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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 413, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a relatively common disease worldwide with a point prevalence of around 5/1000 in the population. The aim of this present work was to assess the demographic, clinical, familial, and environmental factors associated with schizophrenia in Mali. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study on a series of 164 patients aged at least 12 years who came for a follow-up consultation at the psychiatry department of the University Hospital Center (CHU) Point G in Mali between February 2019 and January 2020 for schizophrenia spectrum disorder as defined by DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the male sex was predominant (80.5%). The 25-34 age group was more represented with 44.5%. The place of birth for the majority of our patients was the urban area (52.4%), which also represented the place of the first year of life for the majority of our patients (56.1%). We noted that the unemployed and single people accounted for 56.1 and 61% respectively. More than half of our patients 58.5% reported having reached secondary school level. With the exception of education level, there was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of demographic parameters. Familial schizophrenia cases accounted for 51.7% versus 49.3% for non-familial cases. The different clinical forms were represented by the paranoid form, followed by the undifferentiated form, and the hebephrenic form with respectively 34, 28 and 17.1%. We noted that almost half (48.8%) of patients were born during the cold season. Cannabis use history was not observed in 68.7% of the patients. The proportions of patients with an out-of-school father or an out-of-school mother were 51.2 and 64.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The onset of schizophrenia in the Malian population has been associated with socio-demographic, clinical, genetic and environmental characteristics.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
3.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103527, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide in both developed and developing countries. NTM infection is clinically indistinguishable from tuberculosis and therefore poses significant challenges in patient management, especially in patients chronically treated for pulmonary TB. In this study, we evaluated a new highly sensitive Multiplex MTB/NTM assay that can differentiate M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from all NTM, including the treatable and most common NTM, M. avium complex (MAC). METHODS: We developed and optimized a new open- Multiplex MTB/NTM assay with two gene-targets for MTBC (IS6110/senX3-regX3) and two targets for MAC (IS1311/DT1) with samples spiked with stored strains and testing 20 replicates. Patients with presumptive TB and NTM were enrolled at the Respiratory Disease Department of The University Teaching Hospital of Point G, in Mali. FINDINGS: In the development stage, the new assay showed a high analytic performance with 100% detections of MTBC and MAC at only 5 colony forming units (CFUs). Overall, without the treatment failure cases, the Multiplex assay and the Xpert showed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 83·3% [66·4-92·6], 96·6% [88·6-99·0], 92·5% [82·3-96·5] and 92·2% [82·7-96·5] and the Xpert had values of 96·7% [83·3-99·4], 80·0% [68·2-88·1], 70·7 [55·5-82·3] and 97·9% [89·3-99·6], respectively. The Multiplex assay successfully detected all (5/5) the MAC cases. INTERPRETATION: Our new Multiplex assay demonstrates better specificity than Xpert for all group studied, in addition to detecting potential NTM cases. The assay could therefore complement the widely used Xpert assay and enhance discrimination of TB and NTM infections. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R03AI137674, U54EB027049, D43TW010350 and UM1AI069471) and Northwestern University's Institute for Global Health Catalyzer Fund.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26614, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398016

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a central role in the phase I biotransformation process of a wide range of compounds, including xenobiotics, drugs, hormones and vitamins. It is noteworthy that these enzymes are highly polymorphic and, depending on the genetic makeup, an individual may have impaired enzymatic activity. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants in these genes could facilitate the implementation of pharmacogenetic studies and genetic predisposition to multifactorial diseases. We have established the frequencies of CYP2B6 (rs3745274; rs2279343) and CYP3A4 (rs2740574) alleles and genotypes in 209 healthy Malian subjects using TaqMan drug metabolism genotyping assays for allelic discrimination. Allele frequencies were 37% for CYP2B6 rs3745274; 38% for CYP2B6 rs2279343; and 75% for CYP3A4 rs2740574 respectively. Overall, the frequencies observed in Mali are statistically comparable to those reported across Africa except North Africa. The major haplotypes in CYP2B6 rs3745274 and CYP2B6 rs2279343 were represented by GA (60.24%) followed by TG (35.36%). We noted a strong linkage disequilibrium between CYP2B6 rs3745274 and CYP2B6 rs2279343 with D' = 0.91 and r2 = 0.9. The frequencies of the genotypic combinations were 43.5% (GT/AG), 37.3% (GG/AA) and 11.5% (TT/GG) in the combination of CYP2B6-rs3745274 and CYP2B6-rs2279343; 26.8% (GT/CC), 25.4%, (GT/CT), 17.2% and GG/CT in the combination CYP2B6-rs3745274-CYP3A4-rs2740574; 26.8% (AG/CC), 23.9% (AA/CC), 19.1% (AG/CT), and 11% (AA/CT) in the combination CYP2B6-rs2279343-CYP3A4-rs2740574, respectively. The most common triple genotype was GT/AG/CC with 24.9%, followed by GG/AA/CC with 23.9%, GT/AG/CT with 16.7%, and GG/AA/CT with 10%. Our results provide new insights into the distribution of these pharmacogenetically relevant genes in the Malian population. Moreover, these data will be useful for studies of individual genetic variability to drugs and genetic predisposition to diseases.


