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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499247

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the blood flow situation in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: In this prospective study a total of 26 POAG and 23 PXG eyes were included. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including standard automated perimetry, stereoscopic photographs of the optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer analysis and examination of vascular parameters of the optic nerve head (ONH), the peripapillary region and macula using OCTA. In addition to the vascular parameters recorded by the device, the vascular images were graphically evaluated using Image J. All recorded vascular parameters were compared between both groups and correlated to structural and functional parameters. RESULTS: The mean superficial perifoveal plexus perfusion density (PD) was significantly lower in PXG eyes than compared to POAG eyes using OCTA (32.57% ± 3.57% vs. 34.92% ± 2.11%, p = 0.007). The mean PD parameters for the superficial peripapillary plexus (40.98% ± 3.04% vs. 42.09% ± 2.29%, p = 0.152) as well as the size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) (0.23 mm2 ± 0.1 mm2 vs. 0.23 mm2 ± 0.09 mm2) did not differ between both groups. Additional graphic evaluation using Image J showed no significant difference for superficial perifoveal plexus PD (32.97% ± 1.11% vs. 33.35% ± 0.95%, p = 0.194) and peripapillary plexus PD (46.65% ± 0.83% vs. 46.95% ± 0.5%, p = 0.127) between the groups. Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness correlated significantly with peripapillary plexus PD for both OCTA data and Image J data (p < 0.001, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: The severity of the glaucoma seems to be crucial for peripapillary and macular perfusion densities, and not the form of glaucoma. An additional graphic evaluation is a possible step that could be implemented to improve the comparability of OCTA scans and to optimize the possibility of quantitative perfusion analysis in the case of deviating quality criteria.

2.
MRS Commun ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513262

RESUMO

In vitro thrombogenicity test systems require co-cultivation of endothelial cells and platelets under blood flow-like conditions. Here, a commercially available perfusion system is explored using plasma-treated cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) as a substrate for the endothelial cell layer. COC was characterized prior to endothelialization and co-cultivation with platelets under static or flow conditions. COC exhibits a low roughness and a moderate hydrophilicity. Flow promoted endothelial cell growth and prevented platelet adherence. These findings show the suitability of COC as substrate and the importance of blood flow-like conditions for the assessment of the thrombogenic risk of drugs or cardiovascular implant materials. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1557/s43579-021-00072-6.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209789

RESUMO

Near-physiological in vitro thrombogenicity test systems for the evaluation of blood-contacting endothelialized biomaterials requires co-cultivation with platelets (PLT). However, the addition of PLT has led to unphysiological endothelial cell (EC) detachment in such in vitro systems. A possible cause for this phenomenon may be PLT activation triggered by the applied endothelial cell medium, which typically consists of basal medium (BM) and nine different supplements. To verify this hypothesis, the influence of BM and its supplements was systematically analyzed regarding PLT responses. For this, human platelet rich plasma (PRP) was mixed with BM, BM containing one of nine supplements, or with BM containing all supplements together. PLT adherence analysis was carried out in six-channel slides with plasma-treated cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) and poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (PTFE, as a positive control) substrates as part of the six-channel slides in the absence of EC and under static conditions. PLT activation and aggregation were analyzed using light transmission aggregometry and flow cytometry (CD62P). Medium supplements had no effect on PLT activation and aggregation. In contrast, supplements differentially affected PLT adherence, however, in a polymer- and donor-dependent manner. Thus, the use of standard endothelial growth medium (BM + all supplements) maintains functionality of PLT under EC compatible conditions without masking the differences of PLT adherence on different polymeric substrates. These findings are important prerequisites for the establishment of a near-physiological in vitro thrombogenicity test system assessing polymer-based cardiovascular implant materials in contact with EC and PLT.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Adulto , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Plaquetas/citologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Endotélio/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesividade Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/farmacologia , Tecidos Suporte/química
4.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223956

