*Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 2020 Feb 12.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-32052547

##### RESUMO

Photochemistry is a fascinating branch of chemistry concerned with molecules and light. However, the importance of simulating light-induced processes is reflected also in fields as diverse as biology, material science, or medicine. This Minireview highlights recent progress achieved in theoretical chemistry to calculate electronically excited states of molecules and simulate their photo-induced dynamics aspiring to reach experimental accuracy. We focus on emergent methods and give selected examples that illustrate the progress in recent years towards predicting complex electronic structure situations involving strong correlation, performing calculations for large molecules, describing multi-chromophoric systems, and simulating nonadiabatic molecular dynamics for long time scales, for molecules in gas phase or in complex biological environments.

*J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1443-1449, 2020 Feb 06.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31918552

##### RESUMO

The response of a molecule to photoexcitation is governed by the coupling of its electronic states. However, if the energetic spacing between the electronically excited states at the Franck-Condon window becomes sufficiently small, it is infeasible to selectively excite and monitor individual states with conventional time-resolved spectroscopy, preventing insight into the energy transfer and relaxation dynamics of the molecule. Here, we demonstrate how the combination of time-resolved spectroscopy and extensive surface hopping dynamics simulations with a global fit approach on individually excited ensembles overcomes this limitation and resolves the dynamics in the n3p Rydberg states in acetone. Photoelectron transients of the three closely spaced states n3px, n3py, and n3pz are used to validate the theoretical results, which in turn allow retrieving a comprehensive kinetic model describing the mutual interactions of these states for the first time.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(11): 5925-5964, 2019 Nov 12.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31509407

##### RESUMO

In this Article we describe the OpenMolcas environment and invite the computational chemistry community to collaborate. The open-source project already includes a large number of new developments realized during the transition from the commercial MOLCAS product to the open-source platform. The paper initially describes the technical details of the new software development platform. This is followed by brief presentations of many new methods, implementations, and features of the OpenMolcas program suite. These developments include novel wave function methods such as stochastic complete active space self-consistent field, density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods, and hybrid multiconfigurational wave function and density functional theory models. Some of these implementations include an array of additional options and functionalities. The paper proceeds and describes developments related to explorations of potential energy surfaces. Here we present methods for the optimization of conical intersections, the simulation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and interfaces to tools for semiclassical and quantum mechanical nuclear dynamics. Furthermore, the Article describes features unique to simulations of spectroscopic and magnetic phenomena such as the exact semiclassical description of the interaction between light and matter, various X-ray processes, magnetic circular dichroism, and properties. Finally, the paper describes a number of built-in and add-on features to support the OpenMolcas platform with postcalculation analysis and visualization, a multiscale simulation option using frozen-density embedding theory, and new electronic and muonic basis sets.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(9): 5031-5045, 2019 Sep 10.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31339716

##### RESUMO

The reliability of different parameters in the surface hopping method is assessed for a vibronic coupling model of a challenging transition metal complex, where a large number of electronic states of different multiplicities are met within a small energy range. In particular, the effect of two decoherence correction schemes and of various strategies for momentum rescaling and treating frustrating hops during the dynamics is investigated and compared against an accurate quantum dynamics simulation. The results show that surface hopping is generally able to reproduce the reference but also that small differences in the protocol used can strongly affect the results. We find a clear preference for momentum rescaling along only one degree of freedom, using either the nonadiabatic coupling or the gradient difference vector, and trace this effect back to an enhanced number of frustrated hops. Furthermore, reflection of the momentum after frustrated hops is shown to work better than to ignore the process completely. The study also highlights the importance of the decoherence correction, but neither of the two methods employed, energy based decoherence or augmented fewest switches surface hopping, performs completely satisfactory and we trace this effect back to a lack of size-consistency. Finally, the effect of different methods for analyzing the populations is highlighted. More generally, the study emphasizes the importance of the often neglected parameters in surface hopping and shows that there is still a need for simple, robust, and generally applicable correction schemes.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(6): 3730-3742, 2019 Jun 11.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31038951

##### RESUMO

Excited-state MS-CASPT2 and ADC(2) quantum chemical calculations and nonadiabatic dynamics simulations show that 2-selenouracil is able to both efficiently populate and depopulate reactive triplet states in an ultrashort time scale. Thus, the heavier homologue of 2-thiouracil unites the ultrafast, high-yield intersystem crossing of 2-thiouracil with the short excited-state lifetime and photostability of the parent nucleobase uracil-two properties that have been traditionally thought to be diametrically opposed. Remarkably, while the S2 â S1 â T2 â T1 deactivation dynamics of 2-selenouracil is analogous to that of 2-thiouracil, the calculations show that the triplet lifetime of 2-selenouracil should decrease by up to 3 orders of magnitude in comparison to that 2-thiouracil, possibly down to the few-picosecond time scale. The main reasons for this decrease are the lack of a second T1 minimum, the enhanced spin-orbit coupling, and the reduction of the energy barrier to access the T1/ S0 crossing-in particular in aqueous solution-compared to 2-thiouracil. Such unusual photophysical properties, together with its significant red-shifted absorption spectrum, could make 2-selenouracil a useful specialized photosensitizer for photodynamical therapy.

