitals, 431 were from CDCs and 1 990 were from community centers, and the staffs who complained heavy workload accounted for 19.9%, 24.6% and 34.1% respectively (P<0.001). Among 227 staffs for overall coordination, 376 management staffs and 3 908 staffs for implementation, those who complained heavy workload accounted for 23.6%, 22.3% and 28.2% respectively (P<0.001). A total of 3 244 staffs (73.8%) got compensations for heavy workload. The compensation types were manly labor fee linked with workload (67.5%) and labor fee regardless workload (26.6%). Conclusion: The province specific differences in human resources allocation indicated the differences in screening project's organizing pattern and capability. It is suggested to conduct routine cancer screening (using specialized staffs), reduce the workload of the first line and community staffs and increase the compensation for the service providers for the sustainability of cancer screening project in China.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Carga de Trabalho , China , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(2): 142-149, 2018 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495196

RESUMO

Objective: From the perspective of actual service suppliers regarding cancer screening, this study aimed to assess the long-term sustainability of cancer screening programs in China. Methods: Based on a Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC), our survey focused on all the hospitals, centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) and community service centers across 16 provinces in China which participated in the programs between 2013 and 2015. All the managers (institutional/department level) and professional staff involved in the program were interviewed using either paper-based questionnaire or online approach. Results: A total of 4 626 participants completed the interview. It showed that the main gains from providing screening service emphasized promotion in social value (63.6%), local reputation (35.9%), and professional skills (30.6%), whereas difficulties encountered included inadequate compensation (30.9%) and discordance among information systems (28.3%). When the service remuneration amounts to about 50 Chinese Yuan per screening item, those professional staff self-reported that they would like to work overtime. More than half (63.7%) of the staff expressed willingness to provide routine screening service, the main expectations were to promote their reputation to the local residents (48.7%) and to promote professional skills (43.1%). Those who were not willing to provide screening services were worried about the potential heavy workload (59.8%) or being interfered with their routine work (49.8%). Further detailed results regarding the different organization types and program roles were presented in the following detailed report. Conclusions: Findings of gains and difficulties showed that if cancer screening is expected to become a long-term running, incentive mechanism from the program, external promotion and advocacy as well as capacity building should be strengthened; furthermore, rewards to staff's screening services should be raised according to the local situations. Results regarding the "willingness to provide service" showed that management of the program should also be strengthened, including information system building and inter-agency and inter-department coordination at the government levels.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , China , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Motivação , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , População Urbana , Carga de Trabalho
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(2): 150-156, 2018 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495197

RESUMO

Objective: Based on the investment for potential suppliers of cancer screening services, we assessed the reasons that affecting their participation motivation related to the long-term sustainability of cancer screening in China. Methods: Hospitals that had never been involved in any national level cancer screening project were selected by using the convenient sampling method within the 16 project cities of Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) with 1 or 2 hospitals for each city. All the managers from the institutional/department level and professional staff working and providing screening services in these hospitals, were interviewed by paper-based questionnaire. SAS 9.4 was used for logical verification and data analysis. Results: A total of 31 hospitals (18 hospitals at the third level and, 13 hospitals at the second level) and 2 201 staff (508 hospital and clinic unit managers, 1 693 professional staff) completed the interview. All the hospitals guaranteed their potential capacity in service providing. 92.5% hospital managers showed strong willingness in providing cancer screening services, while 68.3% of them declared that the project fund-raising function was the responsibility of the government. For professional staff, their prospect gains from providing screening service would include development on professional skills (72.4%) and material rewards (46.8%). Their main worries would include extra work for CanSPUC might interfere their routine work (42.1%) plus inadequate compensation (41.8%). Medians of the prospect compensation for extra work ran between 20 to 90 Chinese Yuan per screening item respectively. For all the screening items, workers from the third-level hospitals expected their compensation to be twice as much of those working at the second level hospitals. Conclusion: Professional capacity building and feasible material incentive seemed to be the two key factors that influenced the sustainability and development of the programs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Motivação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , China , Cidades , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(2): 157-164, 2018 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495198