RESUMO

Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) is a group of heterogenous diseases characterized by abnormal accumulation of mast cells in at least one organ. ISM can be a cause of osteoporosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, and the prognosis of ISM in a cohort of patients with osteoporosis. In this monocentric and retrospective study, patients with osteoporosis who did not receive a bone biopsy (cohort 1) and patients that subsequently received a diagnostic bone biopsy for differential diagnosis (cohort 2) are compared with patients who are diagnosed with ISM (cohort 3). A total of 8392 patients are diagnosed with osteoporosis. Out of these patients 1374 underwent a diagnostic bone biopsy resulting in 43 patients with ISM. These figures indicate that ISM is diagnosed in 0.5% of patients with osteoporosis and in 3.1% (men 5.8%) of patients who underwent bone biopsies. Patients with ISM sustained significantly more vertebral fractures in comparison to patients in cohort 2 (4.4 ± 3.6 versus 2.4 ± 2.5 vertebral fractures, p < 0.001) and women were significantly younger compared to cohort 2 (57.3 ± 12 versus 63.6 ± 12 years, p < 0.05). Only 33% showed an involvement of the skin (urticaria pigmentosa). ISM is a rare cause of osteoporosis (0.5%). However, in a subgroup of rather young male patients with osteoporosis the prevalence is more than 5%. Thus, ISM should be considered in premenopausal women and men presenting with vertebral fractures even if urticaria pigmentosa is not present.

5.
Ophthalmol Ther ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963524

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the long-term effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medication of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) compared to minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and its potential in clinical practice. METHODS: A total of 342 consecutive patients (stand-alone procedures) were included. One hundred and five patients underwent SLT treatment (360° SLT, 95-105 spots, Trabeculas SLT ARCLaser, Nürnberg, DE), 107 patients had an ab interno-derived trabeculotomy (Trabectome®, NeoMedix, Tustin, USA), and 130 patients received iStent inject® implantation (2 implants-Glaukos, CA, USA). IOP and glaucoma therapy were evaluated preoperatively, 1 day, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using a regression model and propensity matching score (reduced cohort number) using SPSS v20.0. Kaplan-Meier analysis was included using the following six criteria: criterion A (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg with or without medication, qualified success), criterion B (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with or without medication, qualified success), criterion C (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg without medication, complete success), criterion D (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg without medication, complete success), criterion E (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg and IOP reduction > 20% after therapy), and criterion F (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg and IOP reduction > 20% after therapy). RESULTS: In the matched cohort, the SLT cohort showed an IOP reduction of 31.2% from 19.9 ± 2.3 to 13.7 ± 2.7 mmHg (p < 0.001) 3 years postoperatively; in Trabectome® IOP decreased by 31.4% from 20.5 ± 1.3 to 13.8 ± 2.0 mmHg (p < 0.001) and in iStent inject® by 29.9% from 19.5 ± 2.0 to 13.8 ± 2.7 mmHg (p < 0.001). Trabectome® and iStent inject® could not demonstrate a significant reduction in glaucoma therapy (Trabectome® p = 0.138, iStent inject® p = 0.612); a significant drop was noted in SLT (2.2 ± 1.2 to 1.7 ± 1.2, p = 0.046). SLT and MIGS achieved good to moderate survival rates using criterion A (93.3% SLT, 79.7% Trabectome®, 77.6% iStent inject®) and criterion B (74.5% SLT, 48.0% Trabectome®, 56.2% iStent inject®). As expected, low survival rates were obtained with non-filtering procedures: criterion C 11.1% in SLT, 6.5% in Trabectome®, 7.0% in iStent inject® and criterion D 3.0% in SLT, 4.3% in Trabectome®, 3.7% in iStent inject® in 3-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The SLT is a low-complication and effective method for reducing pressure in mild to moderate POAG. SLT is suitable as an initial procedure when setting up a step scheme; MIGS is the treatment of choice as a follow-up for mild to moderate forms of glaucoma and accepted topical therapy. Ethic approval had been given by the Ethikkommission Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, EA4/047/20-retrospectively registered.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0245143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835999