##### Assuntos

Uracila/análogos & derivados , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica , Uracila/química*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(6): 3470-3480, 2019 Jun 11.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31050425

##### RESUMO

The ability of different electronic structure methods to correctly describe intersystem crossing dynamics is evaluated, using thioformaldehyde as a test case. Mischievously, all methods considered-ranging from the multireference methods MRCISD, MS-CASPT2, or SA-CASSCF, to the single-reference methods ADC(2), CC2, and TDDFT in different flavors-provide the same state ordering and energies of the low-lying singlet and triplet electronic excited states within an acceptable error of 0.2-0.3 eV. However, the outcome of the nonadiabatic simulations after excitation to the lowest S1 (1 nπ*) state are dramatically different. While MS-CASPT2, ADC(2), BP86, and PBE do not transfer population to the triplet states within 500 fs-consistent with experimental evidence-SA-CASSCF, B3LYP, and BHHLYP predict intersystem crossing yields between 3% and 21% within the same time. The different excited state dynamics can be rationalized by inspecting potential energy profiles along the C-S bond stretch mode and single-triplet energy gaps. It is found that already at a C-S bond length of 1.9 Å, all the single-reference methods struggle to describe the correct asymptotic behavior of the potentials. Moreover, some methods, including SA-CASSCF, obtain incorrect 1 nπ*-3 ππ* energy gaps, leading to compensation of errors (ADC(2), BP86, PBE), or wrong dynamics (SA-CASSCF, B3LYP, BHHLYP). Only the accurate MRCISD and MS-CASPT2 methods are able to describe the C-S bond correctly and thus able to deliver the correct potential energy surfaces and dynamics for the right reason. A correlation with the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange in the density functional and the ease to access the 3 ππ* state from the 1 nπ* are able to explain the different behavior observed for GGA and hybrid functionals. It is thus illustrated that even in the case of a simple molecule, like CH2S, the sole assessment of vertical excitation energies as reliability predictors for nonadiabatic dynamics is inadequate. The reason is that ISC does not occur at the FC geometry, but rather at distorted geometries where the singlet-triplet gaps become small. Hence, a characterization of the potential energy surfaces beyond the Franck-Condon region is mandatory.

*Chemphyschem ; 20(5): 655-664, 2019 03 04.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30618192

##### RESUMO

Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) with damping monitoring is applied for real-time analysis of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in diphenyl octyl phosphate (DPOP) and vinylene carbonate (VC) modified electrolytes. Fast SEI formation is observed for the DPOP containing electrolyte, whereas slow growth is detected in VC-modified and reference electrolytes. QCM measurements in a dry state show considerable reduction of the mass quantity for DPOP and reference samples and minor mass decrease for the SEI layer formed in the presence of VC. The results indicate that VC enhances SEI stability, whereas the addition of DPOP or no additive results in incorporation of loosely attached species, leadubg to SEI instability. Resonance frequency damping, Δw, and dissipation factor, D, are used for analyzing mechanical properties of the SEI layers. The apparent increase of Δw and D during SEI formation in presence of DPOP suggests a pronounced viscoelasticity of the layer. QCM results are compared with surface morphology and chemical composition, revealing excellent agreement of the applied characterization approaches.

