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1.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458519867320, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation with microglia activation is thought to be closely related to cortical multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Using 11C-PBR28 and 7 Tesla (7T) imaging, we assessed in 9 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 10 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients the following: (1) microglia activation in lesioned and normal-appearing cortex, (2) cortical lesion inflammatory profiles, and (3) the relationship between neuroinflammation and cortical integrity. METHODS: Mean 11C-PBR28 uptake was measured in focal cortical lesions, cortical areas with 7T quantitative T2* (q-T2*) abnormalities, and normal-appearing cortex. The relative difference in cortical 11C-PBR28 uptake between patients and 14 controls was used to classify cortical lesions as either active or inactive. Disease burden was investigated according to cortical lesion inflammatory profiles. The relation between q-T2* and 11C-PBR28 uptake along the cortex was assessed. RESULTS: 11C-PBR28 uptake was abnormally high in cortical lesions in RRMS and SPMS; in SPMS, tracer uptake was significantly increased also in normal-appearing cortex. 11C-PBR28 uptake and q-T2* correlated positively in many cortical areas, negatively in some regions. Patients with high cortical lesion inflammation had worse clinical outcome and higher intracortical lesion burden than patients with low inflammation. CONCLUSION: 11C-PBR28 and 7T imaging reveal distinct profiles of cortical inflammation in MS, which are related to disease burden.

2.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458519843048, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activated microglia, which can be detected in vivo by 11C-PBR28 positron emission tomography (PET), represent a main component of MS pathology in the brain. Their role in the cerebellum is still unexplored, although cerebellar involvement in MS is frequent and accounts for disability progression. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at characterizing cerebellar neuroinflammation in MS patients compared to healthy subjects by combining 11C-PBR28 MRI-Positron Emission Tomography (MR-PET) with 7 Tesla (T) MRI and assessing its relationship with brain neuroinflammation and clinical outcome measures. METHODS: Twenty-eight MS patients and 16 healthy controls underwent 11C-PBR28 MR-PET to measure microglia activation in normal appearing cerebellum and lesions segmented from 7 T scans. Patients were evaluated using the Expanded Disability Status Scale and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. 11C-PBR28 binding was assessed in regions of interest using 60-90 minutes standardized uptake values normalized by a pseudo-reference region in the brain normal appearing white matter. Multilinear regression was used to compare tracer uptake in MS and healthy controls and assess correlations with clinical scores. RESULTS: In all cerebellar regions examined, MS patients showed abnormally increased tracer uptake, which correlated with cognitive and neurological disability. CONCLUSION: Neuroinflammation is widespread in the cerebellum of patients with MS and related to neurological disability and cognitive impairment.

3.
Radiology ; 291(3): 740-749, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964421

RESUMO

Background Cortical lesions develop early in multiple sclerosis (MS) and play a major role in disease progression. MRI at 7.0 T shows high sensitivity for detection of cortical lesions as well as better spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio compared with lower field strengths. Purpose To longitudinally characterize (a) the development and evolution of cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis across the cortical width, sulci, and gyri; (b) their relation with white matter lesion accrual; and (c) the contribution of 7.0-T cortical and white matter lesion load and cortical thickness to neurologic disability. Materials and Methods Twenty participants with relapsing-remitting MS and 13 with secondary progressive MS, along with 10 age-matched healthy controls, were prospectively recruited from 2010 to 2016 to acquire, in two imaging sessions (mean interval, 1.5 years), 7.0-T MRI T2*-weighted gradient-echo images (0.33 × 0.33 × 1.0 mm3) for cortical and white matter lesion segmentation and 3.0-T T1-weighted images for cortical surface reconstruction and cortical thickness estimation. Cortical lesions were sampled through the cortex to quantify cortical lesion distribution. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was used to assess neurologic disability. Nonparametric statistics assessed differences between and within groups in MRI metrics of cortical and white matter lesion burden; regression analysis explored associations of disability with MRI metrics. Results Twenty-five of 31 (81%) participants developed new cortical lesions per year (intracortical, 1.3 ± 1.7 vs leukocortical, 0.7 ± 1.9; P = .04), surpassing white matter lesion accrual (cortical, 2.0 ± 2.8 vs white matter, 0.7 ± 0.6; P = .01). In contrast to white matter lesions, cortical lesion accrual was greater in participants with secondary progressive MS than with relapsing-remitting MS (3.6 lesions/year ± 4.2 vs 1.1 lesions/year ± 0.9, respectively; P = .03) and preferentially localized in sulci. Total cortical lesion volume independently predicted baseline EDSS (ß = 1.5, P < .001) and EDSS changes at follow-up (ß = 0.5, P = .003). Conclusion Cortical lesions predominantly develop intracortically and within sulci, suggesting an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid-mediated lesion pathogenesis. Cortical lesion accumulation was prominent at 7.0 T and independently predicted neurologic disability progression. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Filippi and Rocca in this issue.

