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1.
Inorg Chem ; 48(16): 7864-84, 2009 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19618946

RESUMO

The crystal structure of the as-yet-unknown salt K[Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)].3H(2)O, where cydta = (+/-)-trans-1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetraacetate, has been resolved: orthorhombic space group Pbca with R1 = 0.0309, wR2 = 0.0700, and GOF = 0.99. There are two independent [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) anions in the asymmetric unit, and the ligand is (R,R)-cydta in both cases. The coordination polyhedron is a seven-coordinate capped trigonal prism where the quadrilateral face formed by the four ligand donor oxygen atoms is capped by the coordinated water molecule. The speciation of [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) in water was studied in detail by a combination of techniques: (i) Measurements of the pH dependence of the Fe(III/II)cydta redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry enabled the estimation of the stability constants (0.1 M KNO(3), 25 degrees C) of [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) (log beta(III)(110) = 29.05 +/- 0.01) and [Fe(II)(cydta)(H(2)O)](2-) (log beta(II)(110) = 17.96 +/- 0.01) as well as pK(III)(a1OH) = 9.57 and pK(II)(a1H) = 2.69. The formation enthalpy of [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) (DeltaH degrees = -23 +/- 1 kJ mol(-1)) was measured by direct calorimetry and is compared to the corresponding value for [Fe(III)(edta)(H(2)O)](-) (DeltaH degrees = -31 +/- 1 kJ mol(-1)). (ii) pH-dependent spectrophotometric titrations of Fe(III)cydta lead to pK(III)(a1OH) = 9.54 +/- 0.01 for deprotonation of the coordinated water and a dimerization constant of log K(d) = 1.07. These data are compared with those of Fe(III)pdta (pdta = 1,2-propanediaminetetraacetate; pK(III)(a1OH) = 7.70 +/- 0.01, log K(d) = 2.28) and Fe(III)edta (pK(III)(a1OH) = 7.52 +/- 0.01, log K(d) = 2.64). Temperature- and pressure-dependent (17)O NMR measurements lead to the following kinetic parameters for the water-exchange reaction at [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) (at 298 K): k(ex) = (1.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(7) s(-1), DeltaH(++) = 40.2 +/- 1.3 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(++) = +28.4 +/- 4.7 J mol(-1) K(-1), and DeltaV(++) = +2.3 +/- 0.1 cm(3) mol(-1). A detailed kinetic study of the effect of the buffer, temperature, and pressure on the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-) was performed using stopped-flow techniques. The reaction was found to consist of two steps and resulted in the formation of a purple Fe(III) side-on-bound peroxo complex [Fe(III)(cydta)(eta(2)-O(2))](3-). The peroxo complex and its degradation products were characterized using Mossbauer spectroscopy. Formation of the purple peroxo complex is only observable above a pH of 9.5. Both reaction steps are affected by specific and general acid catalysis. Two different buffer systems were used to clarify the role of general acid catalysis in these reactions. Mechanistic descriptions and a comparison between the edta and cydta systems are presented. The first reaction step reveals an element of reversibility, which is evident over the whole studied pH range. The positive volume of activation for the forward reaction and the positive entropy of activation for the backward reaction suggest a dissociative interchange mechanism for the reversible end-on binding of hydrogen peroxide to [Fe(III)(cydta)(H(2)O)](-). Deprotonation of the end-on-bound hydroperoxo complex leads to the formation of a seven-coordinate side-on-bound peroxo complex [Fe(III)(cydta)(eta(2)-O(2))](3-), where one carboxylate arm is detached. [Fe(III)(cydta)(eta(2)-O(2))](3-) can be reached by two different pathways, of which one is catalyzed by a base and the other by deprotonated hydrogen peroxide. For both pathways, a small negative volume and entropy of activation was observed, suggesting an associative interchange mechanism for the ring-closure step to the side-on-bound peroxo complex. For the second reaction step, no element of reversibility was found.