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α is an inflammatory cytokine likely to be involved in the process of corneal inflammation and neovascularization. In the present study we evaluate the role of the two receptors, TNF-receptor (TNF-R)p55 and TNF-Rp75, in the mouse model of suture-induced corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis. Corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis were induced by three 11-0 intrastromal corneal sutures in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice and TNF-Rp55-deficient (TNF-Rp55d) and TNF-Rp75-deficient (TNF-Rp75d) mice. The mRNA expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, Lyve-1 and TNFα and its receptors was quantified by qPCR. The area covered with blood- or lymphatic vessels, respectively, was analyzed by immunohistochemistry of corneal flatmounts. Expression and localization of TNFα and its receptors was assessed by immunohistochemistry of sagittal sections and Western Blot. Both receptors are expressed in the murine cornea and are not differentially regulated by the genetic alteration. Both TNF-Rp55d and TNF-Rp75d mice showed a decrease in vascularized area compared to wild-type mice 14 days after suture treatment. After 21 days there were no differences detectable between the groups. The number of VEGF-A-expressing macrophages did not differ when comparing WT to TNF-Rp55d and TNF-Rp75d. The mRNA expression of lymphangiogenic markers VEGF-C or LYVE-1 does not increase after suture in all 3 groups and lymphangiogenesis showed a delayed effect only for TNF-Rp75d. TNFα mRNA and protein expression increased after suture treatment but showed no difference between the three groups. In the suture-induced mouse model, TNFα and its ligands TNF-Rp55 and TNF-Rp75 do not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of neovascularisation and lymphangiogenesis.


Assuntos
Córnea/patologia , Neovascularização da Córnea/genética , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Animais , Córnea/metabolismo , Neovascularização da Córnea/patologia , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Linfangiogênese , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/análise , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/análise
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 122, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intramuscular injection of ketamine and azaperone was proposed as a suitable anaesthesia for male suckling piglets for surgical castration. However, this can be opposed by massive defensive movements, hypothermia and tachycardia during castration and a long recovery period. The aim of the present study was to test whether the use of S-ketamine and/or a change in the route of application from intramuscular to intranasal could reduce stress responses and the duration of recovery compared to the intramuscular route and the use of racemic ketamine. Seventy-eight healthy, five-day-old male piglets were randomized to six treatment groups in a blinded experimental study, matched by litter and weight. Experimental groups were A (15 mg kg-1 S-ketamine + 2 mg kg-1 azaperone, i.m., surgical castration), B (15 mg kg-1 R/S-ketamine racemate + 2 mg kg-1 azaperone, i.m., surgical castration), C (30 mg kg-1 S-ketamine + 2 mg kg-1 azaperone, i.n., surgical castration), D (15 mg kg-1 R/S-ketamine racemate + 2 mg kg-1 azaperone, i.m.; not castrated), E (positive control group; no anesthesia, surgical castration) and F (negative control group; no anesthesia, not castrated). RESULTS: S-ketamine reduced the defensive movement score during castration to a similar extent to racemic ketamine when administered intramuscularly but not via the intranasal route. However, the effects of S-ketamine (both routes) on the increase in cortisol levels and decrease in body temperature were similar to those induced by racemic ketamine. A reduction of the long recovery time known for ketamine-azaperone anaesthesia could not be achieved with S-ketamine in the given dosage, regardless of the route of application. The intranasal administration of ketamine was difficult with the available formulation as the necessary amount exceeded the capacity of the nose cavity. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the use of S-ketamine nor intranasal administration can be suitable alternatives for the anaesthesia of male suckling piglets for castration.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Suínos/cirurgia , Administração Intranasal/veterinária , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/cirurgia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Masculino , Orquiectomia/métodos , Método Simples-Cego
8.
Cornea ; 40(9): 1110-1116, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the change in contrast sensitivities in eyes with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy and bullous keratopathy after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). METHODS: In this prospective study, 50 pseudophakic eyes of 50 patients who received DMEK surgery at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin were included. Visual acuity; contrast sensitivity using OPTEC 6500 at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles/degree in photopic and mesopic light with and without glare; central corneal thickness (CCT); and anterior and posterior corneal aberrations were measured preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Best-corrected visual acuity (preoperative 0.67 ± 0.46 and after 12 months 0.19 ± 0.16 LogMAR, P < 0.001) and photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivities with and without glare improved significantly, whereas CCT decreased significantly (preoperative 677 ± 114 µm, after 12 months 527 ± 29 µm, P < 0.001). Preoperative CCT correlates significantly with preoperative photopic contrast sensitivity (correlation coefficient -0.462, P = 0.002), and postoperative total anterior aberrations correlates with postoperative photopic contrast sensitivity (correlation coefficient -0.361, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivities, especially with glare, are impaired in patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy and bullous keratopathy. The extent of the corneal thickening seems to mainly influence the contrast sensitivity preoperatively. DMEK surgery improves the contrast sensitivity significantly. However, higher postoperative anterior corneal aberrations limit the postoperative contrast sensitivities.

