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1.
Hum Factors ; : 187208221086686, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This project aimed to assess the impact of an 8-day military training exercise on cognitive performance, and track its recovery in periods of reduced training load and partially restored sleep. BACKGROUND: Military personnel often work in challenging multi-stressor environments, where sleep loss is inevitable. Sleep loss can impair multiple cognitive domains, which can have disastrous consequences in military contexts. METHOD: A total of 57 male and female soldiers undergoing the Australian Army combat engineer Initial Employment Training course were recruited and tracked over a 16-day study period which included an 8-day field-based military training exercise. Cognitive performance was assessed via a computerised battery at seven time points across four sequential study periods; 1) baseline (PRE), 2) military field training exercise which included total sleep deprivation (EX-FIELD), 3) training exercise at simulated base with restricted sleep opportunities (EX-BASE), and 4) a 3-day recovery period (REC). Subjective load, fatigue, and sleep were evaluated continuously via questionnaire and actigraphy. RESULTS: Psychomotor speed, reaction time, visual tracking and vigilance were impaired following the EX-FIELD period (p < 0.05). The majority of affected measures recovered 2 days following EX-FIELD, being no different in EX-BASE compared to PRE. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of the cognitive tests to sleep restriction, and recovery, indicates they can help assess operational readiness in military personnel. Future studies should explore other indicators of, and strategies to preserve, operational readiness in military personnel. APPLICATION: This study highlights the impact of work-induced fatigue on cognitive performance, and would interest authorities seeking to preserve operational readiness.

2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394465

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Heart rate variability (HRV) has shown sensitivity to the acute stressors experienced by defence personnel. This study examines the suitability of overnight HRV as a repeated measure of allostatic load in defence personnel. METHODS: Daily measures of sleep, cognitive load and perceived exertion were reported for the 12-week duration of basic military training (BMT) in 48 recruits. Measures of physical activity, subjective wellbeing and HRV were measured weekly. The natural log of the root mean square of successive differences of inter-beat intervals (Ln RMSSD) and the Ln RMSSD to inter-beat interval ratio (Ln RMSSD:RRi ratio) during predicted slow wave sleep were used for HRV. Physical performance was assessed via the 20-m shuttle run and maximal push-up test in week two and eight of BMT with predicted V̇O2 peak values calculated. RESULTS: Predicted V̇O2 peak increased from 42.6 ± 4.5 to 48.0 ± 2.7 mL·kg·min (p < 0.001). Ln RMSSD was elevated in week seven and ten and the Ln RMSSD:RRi ratio was elevated in week ten above all other weeks (p < 0.05). An increase in perceived exertion (F = 9.10, p = 0.003) and subjective fatigue (F = 6.97, p = 0.009), as well as a reduction in V̇O2 peak (F = 7.95, p = 0.009), individually predicted an increase in Ln RMSSD. The best predictive model of Ln RMSSD included perceived exertion (F = 8.16, p = 0.005), subjective fatigue (F = 8.49, p = 0.004), the number of awakenings during sleep (F = 7.79, p = 0.006) and the change in V̇O2 peak (F = 19.110, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HRV was predicted by subjective recruit responses to BMT workloads rather than objective measures of physical activity. Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness depicted recruits who experienced enough stress to facilitate physiological adaptation which was reflected by a reduction in HRV during BMT. Monitoring HRV and HRV in relation to inter-beat interval length may provide a better tool for determining allostatic load than HRV alone.