Assuntos
Alelos , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética/métodos
6.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 72: 101930, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, with an estimate of 570,000 new cases and about 311,000 deaths annually. Low-resource countries, including those in sub-Saharan Africa, have the highest-burden with an estimate of 84 % of all cervical cancers. This study examines the prevalence and socio-demographic-economic factors associated with cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A weighted population-based cross-sectional study using Demographic and Health Surveys data. We used available data on cervical cancer screening between 2011 and 2018 from the Demographic and Health Surveys for five sub-Saharan African countries (Benin, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe). The study population included women of childbearing age, 21-49 years (n = 28,976). We fit a multivariable Poisson regression model to identify independent factors associated with cervical cancer screening. RESULTS: The overall weighted prevalence of cervical cancer screening was 19.0 % (95 % CI: 18.5 %-19.5 %) ranging from 0.7 % in Benin to 45.9 % in Namibia. Independent determinants of cervical cancer screening were: older age (40-49 years) adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.77 (95 % CI: 1.64, 1.90) compared with younger age (21-29 years), secondary/higher education (aPR = 1.51, 95 CI: 1.28-1.79) compared with no education, health insurance (aPR = 1.53, 95 % CI: 1.44-1.61) compared with no insurance, and highest socioeconomic status (aPR = 1.39, 95 % CI: 1.26-1.52) compared with lowest. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cervical cancer screening is substantially low in sub-Saharan Africa countries and shows a high degree of between-country variation. Interventions aimed at increasing the uptake of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa are critically needed.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 206, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of the p.Arg72Pro variant of the P53 gene on the risk of development ofbreast cancer remains variable in populations. However, the use ofstrategies such aspoolingage-matched controls with disease may provide a consistent meta-analysis. Our goal was to perform a meta-analysis in order to assess the association of p.Arg72Pro variant of P53 gene with the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Databases such as PubMed, Genetics Medical Literature, Harvard University Library, Web of Science and Genesis Library were used to search articles. Case-control studies with age-matched on breast cancer havingevaluated the genotype frequencies of the TP53 p.Arg72Pro polymorphism were selected. The fixed and random effects (Mantel-Haenszel) were calculated using pooled odds ratio of 95% CI to determine the risk of disease. Inconsistency was calculated to determine heterogeneity among the studies. The publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot. RESULTS: Twenty-one publications with 7841 cases and 8876 controls were evaluated in this meta-analysis. Overall, our results suggested that TP53 p.Arg72Pro was associated with the risk of breast cancer for the dominant model (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16, P = 0.01) and the additive model (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.17, P = 0.03), but not for the recessive model (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97-1.18, P = 0.19). According to the ethnic group analysis, Pro allele was associated with the risk of breast cancer in Caucasians for the dominant model and additive model (P = 0.02), and Africans for the recessive model and additive model (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found a significant association between TP53 p.Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. Individuals carrying at least one Pro allele were more likely to have breast cancer than individuals harboring the Arg allele.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039464, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women after cervical cancer in much of sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to examine the prevalence and sociodemographic-socioeconomic factors associated with breast cancer screening among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: A weighted population-based cross-sectional study using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data. We used all available data on breast cancer screening from the DHS for four sub-Saharan African countries (Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Kenya and Namibia). Breast cancer screening was the outcome of interest for this study. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to identify independent factors associated with breast cancer screening. SETTING: Four countries participating in the DHS from 2010 to 2014 with data on breast cancer screening. PARTICIPANTS: Women of reproductive age 15-49 years (N=39 646). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of breast cancer screening was only 12.9% during the study period, ranging from 5.2% in Ivory Coast to 23.1% in Namibia. Factors associated with breast cancer screening were secondary/higher education with adjusted prevalence ratio (adjusted PR)=2.33 (95% CI: 2.05 to 2.66) compared with no education; older participants, 35-49 years (adjusted PR=1.73, 95% CI : 1.56 to 1.91) compared with younger participants 15-24 years; health insurance coverage (adjusted PR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.47 to 1.68) compared with those with no health insurance and highest socioeconomic status (adjusted PR=1.33, 95% CI : 1.19 to 1.49) compared with lowest socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Despite high breast cancer mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of breast cancer screening is substantially low and varies gradually across countries and in relation to factors such as education, age, health insurance coverage and household wealth index level. These results highlight the need for increased efforts to improve the uptake of breast cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
10.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15: 50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760435