4.
Neurology ; 92(17): e2038-e2050, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if migraine with aura is associated with neuroinflammation, which has been suggested by preclinical models of cortical spreading depression (CSD) as well as imaging of human pain conditions. METHODS: Thirteen migraineurs with aura and 16 healthy controls received integrated PET/MRI brain scans with [11C]PBR28, a radioligand that binds to the 18 kDa translocator protein, a marker of glial activation. Standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was compared between groups, and regressed against clinical variables, using region of interest and whole-brain voxelwise analyses. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, migraineurs demonstrated SUVR elevations in nociceptive processing areas (e.g., thalamus and primary/secondary somatosensory and insular cortices) as well as in areas previously shown to be involved in CSD generation (visual cortex). SUVR levels in frontoinsular cortex, primary/secondary somatosensory cortices, and basal ganglia were correlated with frequency of migraine attacks. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that migraine with aura is associated with neuroimmune activation/neuroinflammation, and support a possible link between CSD and glial activation, previously observed in animals.

5.
Neuroscience ; 403: 27-34, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708049

RESUMO

In multiple sclerosis (MS), it would be of clinical value to be able to track the progression of axonal pathology, especially before the manifestation of clinical disability. However, non-invasive evaluation of short-term longitudinal progression of white matter integrity is challenging. This study aims at assessing longitudinal changes in the restricted (i.e. intracellular) diffusion signal fraction (FR) in early-stage MS by using ultra-high gradient strength multi-shell diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. In 11 early MS subjects (disease duration ≤5 years), FR was obtained at two timepoints (one year apart) through the Composite Hindered and Restricted Model of Diffusion, along with conventional Diffusion Tensor Imaging metrics. At follow-up, no statistically significant change was detected in clinical variables, while all imaging metrics showed statistically significant longitudinal changes (p < 0.01, corrected for multiple comparisons) in widespread regions in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). The most extensive longitudinal changes were observed in FR, including areas known to include a large fraction of crossing fibers. Furthermore, FR was also the only metric showing significant longitudinal changes in lesions that were present at both time points (p = 0.007), with no significant differences found for conventional diffusion metrics. Finally, FR was the only diffusion metric (as compared to Diffusion Tensor Imaging) that revealed pre-lesional changes already present at baseline. Taken together, our data provide evidence for progressive microstructural damage in the NAWM of early MS cases detectable already at 1-year follow-up. Our study highlights the value of multi-shell diffusion imaging for sensitive tracking of disease evolution in MS before any clinical changes are observed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SI: MRI and Neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Axônios , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101699, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739842

RESUMO

Irreversible white matter (WM) damage, including severe demyelination and axonal loss, is a main determinant of long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Non-invasive detection of changes in microstructural WM integrity in the disease is challenging since commonly used imaging metrics lack the necessary sensitivity, especially in the early phase of the disease. This study aims at assessing microstructural WM abnormalities in early-stage MS by using ultra-high gradient strength multi-shell diffusion MRI and the restricted signal fraction (FR) from the Composite Hindered and Restricted Model of Diffusion (CHARMED), a metric sensitive to the volume fraction of axons. In 22 early MS subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 15 age-matched healthy controls, restricted fraction estimates were obtained through the CHARMED model along with conventional Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) metrics. All imaging parameters were compared cross-sectionally between the MS subjects and controls both in WM lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). We found a significant reduction in FR focally in WM lesions and widespread in the NAWM in MS patients relative to controls (corrected p < .05). Signal fraction changes in NAWM were not driven by perilesional tissue, nor were they influenced by proximity to the ventricles, challenging the hypothesis of an outside-in pathological process driven by CSF-mediated immune cytotoxic factors. No significant differences were found in conventional DTI parameters. In a cross-validated classification task, FR showed the largest effect size and outperformed all other diffusion imaging metrics in discerning lesions from contralateral NAWM. Taken together, our data provide evidence for the presence of widespread microstructural changes in the NAWM in early MS stages that are, at least in part, unrelated to focal demyelinating lesions. Interestingly, these pathological changes were not yet detectable by conventional diffusion imaging at this early disease stage, highlighting the sensitivity and value of multi-shell diffusion imaging for better characterizing axonal microstructure in MS.