Assuntos
Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Compostos Férricos/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Termodinâmica , Dimerização , Ácido Edético/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Oxirredução , Software , Espectrofotometria , Espectroscopia de Mossbauer , Temperatura , Titulometria , Água/química
2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 130(44): 14556-69, 2008 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18839954

RESUMO

Paramagnetic effects on the relaxation rate and shift difference of the (17)O nucleus of bulk water enable the study of water exchange mechanisms on transition metal complexes by variable temperature and variable pressure NMR. The water exchange kinetics of [Mn(II)(edta)(H2O)](2-) (CN 7, hexacoordinated edta) was reinvestigated and complemented by variable pressure NMR data. The results revealed a rapid water exchange reaction for the [Mn(II)(edta)(H2O)](2-) complex with a rate constant of k(ex) = (4.1 +/- 0.4) x 10(8) s(-1) at 298.2 K and ambient pressure. The activation parameters DeltaH(double dagger), DeltaS(double dagger), and DeltaV(double dagger) are 36.6 +/- 0.8 kJ mol(-1), +43 +/- 3 J K(-1) mol(-1), and +3.4 +/- 0.2 cm(3) mol(-1), which are in line with a dissociatively activated interchange (I(d)) mechanism. To analyze the structural influence of the chelate, the investigation was complemented by studies on complexes of the edta-related tmdta (trimethylenediaminetetraacetate) chelate. The kinetic parameters for [Fe(II)(tmdta)(H2O)](2-) are k(ex) = (5.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(6) s(-1) at 298.2 K, DeltaH(double dagger) = 43 +/- 3 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(double dagger) = +30 +/- 13 J K(-1) mol(-1), and DeltaV(double dagger) = +15.7 +/- 1.5 cm(3) mol(-1), and those for [Mn(II)(tmdta)(H2O)](2-) are k(ex) = (1.3 +/- 0.1) x 10(8) s(-1) at 298.2 K, DeltaH(double dagger) = 37.2 +/- 0.8 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(double dagger) = +35 +/- 3 J K(-1) mol(-1), and DeltaV(double dagger) = +8.7 +/- 0.6 cm(3) mol(-1). The water containing species, [Fe(III)(tmdta)(H2O)](-) with a fraction of 0.2, is in equilibrium with the water-free hexa-coordinate form, [Fe(III)(tmdta)](-). The kinetic parameters for [Fe(III)(tmdta)(H2O)](-) are k(ex) = (1.9 +/- 0.8) x 10(7) s(-1) at 298.2 K, DeltaH(double dagger) = 42 +/- 3 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(double dagger) = +36 +/- 10 J K(-1) mol(-1), and DeltaV(double dagger) = +7.2 +/- 2.7 cm(3) mol(-1). The data for the mentioned tmdta complexes indicate a dissociatively activated exchange mechanism in all cases with a clear relationship between the sterical hindrance that arises from the ligand architecture and mechanistic details of the exchange process for seven-coordinate complexes. The unexpected kinetic and mechanistic behavior of [Ni(II)(edta')(H2O)](2-) and [Ni(II)(tmdta')(H2O)](2-) is accounted for in terms of the different coordination number due to the strong preference for an octahedral coordination environment and thus a coordination equilibrium between the water-free, hexadentate [M(L)](n+) and the aqua-pentadentate forms [M(L')(H2O)](n+) of the Ni(II)-edta complex, which was studied in detail by variable temperature and pressure UV-vis experiments. For [Ni(II)(edta')(H2O)](2-) (CN 6, pentacoordinated edta) a water substitution rate constant of (2.6 +/- 0.2) x 10(5) s(-1) at 298.2 K and ambient pressure was measured, and the activation parameters DeltaH(double dagger), DeltaS(double dagger), and DeltaV(double dagger) were found to be 34 +/- 1 kJ mol(-1), -27 +/- 2 J K(-1) mol(-1), and +1.8 +/- 0.1 cm(3) mol(-1), respectively. For [Ni(II)(tmdta')(H2O)](2-), we found k = (6.4 +/- 1.4) x 10(5) s(-1) at 298.2 K, DeltaH(double dagger) = 22 +/- 4 kJ mol(-1), and DeltaS(double dagger) = -59 +/- 5 J K(-1) mol(-1). The process is referred to as a water substitution instead of a water exchange reaction, since these observations refer to the intramolecular displacement of coordinated water by the carboxylate moiety in a ring-closure reaction.