RESUMO

Background: HIV-associated cellular immune dysfunction has been linked to higher risk of cervical dysplasia and cancer in HIV infected women. We sought to understand the relationship between HIV and development of epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) at follow-up in women with prior normal cervical cytology (NCC). Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis of women who received a Pap test at the Operation Stop Cervical Cancer Unit in Jos, Nigeria over a 10-year period (2006-2016). We analyzed the data of women with NCC at first Pap who had at least one follow-up cytology result for time-to-detection of ECA. We determined follow-up time in years from date of first NCC to date of first ECA report or date of last NCC follow up report with censoring at last follow-up date or December 31st, 2016 whichever came first. The primary outcome was development of any ECA as defined by the Bethesda 2001 reporting system. We identified demographic and clinical factors associated with incident ECA using multivariable Cox regression. Results: A total of 1599 women were eligible for this analysis. Overall, 3.7% (57/1556) of women reported being HIV infected. The median age at first Pap was 39 years (IQR; 33-45). The HIV infected women were younger (36.3 ± 8.1) compared to those uninfected (39.3 ± 6.6), p = 0.005. After an accrued follow-up time of 3809 person-years (PYs), 243 women (15%) had an ECA with an event rate of 6.38 per 100 PYs. Women ≥35 years at first Pap were more likely to have an ECA compared to those < 35 years (7.5 per 100 PYs vs 3.8 per 100 PYs, HR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.8). HIV status was not significantly associated with developing ECA in either unadjusted (7.4 per 100 PYs vs 6.4 per 100 PYs, HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.53, 2.3) or adjusted analyses (aHR = 1.78; 95% CI: 0.87, 3.65). Conclusion: Women living with HIV and on successful antiretroviral treatment may not have a differential hazard in the development of ECA during follow up after a prior normal Pap. Offering a repeat CCS to women who are 35 years or older irrespective of HIV status is likely an effective strategy in resource limited settings.

11.
Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet ; 11(1): 1-15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and remains a serious global public health threat, especially in resource-limited settings such as the African region. Recent developments in molecular epidemiology tools have significantly improved our understanding of TB transmission patterns and revealed the high genetic diversity of TB isolates across geographical entities in Africa. This study reports the results of a systematic review of current knowledge about MTBC strain diversity and geographical distribution in African regions. METHODS: Search tools (PubMed, Embase, Popline, OVID and Africa Wide Information) were employed to identify the relevant literature about prevalence, strain diversity, and geographic distribution of MTBC infection in Africa. RESULTS: A total of 59 articles from 739 citations met our inclusion criteria. Most articles reported about patients with presumptive pulmonary TB (73%), fewer reports were on retreatment and treatment failure cases (12%), and presumptive drug resistance cases (3%). Spoligotyping was the most used, alone in 21 studies and in parallel with either the Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units Variable Number of Tandem Repeats or the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Various TB lineages were observed across the African continent, with the originally European lineage 4 spotted in all countries studied. CONCLUSION: TB molecular epidemiology tools have substantially improved our understanding of the MTBC circulating isolates, their evolution, and diversity in this highly endemic region of Africa. We found that only TB lineage 4 is present throughout all the continent and the clusters identified provides an extended insight into the disease transmission dynamics.