3.
Hum Factors ; : 187208211065907, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analytic review is to examine the relationship between increased psychological pressure and Use of Force (UOF) behaviours, identifying current training methodologies and effectiveness of transfer of training interventions in high threat-simulated scenarios. BACKGROUND: Data from UOF performance within Law Enforcement indicates a low transfer of marksmanship training into real-world UOF, resulting in unnecessary damage to property, personal injury and increased risk to loss of life. This meta-analysis examines both the impact of increased pressure and current training interventions. METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted across a wide range of published research to answer the primary research questions. RESULTS: Increased levels of perceived pressure demonstrated an average decrease in marksmanship accuracy of 14.8%, together with a small increase in incorrect Decision Making (DM) and faster reaction Times (RT). Experience demonstrated a mitigating effect for pressure for marksmanship with a 1.1% increase for every one year of service but no effect on DM or RT. Training interventions utilizing a variety of early contextually relevant exposures to increased pressure improved performance over traditional training on average by 10.6%. CONCLUSION: The outcomes illustrate the negative effect of pressure on marksmanship and UOF behaviours, and that early exposure to contextually relevant pressure may increase the transfer of training to real-world performance. APPLICATION: Occupational experience is an important component in reducing the impact of pressure on UOF performance, and transfer of training may be enhanced through training methodologies that combine early exposure to contextually relevant pressure, that may replicate the benefits of experience.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265121, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Military personnel are required to train and operate in challenging multi-stressor environments, which can affect hormonal levels, and subsequently compromise performance and recovery. The aims of this project were to 1) assess the impact of an eight-day military training exercise on salivary cortisol and testosterone, 2) track the recovery of these hormones during a period of reduced training. METHODS: This was a prospective study whereby 30 soldiers (n = 27 men, n = 3 women) undergoing the Australian Army combat engineer 'Initial Employment Training' course were recruited and tracked over a 16-day study period which included an eight-day military training exercise. Non-stimulated saliva samples were collected at waking, 30 min post waking, and bedtime on days 1, 5, 9, 13, 15; measures of subjective load were collected on the same days. Sleep was measured continuously via actigraphy, across four sequential study periods; 1) baseline (PRE: days 1-4), 2) field training with total sleep deprivation (EX-FIELD: days 5-8), 3) training at simulated base camp with sleep restriction (EX-BASE: days 9-12), and 4) a three-day recovery period (REC: days 13-15). RESULTS: Morning cortisol concentrations were lower following EX-FIELD (p<0.05) compared to the end of REC. Training in the field diminished testosterone concentrations (p<0.05), but levels recovered within four days. Bedtime testosterone/cortisol ratios decreased following EX-FIELD and did not return to pre-training levels. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of testosterone levels and the testosterone/cortisol ratio to the period of field training suggests they may be useful indicators of a soldier's state of physiological strain, or capacity, however inter-individual differences in response to a multi-stressor environment need to be considered.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Militares , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva , Testosterona
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e052644, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore a protection motivation theory screening tool for predicting rehabilitation adherence. DESIGN: Analysis of a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: An exercise physiology and physiotherapist clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with chronic low back pain (n=40). INTERVENTIONS: General strength and conditioning (GSC) compared with motor control and manual therapy. Primary and secondary outcome measures: predicting patient adherence to supervised sessions and dropout using the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Scale, seven-item barriers checklist and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Sports Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale. RESULTS: Average attendance was 77% (motor control and manual therapy) and 60% (GSC) with eight dropouts. No Sports Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale values other than 5 across all three components were recorded. Treatment efficacy (p=0.019), self-efficacy (p=0.001), rehabilitation value (p=0.028) and injury severity (p=0.002) positively correlated with susceptibility (the extent of vulnerability to having health problems from not taking action). Rehabilitation value positively correlated with self-efficacy (p=0.005). Injury severity positively correlated with rehabilitation value (p=0.011). The final model for number of cancellations included rehabilitation value only and accounted for approximately 12% of variance (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived value of rehabilitation should be considered by clinicians in the rehabilitation setting to improve treatment adherence in patients with chronic low back pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12615001270505.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Lombar , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Fisioterapeutas , Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Motivação , Cooperação do Paciente
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies in basic military training (BMT) examining sleep are largely cross-sectional, and do not investigate relationships between sleep, stress, recovery and fatigue. The aims of this study were to (1a) quantify changes in recruits' sleep quantity and quality over 12 weeks of BMT; (1b) quantify changes in recruits' perceptions of stress, fatigue and recovery over BMT; and (2) explore relationships between sleep, and perceptions of stress, fatigue and recovery. METHODS: 45 recruits (37 male; 8 female, age: 25.2 ± 7.2 years, height: 176.2 ± 10.0 cm, mass: 76.8 ± 15.0 kg) wore ActiGraph GT9X's for 12 weeks of BMT, collecting sleep duration, efficiency and awakenings. Subjective sleep quality, fatigue were measured daily, with stress and recovery measured weekly. Multi-level models assessed relationships between sleep, and stress, recovery, and fatigue. RESULTS: Objective daily means for sleep duration were 6.3 h (± 1.2 h) and 85.6% (± 5.5%) for sleep efficiency. Main effects were detected for all mean weekly values (p < 0.05). Sleep quality showed the strongest relationships with stress, recovery and fatigue. The best model to explain relationships between, stress, recovery and fatigue, included sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency and awakenings. CONCLUSIONS: The reported mean sleep duration of 6.3 h per night may negatively impact training outcomes across BMT. Combining both subjective and objective measures of sleep best explained relationships between sleep metrics stress, fatigue and recovery. Perceived sleep quality was most strongly related to change in stress, recovery, or post-sleep fatigue.

