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1.
Inorg Chem ; 58(9): 6495-6506, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021620

RESUMO

The exceptional performance of oxobenzene-bridged bis-1,2,3-dithiazolyls 6 as single-component neutral radical conductors arises from the presence of a low-lying π-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, which reduces the potential barrier to charge transport and increases the kinetic stabilization energy of the metallic state. As part of ongoing efforts to modify the solid-state structures and transport properties of these so-called multiorbital materials, we report the preparation and characterization of the acetoxy, methoxy, and thiomethyl derivatives 6 (R = OAc, OMe, SMe). The crystal structures are based on ribbonlike arrays of radicals laced together by S···N' and S···O' secondary bonding interactions. The steric and electronic effects of the exocyclic ligands varies, affording one-dimensional (1D) π-stacked radicals for R = OAc, 1D cofacial dimer π-stacks for R = SMe, and a pseudo two-dimensional (2D) brick-wall arrangement for R = OMe. Variable-temperature magnetic and conductivity measurements reveal strong antiferromagnetic interactions and Mott insulating behavior for the two radical-based structures (R = OAc, OMe), with lower room-temperature conductivities (σRT ≈ 1 × 10-4 and ∼1 × 10-3 S cm-1, respectively) and higher thermal activation energies ( Eact = 0.24 and 0.21 eV, respectively) than found for the ideal 2D brick-wall structure of 6 (R = F), where σRT ≈ 1 × 10-2 S cm-1 and Eact = 0.10 eV. The performance of R = OMe, OAc relative to that of R = F, is consistent with the results of density functional theory band electronic structure calculations, which indicate a lower kinetic stabilization energy of the putative metallic state arising from their reduced electronic dimensionality.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 57(21): 13901-13911, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351085

RESUMO

Condensation of persilylated nicotinimideamide and isonicotinimideamide with sulfur monochloride affords double salts of the 3-, 4-pyridyl-substituted 1,2,3,5-dithiadiazolylium DTDA cations of the general formula [3-, 4-pyDTDA][Cl][HCl] in which the pyridyl nitrogen serves as a noninnocent base. Reduction of these salts with triphenylantimony followed by deprotonation of the intermediate-protonated radical affords the free base radicals [3-, 4-pyDTDA], the crystal structures of which, along with those of their diselenadiazolyl analogues [3-, 4-pyDSDA], have been characterized by powder or single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures consist of "pancake" π-dimers linked head-to-tail into ribbonlike arrays by η2-S2---N(py) intermolecular secondary bonding interactions. Methylation of the persilylated (iso)nicotinimide-amides prior to condensation with sulfur monochloride leads to N-methylated double chloride salts Me[3-, 4-pyDTDA][Cl]2, which can be converted by metathesis into the corresponding triflates Me[3-, 4-pyDTDA][OTf]2 and then reduced to the N-methylated radical triflates Me[3-, 4-pyDTDA][OTf]. The crystal structures of both the N-methylated double triflate and radical triflate salts have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The latter consist of trans-cofacial π-dimers strongly ion-paired with triflate anions. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements on both the neutral and radical ion dimers indicate that they are diamagnetic over the temperature range 2-300 K.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 46(46): 16004-16008, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116268

RESUMO

The condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzenethiols and 3-aminopyrazinethiols with 2-amino-6-fluoro-N-methylpyridinium triflate afforded thioether derivatives that were found to undergo Smiles rearrangement and cyclocondensation with sulphur monochloride to yield new hybrid 1,4-thiazine-1,2,3-dithiazolylium cations. The synthesized cations were readily reduced to the corresponding stable neutral radicals with spin densities delocalized over both 1,4-thiazinyl and 1,2,3-dithiazolyl moieties.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(6): 2180-2183, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28140576