12.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 142, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer, the most common tumor in women in Mali and worldwide has been linked to several risk factors, including genetic factors, such as the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism of TP53. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism in the susceptibility to breast cancer in the Malian population and to perform a meta-analysis to better understand the correlation with data from other populations. METHODS: We analyzed the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism in blood samples of 60 Malian women with breast cancer and 60 healthy Malian women using PCR. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis of case-control study data from international databases, including Pubmed, Harvard University Library, Genetics Medical Literature Database, Genesis Library and Web of Science. Overall, odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI from fixed and random effects models were determined. Inconsistency was used to assess heterogeneity between studies and publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot. RESULTS: In the studied Malian patients, a significant association of PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism with breast cancer risk was observed in dominant (A1A2 + A2A2 vs. A1A1: OR = 2.26, CI 95% = 1.08-4.73; P = 0.02) and additive (A2 vs. A1: OR = 1.87, CI 95% = 1.05-3.33; P = 0.03) models, but not in the recessive model (P = 0.38). In the meta-analysis, nineteen (19) articles were included with a total of 6018 disease cases and 4456 controls. Except for the dominant model (P = 0.15), an increased risk of breast cancer was detected with the recessive (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.15-1.85; P = 0.002) and additive (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02-1.19; P = 0.01) models. CONCLUSION: The case-control study showed that PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism of TP53 is a significant risk factor for breast cancer in Malian women. These findings are supported by data from the meta-analysis carried out on different ethnic groups around the world.


Assuntos
Pareamento de Bases/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Mali , Modelos Genéticos , Razão de Chances , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 9(2): 185-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474541

RESUMO

Background: Nigeria is one of the countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. TB associated inflammation is reported to be central to progression from latent TB to active TB or drug sensitive TB (DSTB) to drug resistant TB (DRTB). Inflammatory cytokines, especially interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), act synergistically in the control of TB infection. They activate macrophages to produce effector molecules such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide, and ultimately 3-nitrotyrosines(3-NTs), which are involved in the control of TB. This study investigated the potential involvement of TNF-α, IFN-γ, iNOS, and 3-NT in differentiating DRTB and DSTB in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: One hundred participants above 18 years were recruited into this study and were grouped as follows: 32 DRTB, 34 DSTB, and 34 apparently healthy controls. Plasma from the patients was used for the analyses of inflammatory (TNF α and IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (iNOS and 3-NT) biomarkers using the ELISA. Mann-Whitney test was applied for the statistical test. Results: Mean levels of plasma TNF-α, IFN-γ, iNOS, and 3-NT were higher in DRTB (19.74 ± 3.62 pg/mL, 4.41 ± 0.96 pg/mL, 1791.07 ± 419.42 pg/mL, and 20.27 ± 1.80 ng/mL, respectively) and DSTB (17.02 ± 1.84 pg/mL, 5.59 ± 1.40 pg/mL, 2823.42 ± 685.32 pg/mL, and 25.06 ± 2.15 ng/mL, respectively) compared with controls (12.18 ± 0.92 pg/mL, 1.58 ± 0.21 pg/mL, 1275.86 ± 166.12 pg/mL, and 19.98 ± 1.23 ng/mL, respectively). In addition, higher plasma levels of IFN-γ (P > 0.05), iNOS (P > 0.05), and 3-NT (P < 0.05) were observed in DSTB compared with DRTB patients. Conclusion: The 3-NT may be used as differentiating markers of DSTB from DRTB.