7.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 22(1): 72-86, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346851

RESUMO

Adaptation to military operational stress is a complex physiological response that calls upon the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and immune system, to create a delicate balance between anabolism and catabolism and meet the demands of an ever-changing environment. As such, resilience, the ability to withstand and overcome the negative impact of stress on military performance, is likely grounded in an appropriate biological adaptation to encountered stressors. Neuroendocrine [i.e. cortisol, epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), neuropeptide-Y (NPY), and brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)], inflammatory [i.e. interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α], as well as growth and anabolic [i.e. insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] biomarkers independently and interactively function in stress adaptations that are associated with a soldier's physical and psychological performance. In this narrative review, we detail biomarkers across neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and growth stimulating domains to better elucidate the biological basis of a resilient soldier. The findings from the reviewed studies indicate that military readiness and resiliency may be enhanced through better homeostatic control, better regulated inflammatory responses, and balanced anabolic/catabolic processes. It is unlikely that one class of biomarkers is better for assessing physiological resilience. Therefore, a biomarker panel that can account for appropriate balance across these domains may be superior in developing monitoring frameworks. Real-time physiological monitoring to assess biomarkers associated with resilience will be possible pending more sophisticated technologies and provide a field-expedient application for early identification and intervention of at-risk soldiers to improve military resiliency.


Assuntos
Militares , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Militares/psicologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico
8.
Sports Med Open ; 7(1): 93, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed relationships and sex differences between psychological state (recovery, stress, anxiety, and self-confidence) and gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) prior to and during a 56 km ultramarathon running race and identified predictive factors of race GIS. Forty-four (26 males, 18 females) ultramarathon competitors completed anxiety, recovery, stress and GIS questionnaires for three days prior to the race and immediately pre-race. Race GIS were assessed immediately post-race. Spearman's rank order, Mann-Whitney U tests and regression analyses were used to determine correlations and identify sex differences between psychological state and GIS and determine predictors of race GIS. RESULTS: Race GIS were significantly correlated with recovery (rs = - 0.381, p = 0.011), stress (rs = 0.500, p = 0.001) and anxiety (rs = 0.408, p = 0.006), calculated as the mean of the three days preceding the race and on race morning. The correlation between anxiety and GIS was strongest in the 24 h immediately prior to the race (all rs > 0.400, and all p < 0.05), but unclear patterns were identified for stress and recovery. Regression analyses showed 36% and 40% of variation in the severity and number of race GIS was accounted for by body mass and measures of stress, anxiety, and GIS over the three days preceding the race and on race morning (both p < 0.001). There were no sex differences in the number and severity of GIS leading up to or during the race (all p > 0.05), however, females reported greater state anxiety (p = 0.018) and lower self-confidence than males (p = 0.006) over the three days preceding the race and on race morning. CONCLUSION: Endurance athletes that experience GIS during competition should investigate elevated stress and/or anxiety as a potential contributor and identify if management strategies can reduce the occurrence and severity of GIS.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1701, 2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awareness of the cumulative stress placed on first responders and tactical operators is required to manage acute fatigue, which can impair occupational performance, and may precipitate negative chronic health outcomes. The aim of this review was to investigate the utility of heart rate variability (HRV) to monitor stress and allostatic load among these populations. METHODS: A systematic search of Academic Search Complete, MEDLINE complete, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Scopus databases was conducted. Eligibility criteria: original peer reviewed research articles, written in English, published between 1985 and 2020, using human participants employed as a first responder or tactical operator, free from any psychological disorder. RESULTS: Of the 360 articles screened, 60 met the inclusion criteria and were included for full text assessment. Articles were classified based on single or repeated stressor exposure and the time of HRV assessment (baseline, during stressor, post stressor). Singular stressful events elicited a reduction in HRV from baseline to during the event. Stressors of greater magnitude reduced HRV for extended durations post stressor. Lower resting HRV was associated with lower situational awareness and impaired decision-making performance in marksmanship and navigation tasks. There were insufficient studies to evaluate the utility of HRV to assess allostatic load in repeated stressor contexts. CONCLUSION: A reduction in HRV occurred in response to acute physical and cognitive occupational stressors. A slower rate of recovery of HRV after the completion of acute occupational stressors appears to occur in response to stressors of greater magnitude. The association between lower HRV and lower decision-making performance poses as a useful tool but further investigations on within subject changes between these factors and their relationship is required. More research is required to investigate the suitability of HRV as a measure of allostatic load in repeated stress exposures for fatigue management in first responder and tactical operators.