3.
Magn Reson Chem ; 46 Suppl 1: S94-9, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18855345

RESUMO

The effect of temperature and pressure on the water exchange reaction of [Fe(II)(NTA)(H2O)2](-) and [Fe(II)(BADA)(H2O)2](-) (NTA = nitrilotriacetate; BADA = beta-alanindiacetate) was studied by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The [Fe(II)(NTA)(H2O)2](-) complex showed a water exchange rate constant, k(ex), of (3.1 +/- 0.4) x 10(6) s(-1) at 298.2 K and ambient pressure. The activation parameters DeltaH( not equal), DeltaS( not equal) and DeltaV( not equal) for the observed reaction are 43.4 +/- 2.6 kJ mol(-1), + 25 +/- 9 J K(-1) mol(-1) and + 13.2 +/- 0.6 cm(3) mol(-1), respectively. For [Fe(II)(BADA)(H2O)2](-), the water exchange reaction is faster than for the [Fe(II)(NTA)(H2O)2](-) complex with k(ex) = (7.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(6) s(-1) at 298.2 K and ambient pressure. The activation parameters DeltaH( not equal), DeltaS( not equal) and DeltaV( not equal) for the water exchange reaction are 40.3 +/- 2.5 kJ mol(-1), + 22 +/- 9 J K(-1) mol(-1) and + 13.3 +/- 0.8 cm(3) mol(-1), respectively. The effect of pressure on the exchange rate constant is large and very similar for both systems, and the numerical values for DeltaV( not equal) suggest in both cases a limiting dissociative (D) mechanism for the water exchange process.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/química , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Água/química , Cinética , Isótopos de Oxigênio , Pressão , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Temperatura
4.
Dalton Trans ; (20): 2759-66, 2008 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18688408

RESUMO

Complexes of the type [Pt2(N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)diamine(HO)2]4+ and [Pt2(N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)diamine(Cl)2]2+ were used to study their reactions with a series of bio-relevant nucleophiles, viz. thiourea, L-methionine and guanosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP2-) as a function of nucleophile concentration and temperature. The reactions with the sulfur containing nucleophiles (thiourea and L-methionine) were followed under pseudo-first-order conditions by stopped-flow and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The reaction with 5'-GMP2- was carried out under second order conditions and studied by NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the bridged dinuclear complexes remain intact after coordination of the studied nucleophiles for an extended period of time, which differs significantly from that reported for other multinuclear platinum complexes in the literature.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Platina/química , Cátions Bivalentes , Guanosina Monofosfato/química , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metionina/química , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Temperatura , Tioureia/química
5.
Inorg Chem ; 47(14): 6314-21, 2008 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18563876

RESUMO

The promising BioDeNO(x) process for NO removal from gaseous effluents suffers from an unsolved problem that results from the oxygen sensitivity of the Fe(II)-aminopolycarboxylate complexes used in the absorber unit to bind NO(g). The utilized [Fe(II)(EDTA)(H2O)](2-) complex is extremely oxygen sensitive and easily oxidized to give a totally inactive [Fe(III)(EDTA)(H2O)](-) species toward the binding of NO(g). We found that an in situ formed, less-oxygen-sensitive mixed-ligand complex, [Fe(II)(EDTA)(F)](3-), still reacts quantitatively with NO(g). The formation constant for the mixed ligand complex was determined spectrophotometrically. For [Fe(III)(EDTA)(F)](2-) we found log K(MLF)(F) = 1.7 +/- 0.1. The [Fe(II)(EDTA)(F)](3-) complex has a smaller value of log K(MLF)(F) = 1.3 +/- 0.2. The presence of fluoride does not affect the reversible binding of NO(g). Even over extended periods of time and fluoride concentrations of up to 1.0 M, the nitrosyl complex does not undergo any significant decomposition. The [Fe(III)(EDTA)(NO(-))](2-) complex releases bound NO on passing nitrogen through the solution to form [Fe(II)(EDTA)(H2O)](2-) almost completely. A reaction cycle is feasible in which fluoride inhibits the autoxidation of [Fe(II)(EDTA)(H2O)](2-) during the reversible binding of NO(g).