9.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 238(5): 591-597, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) gets more and more reserved to cases of increasing complexity. In such cases, ocular comorbidities may limit graft survival following PK. A major cause for graft failure is endothelial graft rejection. Suture removal is a known risk factor for graft rejection. Nevertheless, there is no evidence-based regimen for rejection prophylaxis following suture removal. Therefore, a survey of rejection prophylaxis was conducted at 7 German keratoplasty centres. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was documentation of the variability of medicinal aftercare following suture removal in Germany. METHODS: Seven German keratoplasty centres with the highest numbers for PK were selected. The centres were sent a survey consisting of half-open questions. The centres performed a mean of 140 PK in 2018. The return rate was 100%. The findings were tabulated. RESULTS: All centres perform a double-running cross-stitch suture for standard PK, as well as a treatment for rejection prophylaxis with topical steroids after suture removal. There are differences in intensity (1 - 5 times daily) and tapering (2 - 20 weeks) of the topical steroids following suture removal. Two centres additionally use systemic steroids for a few days. DISCUSSION: Rejection prophylaxis following PK is currently poorly standardised and not evidence-based. All included centres perform medical aftercare following suture removal. It is assumed that different treatment strategies show different cost-benefit ratios. In the face of the diversity, a systematic analysis is required to develop an optimised regimen for all patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Córnea , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Alemanha , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Ceratoplastia Penetrante/efeitos adversos , Suturas
10.
Curr Eye Res ; 46(6): 784-788, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179517

RESUMO

Purpose/Aim of the study: Graft detachment after DMEK can be treated easily with an additional air injection - re-bubbling. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a re-bubbling on the postoperative outcome.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, comparative, cohort study we included eyes from patients that underwent DMEK surgery. A graft detachment was diagnosed by slit-lamp examination and OCT scan. All eyes were divided into three groups: no re-bubbling, one re-bubbling, more than one re-bubbling. We analyzed the visual acuity, endothelial cell density and rate of graft failure.Results: In 163 of 463 eyes (35.2%) a re-bubbling was performed (119 eyes 1 re-bubbling, 44 eyes more than one re-bubbling). Visual acuity improved significantly in all groups. After controlling for donor age, reason for surgery, time of cultivation of the graft and preoperative visual acuity, no difference in the visual acuity was seen at any point of follow-up. All patients showed a significant reduction in endothelial cell density 1 month after DMEK. Controlling for donor age, reason for surgery, type of surgery (DMEK-only or DMEK combined with cataract surgery) and the time of cultivation of the graft, the difference in endothelial cell density at 1 month post-surgery between no re-bubbling and one re-bubbling was 157 cells/mm2 (95% CI 2-310, p = .047) and between no re-bubbling and more than one re-bubbling 504 cells/mm2 (95% CI 267 - 741, p < .001). The difference in endothelial cell density remained over the course of follow-up. Twenty patients (4.3%) developed a graft failure during postoperative follow-up. Controlling for donor age, reason for surgery and the time of cultivation of the graft, we did not find any difference in the risk of graft failure between re-bubbling categories.Conclusions: Re-bubbling increased the risk for an endothelial cell loss, but did not influence the postoperative visual acuity and the rate of graft failure.