Assuntos
Alostase , Socorristas , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
10.
Front Sports Act Living ; 3: 696205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308348

RESUMO

Anecdotal reports within the Caribbean track and field fraternity have revealed that there is a high level of athlete dropout from competitive sport at the junior-elite level, and a poor transition to senior-elite status. Consequently, this qualitative investigation explored the key motives that may have contributed toward the unsuccessful transitions and ensuing dropout of Caribbean track and field athletes during the junior to senior transition period. Eleven former junior-elite track and field athletes (four males, seven females; Mage = 29, SD ± 4.2 years) from four English-speaking Caribbean islands participated in semi-structured interviews. Following an inductive and deductive thematic analysis, four higher order themes were identified: (1) "there's not enough support"; (2) "felt pressure to make sure I committed"; (3) "it's always competitive here"; and (4) "battle with the injuries." For these former junior-elite Caribbean athletes, the decision on whether to continue within the sport was influenced by a combination of factors, although inadequate financial and organizational support had the most bearing on athletes' decision to drop out during the crucial transition years. Implications for consideration by key stakeholders and policymakers within the region are discussed.

11.
Ergonomics ; 64(7): 856-868, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523762

RESUMO

This study examined how objective measures of sleep change across shift-cycles, and the impact of this on sleep quality and fatigue. Forty maritime pilots were recruited from Australian ports. Sleep wake-behaviour (timing and length), and self-reported sleep quality and fatigue, were assessed to determine any impact of roster status and 'on-call' status. On-roster pilots experienced reduced night time sleep duration compared to those off-roster (57 ± 8.8 min), while working on-call also diminished night time sleep duration (126 ± 11.3 min) and quality, compared to workers not on-call. Fatigue scores indicated that participants were not fully recovered prior to commencing rostered night shift, while sleep quality was significantly worse following sleep that occurred after a night shift, compared to after a day shift. These findings potentially support workplace negotiations to change future shift cycles, and to adopt monitoring systems that may mitigate the risk of fatigue-related accidents and chronic health outcomes. Practitioner summary: Long and irregular work hours of maritime pilotage can compromise worker performance and safety. This observational study found that on-roster pilots experience reduced sleep duration compared to those off-roster, while working on-call further diminishes sleep duration and quality. Future workload/fatigue monitoring systems may mitigate fatigue-related accidents and adverse chronic health outcomes. Abbreviations: ANOVA: analysis of variance; ANCOVA: analysis of covariance; BMI: body mass index; CVD: cardiovascular disease; h: hours; mins: minutes; SE: standard error of the mean; SD: standard deviation; SO: sleep opportunities; TST: total sleep time; WASO: wake after sleep onset.