14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008230, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is composed of eight subspecies. TB in West Africa, in contrast to other geographical regions, is caused by Mycobacterium africanum (MAF) in addition to M. tuberculosis (MTB), with both infections presenting similar symptoms. Nevertheless, MAF is considered to be hypovirulent in comparison with MTB and less likely to progress to active disease. In this study, we asked whether MAF and MTB infected patients possess distinct intestinal microbiomes and characterized how these microbiota communities are affected by anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). Additionally, we assessed if the changes in microbiota composition following infection correlate with pathogen induced alterations in host blood-gene expression. METHODS: A longitudinal, clinical study of MAF infected, MTB infected patients assessed at diagnosis and two months after start of ATT, and healthy, endemic controls was conducted to compare compositions of the fecal microbiome as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. A blood transcriptome analysis was also performed on a subset of subjects in each group by microarray and the results cross-compared with the same individual's microbiota composition. FINDINGS: MAF participants have distinct microbiomes compared with MTB patients, displaying decreased diversity and increases in Enterobacteriaceae with respect to healthy participants not observed in the latter patient group. Interestingly, this observed elevation in Enterobacteriaceae positively correlated with enhanced inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood and was reversed after initiation of ATT. INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate that MAF and MTB have distinct associations with the gut microbiome that may be reflective of the differential susceptibility of West Africans to these two co-endemic infections either as biomarkers or as a contributing determinant.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium/classificação , Mycobacterium/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 36-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733052

RESUMO

Mycobacterium africanum (MAF) is known to endemically cause up to 40-50% of all pulmonary TB in West Africa. The aim of this study was to compare MAF with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) with regard to time from symptom onset to TB diagnosis, and clinical and radiological characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bamako, Mali, between August 2014 and July 2016. Seventy-seven newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients who were naive to treatment were enrolled at Mali's University Clinical Research Center. Sputum cultures were performed to confirm the diagnosis and spoligotyping to identify the mycobacterial strain. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with disease progression. Overall, the frequency of female patients was 25% in MAF infection and only 10.0% in MTB infection (OR = 2.9), and MAF was more represented in patients aged ≥ 30 years (57.1% versus 36.7% [OR = 2.3]). More MAF- than MTB-infected patients had a history of a prior TB contact (32.1% versus 14.3% [OR = 2.8]). The mean duration between cough onset and TB diagnosis was 111 days (∼3.7 months) for MAF and 72 days (∼2.4 months) for MTB (P = 0.007). In a multivariate regression, weight loss (body mass index [BMI] < 18.5 kg/m2) and cough duration (> 4 months) were strongly associated with MAF infection (OR = 5.20 [1.49-18.26], P = 0.010, and 4.74 [1.2-18.58], P = 0.02), respectively. Our data show that MAF infection was significantly associated with lower BMI and a longer time between symptom onset and TB diagnosis than MTB. This supports the concept that MAF infection may have slower disease progression and less severe cough symptoms than MTB.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium/classificação , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/patologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/patologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Glob Health Innov ; 2(2)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853521

RESUMO

Sputum smear microscopy (SSM), the most widely available tool for tuberculosis (TB) detection, has limited performance in paucibacillary patients and requires highly experienced technicians. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a detergent that thins sputum, at 4% and 10%, improves the detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB), the clarity of slides, and the biosafety of the technique. Thirty participants with presumptive TB were enrolled. Three independent, blinded technicians examined the slides. Regular sputum concentrated AFB smear and sputum culture were used as standard control methods. Sputum culture was also performed before and after 10% SDS addition for safety analysis. We found that neither SSM with SDS 4% nor SSM with SDS 10% improved the test's performance. However, slides with 4% and 10% SDS, compared with slides prepared without SDS, had significantly better clarity scores. The 10% SDS-prepared sputum samples were all culture negative. While adding SDS detergent does not improve the performance of SSM slides, it does improve the clarity and biosafety. Where experienced technicians are scarce, especially in low resource settings, use of SDS may enhance the ease of slide reading in sputum smear microscopy.

17.
Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol ; 8(5): 831-836, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879663

RESUMO

Background: There are few reports in the literature from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) regarding antiretroviral-induced adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now widely available in SSA, and ADRs during HIV infection are also frequent. In this study, we reported the frequency and risk factors of ART-induced ADRs in a Malian population. Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed in the HIV Care and Counseling Centre (CESAC) of Mali from 2011 to 2012. Adult patients infected with HIV and who had recently started ART were included and followed-up clinically Were included in this study, adult patients living with HIV and had recently started ART who were followed up for at least 6 months to determine the incidence of ADRs using Naranjo's classification scale. Results: During this study, 357 (42.3%) patients presented ADRs (40.1% of our patients (n=338) experienced at least one ADR, and 2.2% (n=19) experienced at least two ADRs). The prevalence of ADRs by organ system was: 45.9% neurological (n=164); 29.4% metabolic (blood chemistry) (n=105); 15.4% hematological (n=55). High probable rate of ADR was observed as indicated by the Naranjo score in 83.7% of the cases. Zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) use was identified as a risk factor for either anaemia or peripheral neuropathy whereas nevirapine (NVP) and female gender were risk factors for skin reactions. Patients with advance disease had the highest rate of ADRs compared to the others. Conclusions: Based on the Naranjo probability scale, our data show that ADRs such as peripheral neuropathy and anemia are very frequent. These ADR was linked to AZT and D4T. Our findings highlight the need for active monitoring, continuous pharmacovigilance of ART and change of some ART drug in this population.