RESUMO

Benzoquino-bis-1,2,3-dithiazole 5 is a closed shell, antiaromatic 16π-electron zwitterion with a small HOMO-LUMO gap. Its crystal structure consists of planar ribbon-like molecular arrays packed into offset layers to generate a "brick-wall" motif with strong 2D interlayer electronic interactions. The spread of the valence and conduction bands, coupled with the narrow HOMO-LUMO gap, affords a small band gap semiconductor with σRT = 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 and Eact = 0.14 eV for transport within the brick-wall arrays. Closure of the band gap to form an all-organic molecular metal with σRT > 101 S cm-1 can be achieved by the application of pressure to 8 GPa.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(4): 1625-1635, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28117984

RESUMO

A critical feature of the electronic structure of oxobenzene-bridged bisdithiazolyl radicals 2 is the presence of a low-lying LUMO which, in the solid state, improves charge transport by providing additional degrees of freedom for electron transfer. The magnitude of this multiorbital effect can be fine-tuned by variations in the π-electron releasing/accepting nature of the basal ligand. Here we demonstrate that incorporation of a nitro group significantly stabilizes the LUMO, and hence lowers Ueff, the effective Coulombic barrier to charge transfer. The effect is echoed, at the molecular level, in the observed trend in Ecell, the electrochemical cell potential for 2 with R = F, H and NO2. The crystal structures of the MeCN and EtCN solvates of 2 with R = NO2 have been determined. In the EtCN solvate the radicals are dimerized, but in the MeCN solvate the radicals form superimposed and evenly spaced π-stacked arrays. This highly 1D material displays Pauli-like temperature independent paramagnetic behavior, with χTIP = 6 × 10-4 emu mol-1, but its charge transport behavior, with σRT near 0.04 S cm-1 and Eact = 0.05 eV, is more consistent with a Mott insulating ground state. High pressure crystallographic measurements confirm uniform compression of the π-stacked architecture with no phase change apparent up to 8 GPa. High pressure conductivity measurements indicate that the charge gap between the Mott insulator and metallic states can be closed near 6 GPa. These results are discussed in the light of DFT band structure calculations.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(96): 13877-13880, 2016 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27841385

RESUMO

In the solid state the iodo-substituted bisdiselenazolyl radical 1c orders as a ferromagnet with TC = 10.5 K. With the application of pressure TC rises rapidly, reaching a value of 27.5 K at 2.4 GPa. The accompanying structural and magnetic changes have been examined by high resolution powder X-ray diffraction and by DFT calculations of magnetic exchange interactions.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(34): 10738-41, 2016 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27537064

RESUMO

Electro-oxidation of the quinoidal bisdithiazole BT in dichloroethane in the presence of [Bu4N][GaBr4] affords the 1:1 radical ion salt [BT][GaBr4], crystals of which belong to the trigonal space group P3. The packing pattern of the radical cations provides a rare example of an organic kagome basket structure, with S = 1/2 radical ion chains located at the triangular corners of a trihexagonal lattice. Magnetic measurements over a wide temperature range from 30 mK to 300 K suggest strongly frustrated AFM interactions on the scale of J/kb ∼ 30 K, but reveal no anomalies that would be associated with magnetic order. These observations are discussed in terms of the symmetry allowed magnetic interactions within and between the frustrated layers.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 55(12): 5999-6009, 2016 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276103

RESUMO

One mole equivalent of gaseous SO2 is absorbed by purple TDAE[O2SSO2](s), producing red, essentially spectroscopically pure TDAE[O2SS(O)2SO2](s); under prolonged evacuation, the product loses SO2(g), regenerating TDAE[O2SSO2](s). Similarly, [NR4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) (R = Et, Me) can be prepared, albeit at lower purity, from the corresponding tetraalkylammonium dithionites (prepared by a modification of the known [NEt4]2[O2SSO2](s) preparation). While the [NEt4](+) salt is stable at rt; the [NMe4](+) salt has only limited stability at -78 °C. Vibrational spectra assignments for the anion in these salts were distinctly different from those for the anion in salts containing the long-known [O3SSSO3](2-) dianion, the most thermodynamically stable form of [S3O6](2-) (we prepared TDAE[O3SSSO3]·H2O(s) and obtained its structure by X-ray diffraction and vibrational analyses). The best fit between the calculated ((B3PW91/6-311+G(3df) and PBE0/6-311G(d)) and experimental vibrational spectra were obtained with the dianion having the [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) structure. Vibrational analyses of the three [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) salts prepared in this work showed that the corresponding [O3SSO2](2-) salts were present as a ubiquitous decomposition product. The formation of these new [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) dianion salts was predicted to be favorable for [NMe4](+) and larger cations using a combination of theoretical calculations (B3PW91/6-311+G(3df)) and volume based thermodynamics (VBT). Similar methods accounted for the greater stabilities of the TDAE(2+) and [NEt4](+) salts of [O2SS(O)2SO2](2-) compared to [NMe4]2[O2SS(O)2SO2](s) toward irreversible decomposition to the corresponding [O3SSO2](2-) salts. These salts represent the first known examples of a new class of poly(sulfur dioxide) dianion, [SO2]n(2-) in which n > 2.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(44): 14136-48, 2015 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26513125