Assuntos
Pilotos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Austrália , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Sono , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
12.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(3): 849-860, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389139

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stress, anxiety and physical exertion are all closely linked to well-being, and each can alter immune function. Diminished well-being has been observed during military training, however there is mixed evidence regarding whether concomitant changes in inflammatory markers occur, with these phenomena indicating potential maladaptive responses to imposed training loads. The aims of this project were (1) assess changes in inflammation and subjective well-being across a 12-week basic military training (BMT) program, and (2) evaluate relationships between circulating inflammatory markers and well-being. METHODS: A total of 37 men and women undergoing 12 weeks of BMT in Australia were recruited. Well-being was assessed via questionnaire (DASS-21), and plasma samples were collected for the analysis of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] at weeks 1, 4, 8 and 12. Data were analysed using general linear mixed models. RESULTS: Depression, anxiety and stress subscale scores all significantly improved (all P ≤ 0.001), and TNF-α decreased (P = 0.031) across time. Compared to baseline (week 1), significant decreases in associations between depression and IL-10, anxiety and IL-10, and stress and IL-10, IL-4 IL-6 and TNF-α (all P < 0.05), were detected across BMT. CONCLUSION: The BMT program appears to support improved well-being over the 12 weeks, with minimal perturbation to inflammatory markers. Biomarkers and well-being displayed consistent associations and may have utility as psychophysiological indicators of health status in military research, however for now, subjective measures may represent more cost-effective proxies for ongoing monitoring of military personnel.


Assuntos
Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Militares , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 21(4): 590-603, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460638

RESUMO

This study examined the perceived talent development environment (TDE) of youth track and field athletes within the Caribbean region and explores the relationship with their subjective wellbeing and burnout levels. A sample of 400 Caribbean youth track and field athletes (male = 198, and female = 202; age 13-20 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Athletes responded to a survey which included the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire (TDEQ-5), the World Health Organization Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). Structural equation modelling showed that a positive and supportive TDE was associated with better athlete wellbeing and lower athlete burnout. Moreover, gender and hours of training moderated relationships of athletes' perceptions of their development environment with wellbeing and burnout levels respectively. Furthermore, there was a positive association between the support network and athlete wellbeing, while holistic quality preparation was negatively associated with athlete burnout. Development environments perceived as supportive and geared towards a holistic athlete-centred approach were associated with better athlete wellbeing and lower burnout.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Atletas/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Meio Social , Atletismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Atletas/classificação , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Atletismo/classificação , Atletismo/fisiologia , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503243

RESUMO

Exercise and spinal manipulative therapy are commonly used for the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) in Australia. Reduction in pain intensity is a common outcome; however, it is only one measure of intervention efficacy in clinical practice. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of two common clinical interventions on physical and self-report measures in CLBP. Participants were randomized to a 6­month intervention of general strength and conditioning (GSC; n = 20; up to 52 sessions) or motor control exercise plus manual therapy (MCMT; n =20; up to 12 sessions). Pain intensity was measured at baseline and fortnightly throughout the intervention. Trunk extension and flexion endurance, leg muscle strength and endurance, paraspinal muscle volume, cardio­respiratory fitness and self-report measures of kinesiophobia, disability and quality of life were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Pain intensity differed favoring MCMT between-groups at week 14 and 16 of treatment (both, p = 0.003), but not at 6-month follow­up. Both GSC (mean change (95%CI): -10.7 (-18.7, -2.8) mm; p = 0.008) and MCMT (-19.2 (-28.1, -10.3) mm; p < 0.001) had within-group reductions in pain intensity at six months, but did not achieve clinically meaningful thresholds (20mm) within- or between­group. At 6-month follow-up, GSC increased trunk extension (mean difference (95% CI): 81.8 (34.8, 128.8) s; p = 0.004) and flexion endurance (51.5 (20.5, 82.6) s; p = 0.004), as well as leg muscle strength (24.7 (3.4, 46.0) kg; p = 0.001) and endurance (9.1 (1.7, 16.4) reps; p = 0.015) compared to MCMT. GSC reduced disability (-5.7 (­11.2, -0.2) pts; p = 0.041) and kinesiophobia (-6.6 (-9.9, -3.2) pts; p < 0.001) compared to MCMT at 6­month follow-up. Multifidus volume increased within-group for GSC (p = 0.003), but not MCMT or between-groups. No other between-group changes were observed at six months. Overall, GSC improved trunk endurance, leg muscle strength and endurance, self-report disability and kinesiophobia compared to MCMT at six months. These results show that GSC may provide a more diverse range of treatment effects compared to MCMT.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978072