18.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 8(3): 287-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512606

RESUMO

Background: While, bacteria resistance mutations can affect competitive fitness, given our multidrug-resistant (MDR) prevalence, we conducted this study to determine the impact of MDR on the competitive fitness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex MDR strains. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the University Clinical Research Center (UCRC) from January to December 2017. New TB patients over aged of 18 were recruited at University teaching hospital and health reference centers of Bamako in USTTB Ethical committee approved protocols. Methods: MDR and drug-susceptible (wild-type [WT]) MTB strains (T1 and Beijing) and MTB H37Rv were competed on solid media in UCRC's Tuberculosis Laboratory. Competitive and individual cultures were incubated for 14 days at 37°C with 7% CO2. Number of generation, generation time, and relative competitive fitness (W) of the strains were calculated. Data were analyzed with Epi-Info 7.1.5.2 software (CDC). P value was considered significant when it was <0.05. Scientific calculator (CS-82TL) was used for competitive fitness parameters calculations. Results: We performed 24 competitive cultures and 10 individual cultures. In individual cultures, strains' generation number was for Beijing (WT: 4.60 and mutant MR: 4.40), T1 (WT: 2.69 and MR: 2.37), and H37Rv: 2.91. Generation number of WT strains was less than those of MDR strains in both individual and competitive culture. Relative competitive fitness was below 1 (W<1) in 83.3%. Conclusion: MDR strains were less competitive than WT strains in 83.3% of cases. Resistant mutation impacts bacteria fitness.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Aptidão Genética , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mali , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 81: 149-155, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MDR-TB is a major threat to global TB control. In 2015, 580,000 were treated for MDR-TB worldwide. The worldwide roll-out of GeneXpert MTB/RIF® has improved diagnosis of MDR-TB; however, in many countries laboratories are unable to assess drug resistance and clinical predictors of MDR-TB could help target suspected patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical factors associated with MDR-TB in Bamako, Mali. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 214 patients with presumed MDR-TB admitted to University of Bamako Teaching Hospital, Point-G between 2007 and 2016. We calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios for MDR-TB disease diagnosis using SPSS. RESULTS: We found that age ≤40years (OR=2.56. 95% CI: 1.44-4.55), two courses of prior TB treatment (OR=3.25, 95% CI: 1.44-7.30), TB treatment failure (OR=3.82, 95% CI 1.82-7.79), sputum microscopy with 3+ bacilli load (OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.13-3.48) and a history of contact with a TB patient (OR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.11-5.50) were significantly associated with confirmation of MDR-TB disease. HIV was not a risk factor for MDR-TB (aOR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.34-1.94). CONCLUSION: We identified several risk factors that could be used to identify MDR-TB suspects and prioritize them for laboratory confirmation. Prospective studies are needed to understand factors associated with TB incidence and clinical outcomes of TB treatment and disease.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Opin Biomed Eng ; 11: 9-15, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864521

RESUMO

The HIV pandemic disproportionately impacts sub-Saharan Africa where in 2017, 71% of people living with HIV resided, 65% of new infections and 75% of deaths were reported. Prevention, screening and treatment strategies have led to progress in addressing this disease. HIV diagnostics have been crucial for prevention and treatment but more progress is required to reduce HIV infection. The Center for Innovation in Point-of-Care Technologies for HIV/AIDS at Northwestern University (C-THAN) is a vital partner in the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Point-of-Care Technologies Research Network. C-THAN's mission is to develop and commercialize a pipeline of point-of-care technologies critical for improved prevention and management of HIV in low- and middle-income countries with specific emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa.

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