11.
Cornea ; 40(1): 26-32, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558736

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation occurs regularly after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). This study evaluated the long-term incidence of IOP elevation and post-DMEK glaucoma after DMEK. METHODS: A total of 463 consecutive DMEKs in 352 patients performed between September 2011 and September 2014 at the Universitätsmedizin-Charité Berlin were reviewed. Data of the second treated eye of each patient and of re-DMEKs during the follow-up were excluded. The 12- and 36-month incidence of IOP elevation and post-DMEK glaucoma was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. IOP elevation was defined as IOP ≥22 mm Hg or ≥10 mm Hg from preoperative baseline. COX regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for IOP elevation and the development of a post-DMEK glaucoma. RESULTS: The 12-month incidence of IOP elevation was 15.9% [95 confidence interval (CI), 12.0%-19.8%] and that of post-DMEK glaucoma was 3.9% (95 CI, 1.7%-6.1%); the 36-month incidence was 18.8% (95 CI, 14.5%-23.1%) and that of post-DMEK glaucoma was 6.6% (95 CI, 3.7%-9.5%). The most frequent cause was steroid-induced IOP elevation with a 12-month incidence of 11.7% (95 CI, 8.2%-15.2%) and a 36-month incidence of 12.9% (95 CI, 9.2%-16.6%), respectively. The incidence of postoperative pupillary block IOP elevation was 7.5% (95 CI, 4.8%-10.2%). A preexisting glaucoma increased the risk of IOP elevation [P < 0.001, hazard ratio (HR) 3.331; 95% CI, 1.919-5.782] and the development of a post-DMEK glaucoma (P < 0.001, HR 6.633; 95% CI, 2.556-17.215). The preoperative diagnosis also influenced the risk of IOP elevation [Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FED) vs. bullous keratopathy; P = 0.012, HR 2.354; 95% CI, 1.203-4.608] and post-DMEK glaucoma (FED vs. graft failure; P = 0.01, HR 4.412; 95% CI, 1.419-13.723, FED vs. bullous keratopathy; P = 0.09, HR 2.679; 95% CI, 0.858-8.358). CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of IOP elevation is high in the first 12 months after DMEK, especially steroid-induced IOP elevation. Steroid-induced IOP elevation could be treated effectively by tapering down the steroid medication or changing the steroid drug. A preexisting glaucoma and the preoperative diagnosis increase the risk for an IOP elevation and a post-DMEK glaucoma.


Assuntos
Ceratoplastia Endotelial com Remoção da Lâmina Limitante Posterior/efeitos adversos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/etiologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Ocular/etiologia , Hipertensão Ocular/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tonometria Ocular , Acuidade Visual
12.
Arch Public Health ; 78(1): 122, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment and consequently child protection are highly relevant and current issues in our society. Medical institutions are widely regarded as places of healing, care and support. But they also hold risk factors to promote child maltreatment. Efforts have to be taken in order to offer help to victims by medical institutions and to reduce risk factors for child maltreatment. Therefore, health professionals in the field of child protection must be trained and sensitized for these two purposes. The Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry / Psychotherapy at the University Hospital of Ulm in Germany is developing E-Learning courses directed to health professionals in order to create flexible advanced training courses for dealing with child abuse, and to increase competences in child protection. Due to their specific role in (institutional) child protection, three courses and their evaluation will be presented in this article. The aim of the studies is to examine if those online-courses are increasing knowledge and skills in child protection and how satisfied participants are with course quality. METHODS: Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT) were conducted with one wait-list control group and one group participating in the course (= intervention group). The RCTs took place from October 2016 to March 2017 for two courses, and from May 2017 to September 2017 for the other course. Data were analysed with mixed design ANOVA. For evaluation of user satisfaction, descriptive statistics are reported. RESULTS: For all three courses, knowledge and practical capacities on the topic of the intervention group raised significantly in comparison to the values of the control group. Furthermore, participants of the course for managers felt better prepared to meet their responsibilities in regard to institutional child protection and came up with ideas on how to implement safeguarding standards in their institution. Overall, participants were very satisfied with the structure and the content of the courses. CONCLUSIONS: The article shows that the online-courses are an effective and well-accepted approach to train professionals in topics regarding (institutional) child protection by contributing to the participants´ abilities to create medical facilities into a place of competence and protection.