RESUMO

Caribbean nations stand to benefit significantly from the potential insights that can be gained from the assessment of their athlete talent development environments; which in turn can lead to the formulation of evidence-based strategies and improvements to their sport development pathways. The principal aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 25-item TDEQ-5 to determine its validity to assess the development environments of talented youth track and field athletes from six English-speaking Caribbean countries. As a secondary aim, we sought to examine athletes' perceptions of their talent development environment within this context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed adequate model fit of a re-specified model and good overall internal reliability of the scale, therefore offering support for its use within this context. Furthermore, adequate construct validity and internal reliability was found within three subscales (i.e., communication, holistic quality preparation and support network) with subpar scores within two subscales (i.e., long-term development focus and alignment of expectations). Preliminary findings on athletes' perceptions of their environment revealed key strengths in coaches' long-term development focus and communication, however deficiencies were noted in the accessibility and availability of sport-related support and preparation of athletes. In conclusion, the re-specified TDEQ-5 with 25 items appears to be a reliable and valid measure within the Caribbean context. However, it is recommended that the scale be used with some caution with regard to the interpretation of results for the 'long-term development focus' and 'alignment of expectations' subscales.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Atletas/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Atletismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Atletismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(2): 145-148, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the inflammatory response to a 12-hour wildfire suppression shift, in firefighters attending the "Black Saturday" natural disaster. METHODS: Thirty-eight male volunteer firefighters provided venous blood samples before and after a 12-hour firefighting shift. Pre- to post-shift changes in pro-inflammatory (Interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12P70, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interferon-gamma [IFNγ]), and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13) cytokines were measured with paired sample t tests, or Wilcoxon t tests for non-parametric data. RESULTS: Interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.003) and IL-8 (P = 0.017) were significantly increased following 12-hours of wildfire suppression. There was also a significant decrease in IL-10 (P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: The observed acute inflammatory response may have resulted from multiple stressors including physical exertion, thermal strain, or smoke inhalation experienced during the shift, and may be a necessary response for the body to adapt to stressor exposure.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Inflamação , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Incêndios Florestais , Citocinas , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos , Humanos , Interferon gama , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-1beta , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
17.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 758-771, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827361

RESUMO

This qualitative investigation sought to explore through a socio-cultural lens the perceived early training and competition environment, and support network of world-class Caribbean track and field athletes and the influence on their sport engagement and progression during early childhood and adolescence. Sixteen world-class track and field athletes (8 males and 8 females; M age = 29, SD = 5 years) from 6 English-speaking Caribbean islands took part in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data. Three superordinate themes were identified as key factors that influenced the early sporting development of world-class Caribbean athletes: (1) conducive sporting environment, (2) functional social support network, and (3) key organizational input. Findings revealed that perceived high levels of deliberate play activity in childhood (6 - 12 years) and an intense track and field competition culture in adolescence (13 - 20 years) were conducive to the continued engagement and progression of world-class Caribbean track and field athletes at the junior level. Furthermore, world-class athletes perceived themselves to be positively influenced by the support received from their immediate social support network and key organizations during this period. This study showed that a conducive sporting environment coupled with optimal social and organizational support may have encouraged world-class Caribbean athletes to remain engaged in track and field and to successfully progress within the sport at the junior level. Findings shed light on the sporting culture at the junior level within the Caribbean region and provide insight into key environmental factors that can influence and foster the development of future World Champions and Olympians.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Características Culturais , Apoio Social , Atletismo/fisiologia , Atletismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aptidão , Família , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Jogos e Brinquedos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Atletismo/economia , Índias Ocidentais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756968