7.
Brain ; 142(3): 633-646, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715195

RESUMO

Spinal cord lesions detected on MRI hold important diagnostic and prognostic value for multiple sclerosis. Previous attempts to correlate lesion burden with clinical status have had limited success, however, suggesting that lesion location may be a contributor. Our aim was to explore the spatial distribution of multiple sclerosis lesions in the cervical spinal cord, with respect to clinical status. We included 642 suspected or confirmed multiple sclerosis patients (31 clinically isolated syndrome, and 416 relapsing-remitting, 84 secondary progressive, and 73 primary progressive multiple sclerosis) from 13 clinical sites. Cervical spine lesions were manually delineated on T2- and T2*-weighted axial and sagittal MRI scans acquired at 3 or 7 T. With an automatic publicly-available analysis pipeline we produced voxelwise lesion frequency maps to identify predilection sites in various patient groups characterized by clinical subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale score and disease duration. We also measured absolute and normalized lesion volumes in several regions of interest using an atlas-based approach, and evaluated differences within and between groups. The lateral funiculi were more frequently affected by lesions in progressive subtypes than in relapsing in voxelwise analysis (P < 0.001), which was further confirmed by absolute and normalized lesion volumes (P < 0.01). The central cord area was more often affected by lesions in primary progressive than relapse-remitting patients (P < 0.001). Between white and grey matter, the absolute lesion volume in the white matter was greater than in the grey matter in all phenotypes (P < 0.001); however when normalizing by each region, normalized lesion volumes were comparable between white and grey matter in primary progressive patients. Lesions appearing in the lateral funiculi and central cord area were significantly correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score (P < 0.001). High lesion frequencies were observed in patients with a more aggressive disease course, rather than long disease duration. Lesions located in the lateral funiculi and central cord area of the cervical spine may influence clinical status in multiple sclerosis. This work shows the added value of cervical spine lesions, and provides an avenue for evaluating the distribution of spinal cord lesions in various patient groups.

8.
Neurology ; 92(11): 519-533, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize current and emerging imaging techniques that can be used to assess neuroprotection and repair in multiple sclerosis (MS), and to provide a consensus opinion on the potential utility of each technique in clinical trial settings. METHODS: Clinicians and scientists with expertise in the use of MRI in MS convened in Toronto, Canada, in November 2016 at a North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (NAIMS) Cooperative workshop meeting. The discussion was compiled into a manuscript and circulated to all NAIMS members in attendance. Edits and feedback were incorporated until all authors were in agreement. RESULTS: A wide spectrum of imaging techniques and analysis methods in the context of specific study designs were discussed, with a focus on the utility and limitations of applying each technique to assess neuroprotection and repair. Techniques were discussed under specific themes, and included conventional imaging, magnetization transfer ratio, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, imaging cortical lesions, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, PET, advanced diffusion imaging, sodium imaging, multimodal techniques, imaging of special regions, statistical considerations, and study design. CONCLUSIONS: Imaging biomarkers of neuroprotection and repair are an unmet need in MS. There are a number of promising techniques with different strengths and limitations, and selection of a specific technique will depend on a number of factors, notably the question the trial seeks to answer. Ongoing collaborative efforts will enable further refinement and improved methods to image the effect of novel therapeutic agents that exert benefit in MS predominately through neuroprotective and reparative mechanisms.