*J Chem Phys ; 151(24): 244115, 2019 Dec 28.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31893890

##### RESUMO

Nonadiabatic dynamics simulations of molecules with a large number of nuclear degrees of freedom become increasingly feasible, but there is still a need to extract from such simulations a small number of most important modes of nuclear motion, for example, to obtain general insight or to construct low-dimensional model potentials for further simulations. Standard techniques for this dimensionality reduction employ statistical methods that identify the modes that account for the largest variance in nuclear positions. However, large-amplitude motion is not necessarily a good proxy for the influence of a mode on the electronic wave function evolution. Hence, we report three analysis techniques aimed at extracting from surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics simulations the vibrational modes that are most strongly affected by the electronic excitation and that most significantly affect the interaction of the electronic states. The first technique identifies coherent nuclear motion after excitation from the ratio between total variance and variance of the average trajectory. The second strategy employs linear regression to find normal modes that have a statistically significant effect on excitation energies, energy gaps, or wave function overlaps. The third approach uses time-frequency analysis to find normal modes, where the vibrational frequencies change during the dynamics simulation. All three techniques are applied to the case of surface hopping trajectories of [Re(CO)3(Im)(Phen)]+ (Im = imidazole; Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), but we also discuss how these techniques could be extended to other nonadiabatic dynamics methods. For [Re(CO)3(Im)(Phen)]+, it is shown that the nonadiabatic dynamics is dominated by a small number of carbonyl and phenanthroline in-plane stretch modes.

*Chem Sci ; 10(44): 10405-10411, 2019 Nov 28.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-32110331

##### RESUMO

Changes of molecular spin are ubiquitous in chemistry and biology. Among spin flip processes, one of the fastest is intersystem crossing (ISC) in transition metal complexes. Here, we investigate the spin relaxation dynamics and emission spectrum of [Re(CO)3(im)(phen)]+ (im = imidazole, phen = phenanthroline) using extensive full-dimensional excited-state dynamics simulations in explicit aqueous solution. Contrary to what has been observed in other transition metal complexes, the transition from the singlet to triplet states occurs via a two-step process, with clearly separable electronic and nuclear-driven components with two different time scales. The initially excited electronic wave function is a "molecular spin-orbit wave packet" that evolves almost instantaneously, with an 8 fs time constant, into an approximate 25 : 75 singlet-to-triplet equilibrium. Surprisingly, this ISC process is an order of magnitude faster than it was previously documented for this and other rhenium(i) carbonyl diimine complexes from emission spectra. Simulations including explicit laser field interactions evidence that few-cycle UV laser pulses are required to follow the creation and evolution of such molecular spin-orbit wave packets. The analysis of the dynamics also reveals a retarded ISC component, with a time constant of 420 fs, which can be explained invoking intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. The emission spectrum is shown to be characterized by ISC convoluted with internal conversion and vibrational relaxation. These results provide fundamental understanding of ultrafast intersystem crossing in transition metal complexes.

*Wiley Interdiscip Rev Comput Mol Sci ; 8(6): e1370, 2018.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30450129

##### RESUMO

We review the Surface Hopping including ARbitrary Couplings (SHARC) approach for excited-state nonadiabatic dynamics simulations. As a generalization of the popular surface hopping method, SHARC allows simulating the full-dimensional dynamics of molecules including any type of coupling terms beyond nonadiabatic couplings. Examples of these arbitrary couplings include spin-orbit couplings or dipole moment-laser field couplings, such that SHARC can describe ultrafast internal conversion, intersystem crossing, and radiative processes. The key step of the SHARC approach consists of a diagonalization of the Hamiltonian including these couplings, such that the nuclear dynamics is carried out on potential energy surfaces including the effects of the couplings-this is critical in any applications considering, for example, transition metal complexes or strong laser fields. We also give an overview over the new SHARC2.0 dynamics software package, released under the GNU General Public License, which implements the SHARC approach and several analysis tools. The review closes with a brief survey of applications where SHARC was employed to study the nonadiabatic dynamics of a wide range of molecular systems. This article is categorized under: Theoretical and Physical Chemistry > Reaction Dynamics and KineticsSoftware > Simulation MethodsSoftware > Quantum Chemistry.

*Front Chem ; 6: 495, 2018.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30386775

##### RESUMO

The adequate exploration of the phase space of a chromophore is a fundamental necessity for the simulation of their optical and photophysical properties, taking into account the effects of vibrational motion and, most importantly, the coupling with a (non-homogeneous) molecular environment. A representative set of conformational snapshots around the Franck-Condon region is also required to perform non-adiabatic molecular dynamics, for instance in the framework of surface hopping. Indeed, in the latter case one needs to prepare a set of initial conditions providing a meaningful and complete statistical base for the subsequent trajectory propagation. In this contribution, we propose two new protocols for molecular dynamics-based phase space sampling, called "local temperature adjustment" and "individual QM/MM-based relaxation." These protocols are intended for situations in which the popular Wigner distribution sampling procedure is not applicable-as it is the case when anharmonic or nonlinear vibrations are present-and where regular molecular dynamics sampling might suffer from an inaccurate distribution of internal energy or from inaccurate force fields. The new protocols are applied to the case of phase space sampling of [Re(CO)3(Im)(Phen)]+ (im, imidazole; phen, phenanthroline) in aqueous solution, showing the advantages and limitations of regular Wigner and molecular dynamics sampling as well as the strengths of the new protocols.

*Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Nov 01.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30388739

##### RESUMO

We report time-dependent photoelectron spectra recorded with a single-photon ionization setup and extensive simulations of the same spectra for the excited-state dynamics of 2-thiouracil (2TU) in the gas phase. We find that single-photon ionization produces very similar results as two-photon ionization, showing that the probe process does not have a strong influence on the measured dynamics. The good agreement between the single-photon ionization experiments and the simulations shows that the norms of Dyson orbitals allow for qualitatively describing the ionization probabilities of 2TU. This reasonable performance of Dyson norms is attributed to the particular electronic structure of 2TU, where all important neutral and ionic states involve similar orbital transitions and thus the shape of the Dyson orbitals do not strongly depend on the initial neutral and final ionic state. We argue that similar situations should also occur in other biologically relevant thio-nucleobases, and that the time-resolved photoelectron spectra of these bases could therefore be adequately modeled with the techniques employed here.

##### Assuntos

Modelos Químicos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Tiouracila/química , Algoritmos , Fotoquímica , Fótons , Termodinâmica*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(1): 57-69, 2018 Dec 19.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30306987

##### RESUMO

We report an implementation of the linear vibronic coupling (LVC) model within the surface hopping dynamics approach and present utilities for parameterizing this model in a blackbox fashion. This results in an extremely efficient method to obtain qualitative and even semi-quantitative information about the photodynamical behavior of a molecule, and provides a new route toward benchmarking the results of surface hopping computations. The merits and applicability of the method are demonstrated in a number of applications. First, the method is applied to the SO2 molecule showing that it is possible to compute its absorption spectrum beyond the Condon approximation, and that all the main features and timescales of previous on-the-fly dynamics simulations of intersystem crossing are reproduced while reducing the computational effort by three orders of magnitude. The dynamics results are benchmarked against exact wavepacket propagations on the same LVC potentials and against a variation of the electronic structure level. Four additional test cases are presented to exemplify the broader applicability of the model. The photodynamics of the isomeric adenine and 2-aminopurine molecules are studied and it is shown that the LVC model correctly predicts ultrafast decay in the former and an extended excited-state lifetime in the latter. Futhermore, the method correctly predicts ultrafast intersystem crossing in the modified nucleobase 2-thiocytosine and its absence in 5-azacytosine while it fails to describe the ultrafast internal conversion to the ground state in the latter.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 14(9): 4530-4540, 2018 Sep 11.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30091911

##### RESUMO

We present a nonadiabatic dynamics study concerning the subpicosecond relaxation of excited states in dimeric and trimeric thiophene chains. The influence of the triplet states in the overall process is, for the first time, taken into account by explicitly including spin-orbit couplings and hence allowing intersystem crossing phenomena. We observe the fundamental role of the triplet state manifold in driving the full relaxation process. In particular we evidence the effect of both, inter-ring rotation and ring-opening, in the process, as compared to the monomer, where the ring-opening process appears as the dominant one. In addition, the evolution of the open structures allows for trans to cis isomerization in the dimer and trimer. The overall relaxation process slows down with chain elongation. The complex decay mechanism characterized by the presence of different competing channels, due to the presence of a quasi degenerate manifold, is explained allowing the rationalization of oligothiophenes photophysics.

*J Chem Phys ; 148(12): 124119, 2018 Mar 28.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29604835

##### RESUMO

In the construction of diabatic vibronic Hamiltonians for quantum dynamics in the excited-state manifold of molecules, the coupling constants are often extracted solely from information on the excited-state energies. Here, a new protocol is applied to get access to the interstate vibronic coupling constants at the time-dependent density functional theory level through the overlap integrals between excited-state adiabatic auxiliary wavefunctions. We discuss the advantages of such method and its potential for future applications to address complex systems, in particular, those where multiple electronic states are energetically closely lying and interact. We apply the protocol to the study of prototype rhenium carbonyl complexes [Re(CO)3(N,N)(L)]n+ for which non-adiabatic quantum dynamics within the linear vibronic coupling model and including spin-orbit coupling have been reported recently.