RESUMO

Background: Research has highlighted the multitude of factors that are negatively associated with coach mental well-being but has failed to investigate how the determinants of mental well-being can affect the coach both positively and negatively. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate levels of mental well-being among sport coaches and assess whether areas of work life-specifically workload and control-are related to levels of mental well-being. Method: An online survey comprising demographic and coaching experience details, the Areas of Work Life Scale (AWS), and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was completed by 464 Australian coaches involved in a range of sports. Differences in coach mental well-being according to key demographic and coaching-related subgroups were assessed using separate t-test and ANOVA analyses and the magnitude of effects was determined using Cohen's d and the eta-squared (ή2) statistics. Multiple linear regression was used to examine relationships between both workload and control and mental well-being after controlling for age, gender, coaching setting and weekly coaching activity. Results: The findings indicate poorer mental well-being among both male and younger coaches and indicate that coach mental well-being is related to the ability to self-manage the workload associated with their role as a coach as well as greater autonomy over coaching-related tasks and activities. Specifically, a one-unit increase in AWS workload and AWS control were associated with ~three- and ~four-unit increases in coach mental well-being, respectively. Conclusion: Greater provision of resources and education is required to assist coaches to manage their own mental well-being, while being supported by the organisation they coach for. Enabling coaches to balance their coaching requirements and to have control over their environment will improve their ability to constantly coach at a high standard.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Tutoria , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Autonomia Profissional , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220442, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exercise can be used as a treatment for depressive symptoms in the general population. However, little is known as to whether exercise has mental health benefits for adults experiencing chronic low back pain (CLBP). The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of two intervention protocols commonly used in clinical practice for treating chronic low back pain, but with differing exercise dose, on depressive symptoms. METHODS: Forty men and women (mean age = 35) experiencing chronic persistent (>3 months), non-specific low back pain were recruited into a randomised clinical trial during 2015-2016. Participants were randomised to receive motor control (low-dose exercise) and manual therapy (n = 20), or general strength and conditioning training (moderate-dose exercise) (n = 20). Depressive symptoms were assessed fortnightly throughout a 6-month follow-up period using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10). Linear mixed models were used to examine within-group and between-group changes in depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Mean CES-D 10 score at baseline was 9.17 (SD = 4.32). There was evidence of a small decrease in average depressive symptoms over time (ß -0.19 per fortnight, 95% CI = -0.34, -0.02). However, there was no evidence that change over time was dependent on treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in depressive symptoms amongst adults with CLBP occurred with both treatment methods (motor control [low-dose exercise] and manual therapy; or general strength and conditioning [moderate-dose exercise]). Further interventions including a true control group are needed to draw conclusions as to the effectiveness of each of these treatment methods on depressive symptoms amongst adults with CLBP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12615001270505. Registered on 20 November 2015.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Treinamento de Força/métodos
20.
Exp Gerontol ; 125: 110662, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Stressful experiences, poor self-rated health, and negative emotional states have been implicated with higher levels of inflammatory markers and lower levels of neurotrophic factors in some healthy adults and clinical populations, but these relationships are unclear in the elderly. This study aimed to identify the associations between systemic inflammatory and neurological markers with well-being and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in independently living elderly people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 268 men and women aged ≥65 years living independently in retirement communities in Melbourne, Australia. MEASURES: Questionnaires were used to assess HR-QoL [Short Form (SF)-36 version 2] and well-being (Personal Wellbeing Index). Serum inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)] were standardised to Z-scores and used to calculate pro- and anti-inflammatory composite score and an overall composite inflammatory index. Plasma levels of the neurological markers amyloid ß (1-40) and amyloid ß (1-42), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were also assessed. RESULTS: No significant associations were found between any inflammatory or neurological marker with HR-OoL or well-being, with the exception that lower perceptions of the HR-QoL vitality subscale were associated with higher levels of hs-CRP [unstandardized beta-coefficient (ß): -1.50; 95% CI: -2.53, -0.46; P = 0.004] and Z-scores in the pro-inflammatory composite score (ß = -2.06; 95% CI: -3.49, -0.62; P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: In elderly people residing in independent living retirement communities, there was no consistent evidence indicating that circulating inflammatory or neurological markers were associated with the key physical or mental HR-QoL domains or overall well-being. This suggests that these biomarkers may not be effective predictors in relatively healthy communities, and may be more beneficial in frail or clinical populations. Clinical Trials registry: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613001161718). http://www.anzctr.org.au/.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
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