RESUMO

Objective: From an actual cancer screening service demanders' perspective, we tried to understand the preference on screening frequency and willingness-to-pay for the packaging screening program on common cancers and to evaluate its long-term sustainability in urban populations in China. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, a multi-center cross-sectional survey was conducted among the actual screening participants from 13 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC). By face-to-face interview, information regarding to preference to screening frequency, willingness-to-pay for packaging screening program, maximum amount on payment and related reasons for unwillingness were investigated. Results: A total of 31 029 participants were included in this survey, with an average age as (55.2±7.5) years and median annual income per family as 25 000 Chinese Yuan. People's preference to screening frequency varied under different assumptions ( " totally free" and "self-paid" ). When the packaging screening was assumed totally free, 93.9% of residents would prefer to take the screening program every 1 to 3 years. However, the corresponding proportion dropped to 67.3% when assuming a self-paid pattern. 76.7% of the participants had the willingness-to-pay for the packaging screening, but only 11.2% of them would like to pay more than 500 Chinese Yuan (the expenditure of the particular packaging screening were about 1 500 Chinese Yuan). The remaining 23.3% of residents showed no willingness-to-pay, and the main reasons were unaffordable expenditure (71.7%) and feeling'no need'(40.4%). Conclusions: People who participated in the CanSPUC program generally tended to choose high-frequency packaging screening program, indicating the high potential acceptance for scale-up packaging screening, while it needs cautious assessments and rational guidance to the public. Although about seven in ten of the residents were willing to pay, the payment amount was limited, revealing the necessity of strengthening individual's awareness of his or her key role in health self-management, and a reasonable payment proportion should be considered when establishing co-compensation mechanism.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Honorários e Preços , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , China , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(2): 165-172, 2018 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495199

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the sustainability of cancer screening strategy from potential demander's perspective in Chinese country, we conducted a study on the use of cancer screening services and willingness-to-pay among the urban community residents. All the participants of this study had not been on the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) or any other national level cancer screening projects. Methods: Target communities and populations were selected from the 16 project provinces in China which were on the program between 2014 and 2015, by using the multi-center cross-sectional convenience sampling method. Chi-square was used to compare the rates on the utilization of service and willingness-to-pay across the different subgroups. Logistic progression was conducted to examine factors that associated with the service utilization and willingness-to-pay. Results: A total of 16 394 participants were included in this study. Among them, 12.1% (1 984/16 394) had ever been on a cancer screening program. Populations with following characteristics as: being elderly (60-69 years, OR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.13-1.43), female (male, OR= 0.56, 95%CI: 0.50-0.62), having had higher education (high school/specialized secondary school, OR= 1.51, 95%CI: 1.35-1.70; college or over, OR=2.10, 95%CI: 1.36-3.25), working for public (OR=2.85, 95% CI: 2.26-3.59), enterprises or self-employed agencies (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.06-1.64), having higher income (60 000-150 000 Chinese Yuan, OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.39-1.73; ≥150 000 Chinese Yuan, OR=2.57, 95% CI: 2.09-3.15), under basic medical insurance programs for urban employees/for government servants'(OR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32), on basic medical insurance set for urban residents'/on commercial medical insurance programs etc. (OR=1.01, 95%CI: 0.84-1.22), were in favor of the services. When neglecting the fee for charge, 65.8% (10 795/16 394) of the participants said that they could accept the cancer screening program, particularly in those who had already been on the screening program (P<0.05). 61.2% (10 038/16 392) of all the participants showed the willingness-topay for a long-term packaging screening services, particularly in those who were relatively younger (60-69 years, OR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.74-0.87), working for public (OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.56-1.98) or enterprise sectors or self-employed households (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.18-1.47), having higher income (60 000-150 000 Chinese Yuan, OR=1.51, 95%CI: 1.40-1.63; ≥150 000 Chinese Yuan,OR= 1.95, 95% CI: 1.60-2.38), utilized screening services (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.94-2.46). Conclusions: The rate of using the cancer screening services should be improved. Factors including age, gender, education, occupation, income and insurance appeared as major factors related to the use of cancer screening services. Willingness-to-pay seemed relatively high, but the amount of payment they could afford was limited. Factors including age, occupation, income and insurance appeared as major factors to the willingness-to-pay.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , População Urbana , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Honorários e Preços , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 149(4): 273-280.e3, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite supporting scientific evidence, community water fluoridation (CWF) often fails in public referenda. To understand why, the authors quantitatively analyzed text from news media coverage of CWF referenda. METHODS: The authors analyzed text from 234 articles covering 11 CWF referenda conducted in 3 US cities from 1956 through 2013. The authors used cluster analysis to identify each article's core rhetoric and classified it according to sentiment and tone. The authors used multilevel count regression models to measure the use of positive and negative words regarding CWF. RESULTS: Media coverage more closely resembled core rhetoric used by fluoridation opponents than the rhetoric used by fluoridation proponents. Despite the scientific evidence, the media reports were balanced in tone and sentiment for and against CWF. However, in articles emphasizing children, greater negative sentiment was associated with CWF rejection. CONCLUSIONS: Media coverage depicted an artificial balance of evidence and tone in favor of and against CWF. The focus on children was associated with more negative tone in cities where voters rejected CWF. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: When speaking to the media, advocates for CWF should emphasize benefits for children and use positive terms about dental health rather than negative terms about dental disease.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretação , Criança , Comunicação , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 735, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335590