13.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 457, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the influence of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) on iStent inject® outcomes in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). METHODS: In this retrospective comparative cohort outcome study, 66 patients who were treated with two iStent inject® devices were included. Patients were divided into two subgroups consisting of patients without SLT treatment prior to surgery and patients who had been treated previously with 360° SLT but without sufficient response. Outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of antiglaucoma medications after 6 weeks with three, six, 12, and 24 month follow-ups. RESULTS: Mean preoperative IOP decreased from 20.4 ± 5.3 mmHg to 14.8 ± 3.0 mmHg for patients without SLT treatment prior to surgery (p = 0.001) and from 19.2 ± 4.5 mmHg to 14.0 ± 1.6 mmHg for patients with insufficient response to 360° SLT treatment (p = 0.027) at 12 months after iStent inject® implantation. No significant difference was found between the two groups (p >  0.05). The number of antiglaucoma medications did not change in both groups (p >  0.05) and showed no significant difference between the two groups (p >  0.05). CONCLUSION: Prior SLT treatment seems to have no negative influence on the IOP lowering-effect of iStent inject® implantation in patients with OAG. It is therefore an appropriate incremental procedure with no exclusion criterion for an iStent inject® implantation.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Terapia a Laser , Trabeculectomia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/cirurgia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Lasers , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 5(1): e000524, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879903

RESUMO

Objective: Increasingly, cornea banks are recovering donor tissue from pseudophakic donors. Little is known about their suitability for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgery in terms of endothelial cell density (ECD) and preparation failure. Methods and Analysis: We explored ECD during donor tissue preparation in 2076 grafts. Preparation failure was analysed in 1028 grafts used in DMEK surgery at our clinic. To monitor ECD and functional results, we matched 86 DMEK patients who received pseudophakic donor grafts with similar recipients of phakic donor grafts and followed them up for 36 months. Results: At recovery, mean ECD in pseudophakic donor grafts was 2193 cells/mm2 (SD 28.7) and 2364 cells/mm2 (SD 15.7) in phakic donor grafts (p<0.001). After cultivation, the difference increased as pseudophakic donor grafts lost 14% of ECD while phakic lost only 6% (p<0.001). At transplantation, mean ECD in pseudophakic donor grafts was 2272 cells/mm2 (SD 250) and 2370 cells/mm2 (SD 204) in phakic donor grafts (p<0.001). After transplantation, the difference in ECD increased as pseudophakic donor grafts lost 27.7% of ECD while phakic donor grafts lost only 13.3% (p<0.001). The risk of preparation failure in pseudophakic donor grafts was higher than in phakic donor grafts (OR 4.75, 95% CI 1.78 to 12.67, p=0.02). Visual acuity increased in both groups similarly. Conclusions: Pseudophakic donor grafts have a lower ECD, are more prone to endothelial cell loss during recovery and surgery and are associated with a higher risk of preparation failure. Cornea banks and surgeons should consider this in the planning of graft preparation and transplantation.

15.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 1120672120950935, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854539