9.
Neuroimage ; 184: 901-915, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300751

RESUMO

The spinal cord is frequently affected by atrophy and/or lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Segmentation of the spinal cord and lesions from MRI data provides measures of damage, which are key criteria for the diagnosis, prognosis, and longitudinal monitoring in MS. Automating this operation eliminates inter-rater variability and increases the efficiency of large-throughput analysis pipelines. Robust and reliable segmentation across multi-site spinal cord data is challenging because of the large variability related to acquisition parameters and image artifacts. In particular, a precise delineation of lesions is hindered by a broad heterogeneity of lesion contrast, size, location, and shape. The goal of this study was to develop a fully-automatic framework - robust to variability in both image parameters and clinical condition - for segmentation of the spinal cord and intramedullary MS lesions from conventional MRI data of MS and non-MS cases. Scans of 1042 subjects (459 healthy controls, 471 MS patients, and 112 with other spinal pathologies) were included in this multi-site study (n = 30). Data spanned three contrasts (T1-, T2-, and T2∗-weighted) for a total of 1943 vol and featured large heterogeneity in terms of resolution, orientation, coverage, and clinical conditions. The proposed cord and lesion automatic segmentation approach is based on a sequence of two Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). To deal with the very small proportion of spinal cord and/or lesion voxels compared to the rest of the volume, a first CNN with 2D dilated convolutions detects the spinal cord centerline, followed by a second CNN with 3D convolutions that segments the spinal cord and/or lesions. CNNs were trained independently with the Dice loss. When compared against manual segmentation, our CNN-based approach showed a median Dice of 95% vs. 88% for PropSeg (p ≤ 0.05), a state-of-the-art spinal cord segmentation method. Regarding lesion segmentation on MS data, our framework provided a Dice of 60%, a relative volume difference of -15%, and a lesion-wise detection sensitivity and precision of 83% and 77%, respectively. In this study, we introduce a robust method to segment the spinal cord and intramedullary MS lesions on a variety of MRI contrasts. The proposed framework is open-source and readily available in the Spinal Cord Toolbox.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Medula Espinal/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1186-1197, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize [11 C]-PBR28 brain uptake using positron emission tomography (PET) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). We have previously shown increased [11 C]-PBR28 uptake in the precentral gyrus in a small group of ALS patients. Herein, we confirm our initial finding, study the longitudinal changes, and characterize the gray versus white matter distribution of [11 C]-PBR28 uptake in a larger cohort of patients with ALS and PLS. METHODS: Eighty-five participants including 53 with ALS, 11 with PLS, and 21 healthy controls underwent integrated [11 C]-PBR28 PET-magnetic resonance brain imaging. Patients were clinically assessed using the Upper Motor Neuron Burden (UMNB) and the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R). [11 C]-PBR28 uptake was quantified as standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and compared between groups. Cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy were compared between groups and correlated with SUVR and the clinical data. [11 C]-PBR28 uptake and ALSFRS-R were compared longitudinally over 6 months in 10 ALS individuals. RESULTS: Whole brain voxelwise, surface-based, and region of interest analyses revealed increased [11 C]-PBR28 uptake in the precentral and paracentral gyri in ALS, and in the subcortical white matter for the same regions in PLS, compared to controls. The increase in [11 C]-PBR28 uptake colocalized and correlated with cortical thinning, reduced fractional anisotropy, and increased mean diffusivity, and correlated with higher UMNB score. No significant changes were detected in [11 C]-PBR28 uptake over 6 months despite clinical progression. INTERPRETATION: Glial activation measured by in vivo [11 C]-PBR28 PET is increased in pathologically relevant regions in people with ALS and correlates with clinical measures. Ann Neurol 2018;83:1186-1197.