*J Chem Phys ; 147(18): 184109, 2017 Nov 14.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29141436

##### RESUMO

We report an implementation for employing the algebraic diagrammatic construction to second order [ADC(2)] ab initio electronic structure level of theory in nonadiabatic dynamics simulations in the framework of the SHARC (surface hopping including arbitrary couplings) dynamics method. The implementation is intended to enable computationally efficient, reliable, and easy-to-use nonadiabatic dynamics simulations of intersystem crossing in organic molecules. The methodology is evaluated for the 2-thiouracil molecule. It is shown that ADC(2) yields reliable excited-state energies, wave functions, and spin-orbit coupling terms for this molecule. Dynamics simulations are compared to previously reported results using high-level multi-state complete active space perturbation theory, showing favorable agreement.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(40): 27240-27250, 2017 Oct 18.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28984331

##### RESUMO

We present a quantum-chemical investigation of the excited states of the complex [Re(CO)3(Im)(Phen)]+ (Im = imidazole; Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) in solution including spin-orbit couplings and vibrational sampling. To this aim, we implemented electrostatic embedding quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) in the Amsterdam Density Functional program suite, suitable for time-dependent density functional calculations including spin-orbit couplings. The new implementation is employed to simulate the absorption spectrum of the complex, which is compared to the results of implicit continuum solvation and frozen-density embedding. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to sample the ground state conformations in solution. The results demonstrate that any study of the excited states of [Re(CO)3(Im)(Phen)]+ in solution and their dynamics should include extensive sampling of vibrational motion and spin-orbit couplings.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(30): 19756-19766, 2017 Aug 02.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28630971

##### RESUMO

Single-atom substitution within a natural nucleobase-such as replacing oxygen by sulfur in uracil-can result in drastic changes in the relaxation dynamics after UV excitation. While the photodynamics of natural nucleobases like uracil are dominated by pathways along singlet excited states, the photodynamics of thiobases like 2-thiouracil populate the triplet manifold with near unity quantum yield. In the present study, a synergistic approach based on time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES), time-resolved absorption spectroscopy (TRAS), and ab initio computations has been particularly successful at unraveling the underlying photophysical principles and describing the dissimilarities between the natural and substituted nucleobases. Specifically, we find that varying the excitation wavelength leads to differences between gas-phase and condensed-phase experimental results. Systematic trends are observed in the intersystem crossing time constants with varying excitation wavelength, which can be readily interpreted in the context of ab initio calculations performed both in vacuum and including solvent effects. Thus, the combination of TRPES and TRAS experiments with high-level computational techniques allows us to characterize the topology of the potential energy surfaces defining the relaxation dynamics of 2-thiouracil in both gas and condensed phases, as well as investigate the accessibility of conical intersections and crossings, and potential energy barriers along the associated relaxation coordinates.

*J Phys Chem B ; 121(20): 5187-5196, 2017 05 25.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28452483

##### RESUMO

The solvatochromic effects of six different solvents on the UV absorption spectrum of 2-thiocytosine have been studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The steady-state absorption spectra show significant shifts of the absorption bands, where in more polar solvents the first absorption maximum shifts to higher transition energies and the second maximum to lower energies. The observed solvatochromic shifts have been rationalized using three popular solvatochromic scales and with high-level multireference quantum chemistry calculations including implicit and explicit solvent effects. It has been found that the dipole moments of the excited states account for some general shifts in the excitation energies, whereas the explicit solvent interactions explain the differences in the spectra recorded in the different solvents.

##### Assuntos

Citosina/análogos & derivados , Acetatos/química , Acetonitrilos/química , Citosina/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Etanol/química , Metanol/química , Teoria Quântica , Solubilidade , Solventes/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Água/química*Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 375(2092)2017 Apr 28.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28320905

##### RESUMO

5-Bromouracil is a nucleobase analogue that can replace thymine in DNA strands and acts as a strong radiosensitizer, with potential applications in molecular biology and cancer therapy. Here, the deactivation of 5-bromouracil after ultraviolet irradiation is investigated in the singlet and triplet manifold by accurate quantum chemistry calculations and non-adiabatic dynamics simulations. It is found that, after irradiation to the bright ππ* state, three main relaxation pathways are, in principle, possible: relaxation back to the ground state, intersystem crossing (ISC) and C-Br photodissociation. Based on accurate MS-CASPT2 optimizations, we propose that ground-state relaxation should be the predominant deactivation pathway in the gas phase. We then employ different electronic structure methods to assess their suitability to carry out excited-state dynamics simulations. MRCIS (multi-reference configuration interaction including single excitations) was used in surface hopping simulations to compute the ultrafast ISC dynamics, which mostly involves the 1nOπ* and 3ππ* states.This article is part of the themed issue 'Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces'.