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In instances where peribulbar anaesthesia (PBA) cannot be used, Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgery can be performed under topical anaesthesia (TA). We evaluated subjective pain and post-operative outcomes of DMEK surgeries performed under PBA and TA. METHODS: Sixty pseudophakic patients without history of ocular comorbidities underwent DMEK surgery under either PBA or TA. PBA was performed with a single injection of 6 mL Prilocaine Hydrochloride 2% in combination with 1500 I.U. hyaluronidase. For TA, patients were given 0.4% Oxybuprocaine eye drops followed by a 2% Lidocain Hydrochloride-Gel and an intraoperative injection of a 2% Lidocaine Hydrochloride solution into the anterior chamber. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. Subjective pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes (BCVA, duration of surgery, endothelial density, rebubbling rate) were recorded during a follow-up period of 3 months. RESULTS: The mean subjective pain of patients in the PBA group was 1.27 (95% CI 0.87-1.68) and 1.64 (95% CI 1.15-2.21) in the TA group. The mean duration of surgery was 402 s (95% CI 356-448) in the PBA group and 427 s (95% CI 371-483) in the TA group, p = 0.477. No major differences were observed in BCVA, endothelium density and rebubbling rate between the two groups. Anaesthesia-related side effects were more frequent in the PAB group than in the TA group. CONCLUSION: Although levels of subjective pain are lower under PBA than under TA, in selected patients without ocular comorbidities TA can achieve levels of pain acceptable for DMEK surgery.

16.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(11): 2459-2465, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705337

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Unfolding and attachment of the posterior donor lamella may be the most challenging part in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) procedure. We investigated the correlation of the difficulty degrees of this step to the postoperative clinical outcome 6 years after surgery. METHODS: One hundred sixty-nine consecutive DMEKs between September 2012 and August 2013 at the Charité-University Medicine Berlin were graded prospectively into 4 groups according to their grade of difficulty in unfolding and attachment of the graft lamella. Postoperative visual acuity, endothelial cell density, and rate of graft failure were measured after 1 year, after 2 years, and after 6 years and analyzed according to their grading group. RESULTS: Visual acuity improved significantly in all groups and did not differ significantly between the grading groups at any time point postoperatively. There was a significant decrease of endothelial cell density in all groups with a significantly higher endothelial cell loss in group IV compared with the other groups within the first 24 months after surgery. The graft failure rate was significantly higher in eyes graded III and IV than in groups I and II (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Although the endothelial cell loss and the graft failure rate increase significantly with a more difficult graft unfolding and attachment, DMEK surgery is a promising procedure with a good long-term postoperative outcome. A direct manipulation of the graft lamella for unfolding and centering by cannula or forceps should be avoided if possible to reduce the risk of an increased endothelial cell loss and a higher graft failure rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02020044.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508686

RESUMO

Background: Current research on borderline personality disorder report an association between emotionally dysregulated behaviors and intrusive mental imagery depicting similar scenes. Imagery rescripting techniques have proven effective in reducing intrusive mental imagery in numerous contexts. We developed a two session-short intervention in which intrusive mental images are identified, analyzed, and modified for daily rehearsal at home. This study aimed to reduce the negative emotions and cognitions associated with self-injurious behaviors by replacing unhealthy imagery with more adaptive content. Methods: Seven females diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who reported intrusive mental imagery of dysregulated behaviors were recruited for participation. Each participant engaged in two individualized treatment sessions and daily homework requiring the rehearsal of modified imagery. Emotion regulation strategies, borderline symptom severity, and depressiveness were assessed before and after treatment. Results: Acceptance was positive, as no patient dropped out from treatment. Symptom exacerbation was not observed. Borderline symptom reduction was noted and indicia of emotional dysregulation and negative affect declined. Limitations: The generalizability of results is limited by the small sample size and the absence of a control group. Conclusions: This new two-session short intervention was shown to decrease the emotionally dysregulated behaviors that accompany negative feelings in females with borderline personality disorder.