11.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 21: 110-116, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term progression of cognitive dysfunction and its neuroanatomical correlates and predictors in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A cohort of 37 MS patients reflecting five decades of disease duration and all subtypes was followed over 17.5 years. Matched controls were recruited at the last follow-up. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using a principal component cognitive index based on comprehensive neuropsychological testing. During the last 8.5 years of the study, brain MRI was performed to analyze normalized volumetrics of three global tissue compartments (white and gray matter, lesions) and strategic regions (corpus callosum, thalamus, hippocampus). RESULTS: Cognitive decline progressed continuously throughout the study paralleled by atrophy and lesion accumulation. The cognitive index partly correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale (ρ = -0.47, p < 0.001) and was mainly associated with the lesion fraction (ß = -0.48, p < 0.001) and callosal fraction (ß = 0.39, p = 0.002) in multiple linear regression analysis. The lesion fraction was an independent predictor of the cognitive performance 8.5 years later (ß = -0.35, p = 0.008). Symbol Digit Modalities Test was most frequently abnormal (40%), while Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test was more sensitive to detect cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment progresses continuously in MS, associated with atrophy and lesion accumulation, suggesting that interventions targeting these processes could be beneficial at all disease stages. Widespread cognitive functions are more profoundly affected, associated with lesions and corpus callosal atrophy, supporting the idea of an underlying disconnection mechanism for cognitive decline in MS.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Atrofia , Encéfalo/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Prognóstico , Medula Espinal/patologia
12.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(5): 2133-2146, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411457

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between structural connectivity and cortical demyelination in early multiple sclerosis. About 27 multiple sclerosis patients and 18 age-matched controls underwent two MRI scanning sessions. The first was done at 7T and involved acquiring quantitative T1 and T2 * high-resolution maps to estimate cortical myelination. The second was done on a Connectom scanner and consisted of acquiring high angular resolution diffusion-weighted images to compute white matter structural connectivity metrics: strength, clustering and local efficiency. To further investigate the interplay between structural connectivity and cortical demyelination, patients were divided into four groups according to disease-duration: 0-1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, and >3 years. ANOVA and Spearman's correlations were used to highlight relations between metrics. ANOVA detected a significant effect between disease duration and both cortical myelin (p = 2 × 10-8 ) and connectivity metrics (p < 10-4 ). We observed significant cortical myelin loss in the shorter disease-duration cohorts (0-1 year, p = .0015), and an increase in connectivity in the longer disease-duration cohort (2-3 years, strength: p = .01, local efficiency: p = .002, clustering: p = .001). Moreover, significant covariations between myelin estimation and white matter connectivity metrics were observed: Spearman's Rho correlation coefficients of 0.52 (p = .0003), 0.55 (p = .0001), and 0.53 (p = .0001) for strength, local efficiency, and clustering, respectively. An association between cortical myelin loss and changes in white matter connectivity in early multiple sclerosis was detected. These changes in network organization might be the result of compensatory mechanisms in response to the ongoing cortical diffuse damage in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

13.
Neuroimage Clin ; 17: 347-353, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159046

RESUMO

Background: Glia activation is thought to contribute to neuronal damage in several neurodegenerative diseases based on preclinical and human post-mortem studies, but its role in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is unknown. Objectives: To localize and measure glia activation in people with PLS compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods: Ten participants with PLS and ten age-matched HCs underwent simultaneous magnetic resonance (MR) and proton emission tomography (PET). The radiotracer [11C]-PBR28 was used to obtain PET-based measures of 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) expression, a marker of activated glial cells. MR techniques included a structural sequence to measure cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess white matter integrity. Results: PET data showed increased [11C]-PBR28 uptake in anatomically-relevant motor regions which co-localized with areas of regional gray matter atrophy and decreased subcortical fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: This study supports a link between glia activation and neuronal degeneration in PLS, and suggests that these disease mechanisms can be measured in vivo in PLS. Future studies are needed to determine the longitudinal changes of these imaging measures and to clarify if MR-PET with [11C]-PBR28 can be used as a biomarker for drug development in the context of clinical trials for PLS.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/patologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Substância Branca/patologia
14.
Mult Scler ; 24(11): 1433-1444, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thalamic degeneration impacts multiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate heterogeneous thalamic pathology, its correlation with white matter (WM), cortical lesions and thickness, and as function of distance from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: In 41 MS subjects and 17 controls, using 3 and 7 T imaging, we tested for (1) differences in thalamic volume and quantitative T2* (q-T2*) (2) globally and (3) within concentric bands originating from the CSF/thalamus interface; (4) the relation between thalamic, cortical, and WM metrics; and (5) the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics to clinical scores. We also assessed MS thalamic lesion distribution as a function of distance from CSF. RESULTS: Thalamic lesions were mainly located next to the ventricles. Thalamic volume was decreased in MS versus controls ( p < 10-2); global q-T2* was longer in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) only ( p < 10-2), indicating myelin and/or iron loss. Thalamic atrophy and longer q-T2* correlated with WM lesion volume ( p < 0.01). In relapsing-remitting MS, q-T2* thalamic abnormalities were located next to the WM ( p < 0.01 (uncorrected), p = 0.09 (corrected)), while they were homogeneously distributed in SPMS. Cortical MRI metrics were the strongest predictors of clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: Heterogeneous pathological processes affect the thalamus in MS. While focal lesions are likely mainly driven by CSF-mediated factors, overall thalamic degeneration develops in association with WM lesions.