RESUMO

Pressure-induced changes in the solid-state structures and transport properties of three oxobenzene-bridged bisdithiazolyl radicals 2 (R = H, F, Ph) over the range 0-15 GPa are described. All three materials experience compression of their π-stacked architecture, be it (i) 1D ABABAB π-stack (R = Ph), (ii) quasi-1D slipped π-stack (R = H), or (iii) 2D brick-wall π-stack (R = F). While R = H undergoes two structural phase transitions, neither of R = F, Ph display any phase change. All three radicals order as spin-canted antiferromagnets, but spin-canted ordering is lost at pressures <1.5 GPa. At room temperature, their electrical conductivity increases rapidly with pressure, and the thermal activation energy for conduction Eact is eliminated at pressures ranging from ∼3 GPa for R = F to ∼12 GPa for R = Ph, heralding formation of a highly correlated (or bad) metallic state. For R = F, H the pressure-induced Mott insulator to metal conversion has been tracked by measurements of optical conductivity at ambient temperature and electrical resistivity at low temperature. For R = F compression to 6.2 GPa leads to a quasiquadratic temperature dependence of the resistivity over the range 5-300 K, consistent with formation of a 2D Fermi liquid state. DFT band structure calculations suggest that the ease of metallization of these radicals can be ascribed to their multiorbital character. Mixing and overlap of SOMO- and LUMO-based bands affords an increased kinetic energy stabilization of the metallic state relative to a single SOMO-based band system.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(3): 1044-7, 2015 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25588146

RESUMO

The alternating ABABAB π-stacked architecture of the EtCN solvate of the iodo-substituted, oxobenzene-bridged bisdithiazolyl radical IBBO (space group Pnma) gives rise to strong ferromagnetic exchange along the π-stacks, and the material orders as a spin-canted antiferromagnet with T(N) = 35 K, with a spontaneous (canted) moment M(spont) = 1.4 × 10(-3) µB and a coercive field H(c) = 1060 Oe (at 2 K). The observation of spin-canting can only be understood in terms of multiorbital contributions to both isotropic and anisotropic exchange interactions, the magnitude of which are enhanced by spin-orbit effects arising from the heavy-atom iodine substituent. Pseudodipolar interactions lead to a net canted moment along the c-axis, while the sublattice magnetization is predicted to possess an easy a-axis.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(3): 1070-81, 2014 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24400662