RESUMO

Results from live cell imaging of fluorescently tagged Cellulose Synthase (CESA) proteins in Cellulose Synthesis Complexes (CSCs) have enhanced our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis, including the mechanisms of action of cellulose synthesis inhibitors. However, this method has been applied only in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon thus far. Results from freeze fracture electron microscopy of protonemal filaments of the moss Funaria hygrometrica indicate that a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), fragments CSCs and clears them from the plasma membrane. This differs from Arabidopsis, in which DCB causes CSC accumulation in the plasma membrane and a different cellulose synthesis inhibitor, isoxaben, clears CSCs from the plasma membrane. In this study, live cell imaging of the moss Physcomitrella patens indicated that DCB and isoxaben have little effect on protonemal growth rates, and that only DCB causes tip rupture. Live cell imaging of mEGFP-PpCESA5 and mEGFP-PpCESA8 showed that DCB and isoxaben substantially reduced CSC movement, but had no measureable effect on CSC density in the plasma membrane. These results suggest that DCB and isoxaben have similar effects on CSC movement in P. patens and Arabidopsis, but have different effects on CSC intracellular trafficking, cell growth and cell integrity in these divergent plant lineages.


Assuntos
Bryopsida/enzimologia , Bryopsida/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Celulose/biossíntese , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Bryopsida/efeitos dos fármacos , Bryopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microscopia Intravital , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 45(9): 758-764, 2017 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036973

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived parameters on the improvement of left ventricular function in patients with acute viral myocarditis. Methods: Forty patients, who referred for acute viral myocarditis in our hospital from September 2011 to September 2015, were prospectively enrolled in this study.All patients were examined by CMR during hospitalization for acute viral myocarditis (baseline) and after 12 months.The CMR sequences include: two dimension steady state free precession, 2D SSFP; triple inversion recovery, triple IR; early gadolinium enhancement; phase sensitive inversion recovery turbo field echo, PSIR TFE. Results: Thirty out of 40 patients with susceptive acute viral myocarditis met the CMR criteria of acute viral myocarditis (Lake Louise Criteria) (LL+ ) and the other 10 patients did not meet the diagnostic criteria (LL-). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) values were significantly lower in LL+ group than in LL- group at baseline and at 12 months after discharge (P<0.01 or 0.05, respectively). The baseline left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) was significantly higher in LL+ group than in LL- group (P<0.05) and was similar between the groups at 12 months follow up.Left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI )was similar between the two groups at baseline and at 12 months follow up.LVEF was significantly higher during 12 months follow up compared to baseline in LL+ group and remained unchanged in LL- group during the two time points.LVESVI and LVEDVI remained unchanged at baseline and during 12 months follow up both in LL+ and LL- groups (P>0.05). Results showed that LL+ , edema ratio (ER) positive and global relative enhancement (gRE) positive were associated with significant increase of LVEF at 12 months follow up.However, LL-, ER negative, gRE negative, late gadolinium enhancement(LGE) negative and LGE positive linked with unchanged LVEF at 12 months follow up (P>0.05). Patients were further divided into LVEF increase (ΔLVEF≥5%) group and non LVEF increase group (ΔLVEF<5%), the results of Chi-square test showed that LL+ and ER positive were related to the improvement of LVEF (P<0.05), while gRE and LGE were not associated with improvement of cardiac function (P>0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis, using ER, gRE and LGE as independent variables and LVEF as dependent variables, showed that the presence of myocardial edema was the strongest independent predictor of an increase in LVEF at follow up (full model: non-standardized coefficient 0.445, P=0.043; reduced model: non-standardized coefficient 0.442, P=0.12). Conclusion: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging monitoring is valuable to observe the cardiac function and morphology changes in patients with acute viral myocarditis, and myocardial edema imaging is the most powerful parameter to predict the improvement of LVEF in this patient cohort.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Miocardite , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Meios de Contraste , Humanos , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Miocardite/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
18.
Plant Physiol ; 175(1): 210-222, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768816