18.
Eur J Radiol ; 128: 109025, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the validity of Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) for the preoperative assessment of pathological complete response (pCR) to standard clinical assessment in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, consecutive clinical trial was conducted under routine clinical practice. Analysis included 134 patients. SWE served as index test, final pathology from surgical specimen as reference standard. PCR (ypT0) was defined as primary endpoint. Elasticity changes were compared for the pCR- vs. non-pCR group. To determine the validity of shear wave velocity (Vs), ROC analyses and diagnostic accuracy parameters were calculated and compared to the final standard clinical assessment by physical examination, mammography and B-mode ultrasound (ycT + vs. ycT0). RESULTS: Vs was significantly reduced in pCR and non-pCR groups during NACT (pCR: ΔVs(abs) = 3.90 m/s, p < 0.001; non-pCR: ΔVs(abs) = 3.10 m/s, p < 0.001). The pCR-group showed significant lower Vs for all control visits (t1,2,END: p < 0.001). ROC analysis of Vs yielded moderate AUCs for the total population (t0: 0.613, t1: 0.745, t2: 0.685, tEND: 0.718). Compared to standard clinical assessment, Vs(tEND) (cut-off: ≤3.35 m/s) was superior in sensitivity (79.6 % vs. 54.5 %), NPV (86.4 % vs. 77.5 %), FNR (20.4 % vs. 45.5 %), inferior in specificity (58.6 % vs. 77.5 %), PPV (46.3 % vs. 54.5 %), FPR (41.4 % vs. 22.5 %). CONCLUSION: SWE measures significant differences in tumour elasticity changes in pCR vs. non-pCR cases. SWE shows improved sensitivity compared to standard clinical assessment, high NPV and low FNR, but failed in specificity in order to predict pCR under routine conditions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos , Área Sob a Curva , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(1): Doc10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270024

RESUMO

Objective: The shortage of skilled workers and overloaded schedules make further training of health professionals difficult. In addition, child protection is not a systematic part of medical studies. The evaluation of an online course on child protection in medicine reveals positive feedback but also that the main reason for participants aborting the course is lack of time. Dissemination, as an active, targeted spreading of knowledge, can help to further spread knowledge about child protection in the target group. The aim of this article is to investigate whether and how the contents of the online course can be disseminated by professionals who have completed the online course. Methodology: The data were collected through a quantitative online evaluation and qualitative telephone interviews with doctors who had completed the online course and evaluated it using an interpretive-reductive analysis. Results: The respondents consider the need for further training and dissemination measures on the topic of child protection in medicine to be high. However, lack of time and insufficient relevance of the topic would present obstacles in the implementation of such measures. Meaningfulness and time off work or remuneration would in turn create incentives for implementation. Participants in dissemination measures could be motivated for example by further education points. In addition we were able to identify possible approaches for the implementation of such measures. Conclusion: Various parameters influence the motivation of doctors regarding the implementation/perception of dissemination measures. Based on these, recommendations for action are given for different areas of the health care system, such as supplementing the training curricula and providing ready-made materials for dissemination.


Assuntos
Serviços de Proteção Infantil/normas , Medicina/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/métodos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/tendências , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Medicina/tendências , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/normas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184744

RESUMO

Background: Test anxiety is common in university students. Demanding schedules may contribute to the relatively low utilization of professional counseling, when compared to other anxiety disorders. A possible solution could be a psychotherapeutic short-term intervention. The present exploratory study implemented a short-term psychotherapeutic treatment, consisting of two imagery rescripting (IR) sessions. The efficacy of IR techniques has already been demonstrated in the treatment of various anxiety disorders including test anxiety. Methods: Nine students suffering from test anxiety (m = 3, f = 6) underwent two weekly applied sessions of IR. Outcome variables were examined one week prior to (t1), immediately after (t2) and three months after (t3) the intervention, using self-evaluation questionnaires on test anxiety (PAF), depressive symptoms (BDI II), life satisfaction (FLZ), general self-efficacy and study-specific self-efficacy (WIRKALL; WIRK_STUD), intrusiveness of mental images (IFES), and change and acceptance (VEV; ZUF; BFTB). Results: There were no dropouts. According to results from ZUF and BFTB, the participants where highly satisfied with the intervention. PAF scores decreased significantly over time (t1 to t3), whereas WIRKALL scores (t1 to t3) and WIRK_STUD scores (t1 to t3 and t2 to t3) increased significantly. IFES scores decreased immediately after the intervention (t1 compared to t2) and further after the follow-up (t1 to t3). No changes in BDI-II scores were observed. Discussion: The findings indicate a high acceptance and efficacy of the two-session IR-intervention. Limits are the lack of a control group, and the small sample size. Further evaluation in future controlled studies is needed.

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