RESUMO

The crystal structure and charge transport properties of the prototypal oxobenzene-bridged 1,2,3-bisdithiazolyl radical conductor 3a are strongly dependent on pressure. Compression of the as-crystallized α-phase, space group Fdd2, to 3-4 GPa leads to its conversion into a second or ß-phase, in which F-centering is lost. The space group symmetry is lowered to Pbn21, and there is concomitant halving of the a and b axes. A third or γ-phase, also space group Pbn21, is generated by further compression to 8 GPa. The changes in packing that accompany both phase transitions are associated with an "ironing out" of the ruffled ribbon-like architecture of the α-phase, so that consecutive radicals along the ribbons are rendered more nearly coplanar. In the ß-phase the planar ribbons are propagated along the b-glides, while in the γ-phase they follow the n-glides. At ambient pressure 3a is a Mott insulator, displaying high but activated conductivity, with σ(300 K) = 6 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) and E(act) = 0.16 eV. With compression beyond 4 GPa, its conductivity is increased by 3 orders of magnitude, and the thermal activation energy is reduced to zero, heralding the formation of a metallic state. High pressure infrared absorption and reflectivity measurements are consistent with closure of the Mott-Hubbard gap near 4-5 GPa. The results are discussed in the light of DFT calculations on the molecular and band electronic structure of 3a. The presence of a low-lying LUMO in 3a gives rise to high electron affinity which, in turn, creates an electronically much softer radical with a low onsite Coulomb potential U. In addition, considerable crystal orbital (SOMO/LUMO) mixing occurs upon pressurization, so that a metallic state is readily achieved at relatively low applied pressure.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(7): 785-7, 2014 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24121843

RESUMO

Supramolecular CHπ interactions cause a ruffling of the otherwise coplanar ribbon-like arrays of radicals in the structure of the oxobenzene-bridged bisdithiazolyl . The material displays a conductivity σ(300 K) = 6 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) (Eact = 0.16 eV) and orders antiferromagnetically below 4 K. At applied fields above 1 kOe the material displays metamagnetic behavior.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 52(4): 2188-98, 2013 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23391101

RESUMO

A series of four bisdithiazolyl radicals 1a-d (R(1) = Pr, Bu, Pn, Hx; R(2) = F) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of 1a (R(1) = Pr) belongs to the tetragonal space group P42(1)m and consists of slipped π-stack arrays of undimerized radicals packed about 4 centers running along the z-direction, an arrangement identical to that found for 1 (R(1) = Et; R(2) = F). With increasing chain length of the R(1) substituent, an isomorphous set 1b-d is generated. All three compounds crystallize in the P2(1)/c space group and consist of pairs of radical π-stacks locked together by strong intermolecular F···S' bridges to create spin ladder arrays. The slipped π-stack alignment of radicals produces close S···S' interactions which serve as the "rungs" of a spin ladder, and the long chain alkyl substituents (R(1)) serve as buffers which separate the ladders from each other laterally. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that 1a behaves as an antiferromagnetically coupled Curie-Weiss paramagnet, the behavior of which may be modeled as a weakly coupled AFM chain. Stronger antiferromagnetic coupling is observed in 1b-d, such that the Curie-Weiss fit is no longer applicable. Analysis of the full data range (T = 2-300 K) is consistent with the Johnston strong-leg spin ladder model. The origin of the magnetic behavior across the series has been explored with broken-symmetry Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of individual pairwise exchange energies. These confirm that strong antiferromagnetic interactions are present within the ladder "legs" and "rungs", with only very weak magnetic exchange between the ladders.


Assuntos
Tiazóis/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Radicais Livres/síntese química , Radicais Livres/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Tiazóis/síntese química
14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(24): 9886-9, 2012 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22681388

RESUMO

The layered-sheet architecture of the crystal structure of the fluoro-substituted oxobenzene-bridged bisdithiazolyl radical FBBO affords a 2D π-electronic structure with a large calculated bandwidth. The material displays high electrical conductivity for a f = 1/2 system, with σ(300 K) = 2 × 10(-2) S cm(-1). While the conductivity is thermally activated at ambient pressure, with E(act) = 0.10 eV at 300 K, indicative of a Mott insulating state, E(act) is eliminated at 3 GPa, suggesting the formation of a metallic state. The onset of metallization is supported by infrared measurements, which show closure of the Mott-Hubbard gap above 3 GPa.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(4): 2264-75, 2012 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22280151