6.
Inorg Chem ; 47(13): 5702-19, 2008 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18510310

RESUMO

Because of our interest in evaluating a possible relationship between complex dynamics and water exchange reactivity, we performed (1)H NMR studies on the paramagnetic aminopolycarboxylate complexes Fe (II)-TMDTA and Fe (II)-CyDTA and their diamagnetic analogues Zn (II)-TMDTA and Zn (II)-CyDTA. Whereas a fast Delta-Lambda isomerization was observed for the TMDTA species, no acetate scrambling between in-plane and out-of-plane positions is accessible for any of the CyDTA complexes because the rigid ligand backbone prevents any configurational changes in the chelate system. In variable-temperature (1)H NMR studies, no evidence of spectral coalescence due to nitrogen inversion was found for any of the complexes in the available temperature range. The TMDTA complexes exhibit the known solution behavior of EDTA, whereas the CyDTA complexes adopt static solution structures. Comparing the exchange kinetics of flexible EDTA-type complexes and static CyDTA complexes appears to be a suitable method for evaluating the effect of ligand dynamics on the overall reactivity. In order to assess information concerning the rates and mechanism of water exchange, we performed variable-temperature and -pressure (17)O NMR studies of Ni (II)-CyDTA, Fe (II)-CyDTA, and Mn (II)-CyDTA. For Ni (II)-CyDTA, no significant effects on line widths or chemical shifts were apparent, indicating either the absence of any chemical exchange or the existence of a very small amount of the water-coordinated complex in solution. For [Fe (II)(CyDTA)(H 2O)] (2-) and [Mn (II)(CyDTA)(H 2O)] (2-), exchange rate constant values of (1.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 (6) and (1.4 +/- 0.2) x 10 (8) s (-1), respectively, at 298 K were determined from fits to resonance-shift and line-broadening data. A relationship between chelate dynamics and reactivity seems to be operative, since the CyDTA complexes exhibited significantly slower reactions than their EDTA counterparts. The variable-pressure (17)O NMR measurements for [Mn (II)(CyDTA)(H 2O)] (2-) yielded an activation volume of +9.4 +/- 0.9 cm (3) mol (-1). The mechanism is reliably assigned as a dissociative interchange (I d) mechanism with a pronounced dissociation of the leaving water molecule in the transition state. In the case of [Fe (II)(CyDTA)(H 2O)] (2-), no suitable experimental conditions for variable-pressure measurements were accessible.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Isótopos de Oxigênio , Água/química , Ácido Edético
7.
Inorg Chem ; 47(8): 2994-3013, 2008 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18351731

RESUMO

The complex [iron(III) (octaphenylsulfonato)porphyrazine] (5-), Fe (III)(Pz), was synthesized. The p K a values of the axially coordinated water molecules were determined spectrophotometrically and found to be p K a 1 = 7.50 +/- 0.02 and p K a 2 = 11.16 +/- 0.06. The water exchange reaction studied by (17)O NMR as a function of the pH was fast at pH = 1, k ex = (9.8 +/- 0.6) x 10 (6) s (-1) at 25 degrees C, and too fast to be measured at pH = 10, whereas at pH = 13, no water exchange reaction occurred. The equilibrium between mono- and diaqua Fe (III)(Pz) complexes was studied at acidic pH as a function of the temperature and pressure. Complex-formation equilibria with different nucleophiles (Br (-) and pyrazole) were studied in order to distinguish between a five- (in the case of Br (-)) or six-coordinate (in the case of pyrazole) iron(III) center. The kinetics of the reaction of Fe (III)(Pz) with NO was studied as a model ligand substitution reaction at various pH values. The mechanism observed is analogous to the one observed for iron(III) porphyrins and follows an I d mechanism. The product is (Pz)Fe (II)NO (+), and subsequent reductive nitrosylation usually takes place when other nucleophiles like OH (-) or buffer ions are present in solution. Fe (III)(Pz) also activates hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic data for the direct reaction of hydrogen peroxide with the complex clearly indicate the occurrence of more than one reaction step. Kinetic data for the catalytic decomposition of the dye Orange II by H 2O 2 in the presence of Fe (III)(Pz) imply that a catalytic oxidation cycle is initiated. The peroxide molecule first coordinates to the iron(III) center to produce the active catalytic species, which immediately oxidizes the substrate. The influence of the catalyst, oxidant, and substrate concentrations on the reaction rate was studied in detail as a function of the pH. The rate increases with increasing catalyst and peroxide concentrations but decreases with increasing substrate concentration. At low pH, the oxidation of the substrate is not complete because of catalyst decomposition. The observed kinetic traces at pH = 10 and 12 for the catalytic cycle could be simulated on the basis of the obtained kinetic data and the proposed reaction cycle. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulated ones.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Óxido Nítrico/química , Porfirinas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Metaloporfirinas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Espectrofotometria , Termodinâmica
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (38): 3960-2, 2007 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17896046