15.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 3024-3027, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060535

RESUMO

Conventional diffusion-weighted MR imaging techniques provide limited specificity in disentangling disease-related microstructural alterations involving changes in both axonal density and myelination. By simultaneously probing multiple diffusion regimens, multi-shell diffusion MRI is capable of increasing specificity to different tissue sub-compartments and hence separate different contributions to changes in diffusion-weighted signal attenuation. Advanced multi-shell diffusion models impose significant requirements on the amount of diffusion weighting (i.e. gradient coil performance) and angular resolution (i.e. in-scanner subject time), which commonly limits their applicability in a clinical setting. In this paper, we apply a high-b-value, high angular resolution multi-shell diffusion MRI protocol to a population of early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls. Through the Composite Hindered and Restricted Model of Diffusion (CHARMED) model, we extract indices for axonal density as well as parameters sensitive to myelin. We demonstrate increased sensitivity to microstructural changes in normal appearing white matter and in lesions in MS as compared to traditional models like DTI. These changes appear to be predominantly in axonal density, pointing towards the existence of axonal damage mechanisms in early MS.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Axônios , Encéfalo , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla
16.
Brain ; 140(11): 2912-2926, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053798

RESUMO

Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P < 0.001), accompanied by an increased orientation dispersion (P < 0.001 by paired t-test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P < 0.001 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis subjects had diffusely lower intracellular volume fractions than the white matter in controls (P = 0.029 by unpaired t-test). Cortical thickness did not differ significantly between multiple sclerosis subjects and controls. Higher orientation dispersion in the left primary motor-somatosensory cortex was associated with increased Expanded Disability Status Scale scores in surface-based general linear modelling (P < 0.05). Microstructural pathology was frequent in early multiple sclerosis, and present mainly focally in cortical lesions, whereas more diffusely in white matter. These results suggest early demyelination with loss of cells and/or cell volumes in cortical and white matter lesions, with additional axonal dispersion in white matter lesions. In the cortex, focal lesion changes might precede diffuse atrophy with cortical thinning. Findings in the normal-appearing white matter reveal early axonal pathology outside inflammatory demyelinating lesions.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Anisotropia , Axônios , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bainha de Mielina , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Ann Neurol ; 81(2): 324-325, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032651
20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 12: 879-886, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872810

RESUMO

Using quantitative T2* at 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated whether impairment in selective cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS) can be explained by pathology in specific areas and/or layers of the cortex. Thirty-one MS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation, acquisition of 7 T multi-echo T2* gradient-echo sequences, and 3 T anatomical images for cortical surfaces reconstruction. Seventeen age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Cortical T2* maps were sampled at various depths throughout the cortex and juxtacortex. Relation between T2*, neuropsychological scores and a cognitive index (CI), calculated from a principal component analysis on the whole battery, was tested by a general linear model. Cognitive impairment correlated with T2* increase, independently from white matter lesions and cortical thickness, in cortical areas highly relevant for cognition belonging to the default-mode network (p < 0.05 corrected). Dysfunction in different cognitive functions correlated with longer T2* in selective cortical regions, most of which showed longer T2* relative to controls. For most tests, this association was strongest in deeper cortical layers. Executive dysfunction, however, was mainly related with pathology in juxtameningeal cortex. T2* explained up to 20% of the variance of the CI, independently of conventional imaging metrics (adjusted-R2: 52-67%, p < 5.10- 4). Location of pathology across the cortical width and mantle showed selective correlation with impairment in differing cognitive domains. These findings may guide studies at lower field strength designed to develop surrogate markers of cognitive impairment in MS.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Disfunção Cognitiva , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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