RESUMO

Semiquinone-bridged bisdithiazolyls 3 represent a new class of resonance-stabilized neutral radical for use in the design of single-component conductive materials. As such, they display electrochemical cell potentials lower than those of related pyridine-bridged bisdithiazolyls, a finding which heralds a reduced on-site Coulomb repulsion U. Crystallographic characterization of the chloro-substituted derivative 3a and its acetonitrile solvate 3a·MeCN, both of which crystallize in the polar orthorhombic space group Pna2(1), revealed the importance of intermolecular oxygen-to-sulfur (CO···SN) interactions in generating rigid, tightly packed radical π-stacks, including the structural motif found for 3a·MeCN in which radicals in neighboring π-stacks are locked into slipped-ribbon-like arrays. This architecture gives rise to strong intra- and interstack overlap and hence a large electronic bandwidth W. Variable-temperature conductivity measurements on 3a and 3a·MeCN indicated high values of σ(300 K) (>10(-3) S cm(-1)) with correspondingly low thermal activation energies E(act), reaching 0.11 eV in the case of 3a·MeCN. Overall, the strong performance of these materials as f = ½ conductors is attributed to a combination of low U and large W. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed on both 3a and 3a·MeCN. The unsolvated material 3a orders as a spin-canted antiferromagnet at 8 K, with a canting angle φ = 0.14° and a coercive field H(c) = 80 Oe at 2 K.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/química , Tiazóis/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Condutividade Elétrica , Magnetismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Tiazóis/síntese química
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(16): 4655-7, 2011 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21416090

RESUMO

The alternating ABABAB π-stacked bis-1,2,3-dithiazolyl radical 2a (2, R(2)=Ph) has a conductivity σ of 3×10(-5) S cm(-1) at 300 K, and orders as a spin-canted antiferromagnet (T(N)=4.5 K) which undergoes a spin-flop transition to a field-induced ferromagnetic state saturating (at 2 K) at H ∼20 kOe.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 46(25): 4496-8, 2010 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20490422

RESUMO

The methoxy-substituted bis-1,2,3-dithiazolyl radical 4a thermally decomposes to afford the zwitterionic bis-1,2,3-dithiazolopyridone 5a; EPR spectroscopic analysis indicates a rearrangement of the radical prior to loss of the methyl group.


Assuntos
Piridinas/química , Piridonas/síntese química , Temperatura , Tiazóis/química , Simulação por Computador , Radicais Livres/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Piridonas/química , Estereoisomerismo
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (40): 6077-9, 2009 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19809649

RESUMO

SNSMF6 (M = As, Sb) reacts with 1,4-benzoquinone in a series of cycloaddition and oxidative dehydrogenation reactions to give 3 (MF6)2 which on reduction with CsI yields the unique semiquinodal-thiazyl radical-cation (3+*) as observed by X-band solution ESR and supported by DFT calculations.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 44(19): 6524-8, 2005 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16156609

RESUMO

The synthetically useful SNSSbF6 is prepared, in good yield, from the reactions of S3N2Cl2 or S3N3Cl3 with stoichiometric amounts of AgSbF6 and S8 in liquid SO2. SNSSbF6 crystallizes monoclinic in space group C2/m (a = 9.740(2) A, b = 6.644(2) A, c = 5.334(1) A, beta = 90.58(2) degrees , Z = 2). The crystal structure was determined by standard methods and refined to R1 = 0.019 and wR2 = 0.048. The structure consists of discrete linear centrosymmetric SNS+ cations [S-N = 1.4871(10) A] and almost octahedral SbF6- anions, with weak cation-anion interactions. The lattice energy of SNSSbF6 was determined from the volume-based method as 525 +/- 32 KJ mol(-1) and the heat of formation of SNSSbF(6(s)) has been estimated as -1566 +/- 24 KJ mol(-1). The FT-IR, Raman, and (14)N NMR spectra are reported, as well as an in situ study of the reaction of S3N2Cl2 with AsF5 in SO2 solution.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (18): 2366-8, 2005 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15877130

RESUMO

We report the unprecedented formation of a benzo-fused 1,3,2-dithiazolylium [AsF6-] salt by a one step, quantitative, cycloaddition of SNSAsF6 with 1,4-benzoquinone. In contrast, the reaction of SNSSbF6 with 1,4-naphthaquinone results in 2,7-dicarbonylnaphtha-1,3,2-dithiazolylium [SbF6-]. Both were reduced to the corresponding 7pi radicals.

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