RESUMO

The equilibrium between the twist-boat (tb) and half-chair (hc) conformers of the central diamine chelate ring of [Fe(III)(tmdta)]- in solids and aqueous solution has been studied by Raman spectroscopy, supported by calculated Raman spectra using Density Functional Theory.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Conformação Molecular , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Diaminas/química
9.
Inorg Chem ; 46(13): 5361-71, 2007 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17530844

RESUMO

The lability and structural dynamics of [Fe(II)(edta)(H(2)O)](2-) (edta = ethylenediaminetetraacetate) in aqueous solution strongly depend on solvent interactions. To study the solution structure and water-exchange mechanism, (1)H, (13)C, and (17)O NMR techniques were applied. The water-exchange reaction was studied through the paramagnetic effect of the complex on the relaxation rate of the (17)O nucleus of the bulk water. In addition to variable-temperature experiments, high-pressure NMR techniques were applied to elucidate the intimate nature of the water-exchange mechanism. The water molecule in the seventh coordination site of the edta complex is strongly labilized, as shown by the water-exchange rate constant of (2.7 +/- 0.1) x 106 s(-1) at 298.2 K and ambient pressure. The activation parameters DeltaH(not equal), DeltaS(not equal), and DeltaV(not equal) were found to be 43.2 +/- 0.5 kJ mol(-1), +23 +/- 2 J K(-1) mol(-1), and +8.6 +/- 0.4 cm(3) mol(-1), respectively, in line with a dissociatively activated interchange (Id) mechanism. The scalar coupling constant (A/h) for the Fe(II)-O interaction was found to be 10.4 MHz, slightly larger than the value A/h = 9.4 MHz for this interaction in the hexa-aqua Fe(II) complex. The solution structure and dynamics of [Fe(II)(edta)(H(2)O)](2-) were clarified by (1)H and (13)C NMR experiments. The complex undergoes a Delta,Lambda-isomerization process with interconversion of in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OP) positions. Acetate scrambling was also found in an NMR study of the corresponding NO complex, [Fe(III)(edta)(NO(-))](2-).

10.
Inorg Chem ; 46(6): 2094-104, 2007 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17311374

RESUMO

The reactions of the two complexes BBR3464 [{trans-PtCl(NH3)2}2{mu-trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)6NH2)2}](4+) and BBR3610 [{trans-PtCl(NH3)2}2{mu-C2H4(NH2(CH2)6NH2)2}](4+) and the corresponding diaqua complexes with the nucleophiles thiourea (tu) and l-methionine (l-Met), were investigated under pseudo-first-order conditions as a function of concentration and temperature, using UV-vis spectrophotometric and stopped-flow techniques. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to follow the stepwise substitution of the chloro ligands by guanosine-5'-monophosphate under second-order conditions. For the sulfur donor containing nucleophiles (tu and l-Met), a second reaction step, the displacement of the labilized amine chain linker, as a result of the strong trans-effect of tu and l-Met, was found. The activation parameters for all reactions studied suggest an associative substitution mechanism. The displacement of the chain linker by S-donor nucleophiles illustrates the limit of application of polynuclear complexes with monodentate aliphatic amine bridges and primary ammines, in agreement with previous studies reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/química , Biotransformação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
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