RESUMO

The secondary cell walls of tracheary elements and fibers are rich in cellulose microfibrils that are helically oriented and laterally aggregated. Support cells within the leaf midribs of mosses deposit cellulose-rich secondary cell walls, but their biosynthesis and microfibril organization have not been examined. Although the Cellulose Synthase (CESA) gene families of mosses and seed plants diversified independently, CESA knockout analysis in the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed parallels with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in CESA functional specialization, with roles for both subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization. The similarities include regulatory uncoupling of the CESAs that synthesize primary and secondary cell walls, a requirement for two or more functionally distinct CESA isoforms for secondary cell wall synthesis, interchangeability of some primary and secondary CESAs, and some CESA redundancy. The cellulose-deficient midribs of ppcesa3/8 knockouts provided negative controls for the structural characterization of stereid secondary cell walls in wild type P. patens Sum frequency generation spectra collected from midribs were consistent with cellulose microfibril aggregation, and polarization microscopy revealed helical microfibril orientation only in wild type leaves. Thus, stereid secondary walls are structurally distinct from primary cell walls, and they share structural characteristics with the secondary walls of tracheary elements and fibers. We propose a mechanism for the convergent evolution of secondary walls in which the deposition of aggregated and helically oriented microfibrils is coupled to rapid and highly localized cellulose synthesis enabled by regulatory uncoupling from primary wall synthesis.


Assuntos
Bryopsida/enzimologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Bryopsida/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 56(2): 127-129, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28162183

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to explore the effect and its clinical relevance of short-term intensive insulin treatment on plasma concentrations of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) and secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety newly diagnosed T2DM patients were recruited and received continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) for about 2 weeks. After CSII, sPLA(2) levels [173.78 (80.95, 278.09) µg/L] were significantly decreased compared with the levels before [219.33 (130.03, 337.30) µg/L], P<0.01, while no statistic significant changes could be viewed in Lp-PLA(2) levels. Correlation analysis showed that the changes of Lp-PLA(2) and sPLA(2) were both positively correlated with the changes of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR)after CSII (r=0.537, 0.493 respectively, all P<0.05). The Lp-PLA(2) and sPLA(2) level reduction after CSII might help to protect the patients from diabetic macroangiopathy. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TRC-10001618.


Assuntos
1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/sangue , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/metabolismo , Adulto , Glicemia , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Leukemia ; 31(8): 1695-1705, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899805

RESUMO

Mutational characterisation in multiple myeloma (MM) currently relies on bone marrow (BM) biopsy, which fails to capture the putative spatial and genetic heterogeneity of this multifocal disease. Analysis of plasma (PL)-derived circulating free tumour DNA (ctDNA) as an adjunct to BM biopsy, for mutational characterisation and tracking disease progression, was evaluated. Paired BM MM cell DNA and ctDNA from 33 relapsed/refractory (RR) and 15 newly diagnosed (ND) patients were analysed for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and TP53 mutations using the OnTarget Mutation Detection (OMD) platform. OMD detected 128 mutations (PL=31, BM=59, both=38) indicating the presence of PL mutations (54%). A higher frequency of PL-only mutations was detected in RR patients than ND (27.2% vs 6.6%, respectively), authenticating the existence of spatial and genetic heterogeneity in advanced disease. Activating RAS mutations were more highly prevalent than previously described with 69% harboring at least one RAS mutation. Sequential ctDNA quantitation with droplet digital PCR through longitudinal PL tracking of specific clones in seven patients demonstrated changes in fractional abundance of certain clones reflective of the disease status. We conclude that ctDNA analysis as an adjunct to BM biopsy represents a noninvasive and holistic strategy for improved mutational characterisation and therapeutic monitoring of MM.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mutação , Separação Celular , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Recidiva , Proteínas ras/fisiologia
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