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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5150, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051452

RESUMO

It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people's values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being measures (e.g., emotional well-being, relationship support; N = 54,673). Crucially, however, value type moderates whether person-country fit is positively or negatively associated with well-being. People who value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values report lower well-being. In contrast, people who value achievement, power, and security more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values, report higher well-being. Additionally, we find that people who moderately value stimulation report the highest well-being.


Assuntos
Cultura , Valor da Vida , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção , Filosofia , Previdência Social
2.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 618-627, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572981

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses an exceptional challenge for humanity. Because public behaviour is key to curbing the pandemic at an early stage, it is important for social psychological researchers to use their knowledge to promote behaviours that help manage the crisis. Here, we identify human values as particularly important in driving both behavioural compliance to government guidelines and promoting prosocial behaviours to alleviate the strains arising from a prolonged pandemic. Existing evidence demonstrates the importance of human values, and the extent to which they are shared by fellow citizens, for tackling the COVID-19 crisis. Individuals who attach higher importance to self-transcendence (e.g., responsibility) and conservation (e.g., security) values are likely to be more compliant with COVID-19 behavioural guidelines and to help others who are struggling with the crisis. Further, believing that fellow citizens share one's values has been found to elicit a sense of connectedness that may be crucial in promoting collective efforts to contain the pandemic. The abstract nature of values, and cross-cultural agreement on their importance, suggests that they are ideally suited to developing and tailoring effective, global interventions to combat this pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Valores Sociais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Motivação , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 263, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466802

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

4.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 20(3): 536-550, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185623

RESUMO

The present study investigates the neural pathways underlying individual susceptibility to affective or cognitive information in persuasive communication, also known as the structural matching effect. Expanding on the presumed involvement of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) in persuasion, we hypothesized that the vMPFC contributes to the evaluation of persuasive information depending on its match with the recipient's affective or cognitive predominance. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 30 participants evaluated 10 consumable products presented with both affective and cognitive persuasive messages. All participants were characterized on a continuum regarding their personal orientation in terms of individual differences in need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that the vMPFC, posterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum are more strongly activated when the persuasive message content, either affective or cognitive, matched the recipient's individual affective or cognitive orientation. Interestingly, this effect in the vMPFC was found specifically when participants evaluated the products presented by the persuasive messages, whereas the correlation in the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum activity was detected when reading the messages. These results confirm the hypothesis that the vMPFC plays a role in subjectively weighting persuasive message content depending on individual differences in affective and cognitive orientation. Such a structural matching effect might involve the vMPFC particularly during explicit expressions of subjective valuations. These novel findings also further develop the conceptualization of the role of the vMPFC in self-related processing.

5.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 116(4): 541-562, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596430

RESUMO

Most published research focuses on describing differences, while neglecting similarities that are arguably at least as interesting and important. In Study 1, we modified and extended prior procedures for describing similarities and demonstrate the importance of this exercise by examining similarities between groups on 22 social variables (e.g., moral attitudes, human values, and trust) within 6 commonly used social categories: gender, age, education, income, nation of residence, and religious denomination (N = 86,272). On average, the amount of similarity between 2 groups (e.g., high vs. low educated or different countries) was greater than 90%. Even large effect sizes revealed more similarities than differences between groups. Studies 2-5 demonstrated the importance of presenting information about similarity in research reports. Compared with the typical presentation of differences (e.g., barplots with confidence intervals), similarity information led to more accurate lay perceptions and to more positive attitudes toward an outgroup. Barplots with a restricted y-axis led to a gross underestimation of similarities (i.e., a gross overestimation of the differences), and information about similarities was rated as more comprehensible. Overall, the presentation of similarity information achieves more balanced scientific communication and may help address the file drawer problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Psicologia Social , Pesquisa , Pensamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(5): 925-953, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667255

RESUMO

Although human values and value dissimilarity play pivotal roles in the prejudice literature, there remain important gaps in our understanding. To address these gaps, we recruited three British samples (N = 350) and presented Muslim immigrants, refugees, and economic migrants as target groups. Using polynomial regression analyses, we simultaneously tested effects of individuals' own values, their perceptions of immigrant values, and self-immigrant value dissimilarities on prejudice. Results indicated that favorability toward immigrants is higher when individuals hold higher self-transcendence values (e.g., equality) and lower self-enhancement values (e.g., power), and when they perceive immigrants to hold higher self-transcendence values and lower self-enhancement values. In addition, prejudice toward immigrants is higher when individuals who hold higher conservation values (e.g., security) perceive immigrants to value openness (e.g., freedom) more, suggesting a value dissimilarity effect. No value dissimilarity effects emerged when immigrants were perceived to be higher in conservation, self-transcendence, or self-enhancement values. Overall, these results showed that effects of values and value dissimilarity differ depending on which value dimension is considered. Additionally, the results revealed support for a novel mechanism with the motivation to be nonprejudiced underpinning the links between individuals' values and prejudice. Our discussion highlights the multifaceted manner in which values are linked to prejudice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Preconceito , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Islamismo , Motivação
7.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1643, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319476

RESUMO

Over the past century, various value models have been proposed. To determine which value model best predicts prosocial behavior, mental health, and pro-environmental behavior, we subjected seven value models to a hierarchical regression analysis. A sample of University students (N = 271) completed the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2012), the Basic Value Survey (Gouveia et al., 2008), and the Social Value Orientation scale (Van Lange et al., 1997). Additionally, they completed the Values Survey Module (Hofstede and Minkov, 2013), Inglehart's (1977) materialism-postmaterialism items, the Study of Values, fourth edition (Allport et al., 1960; Kopelman et al., 2003), and the Rokeach (1973) Value Survey. However, because the reliability of the latter measures was low, only the PVQ-RR, the BVS, and the SVO where entered into our analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that the PVQ-RR is the strongest predictor of all three outcome variables, explaining variance above and beyond the other two instruments in almost all cases. The BVS significantly predicted prosocial and pro-environmental behavior, while the SVO only explained variance in pro-environmental behavior.

8.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 13(9): 967-975, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085291

RESUMO

The continuous balancing of the risks and benefits of exploiting known options or exploring new opportunities is essential to human life. We forage for new opportunities when they are deemed to be more attractive than the available option, but this decision to forage also entails costs. People differ in their propensity to exploit or forage, and both the social circumstances and our individual value orientations are likely influences. Here, participants made foraging decisions for themselves and for a charity of their choice in two paradigms: one that features two distinct modes of decision-making (foraging vs classical economic decision-making) and one which is more directly related to the classical animal foraging and ethology literature. Across both paradigms, individuals who possessed a stronger self-focused value orientation obtained more rewards when they were allowed to forage for themselves rather than the charity. Neuroimaging during the tasks revealed that this effect was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in that more self-focused individuals showed lower activity in dACC for the self-condition relative to the other condition. This evidence reveals a dynamic interplay between foraging outcomes and the higher-order value system of individuals.


Assuntos
Ego , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Individualidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Recompensa , Valores Sociais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Psychol ; 9: 849, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896151

RESUMO

Previous research found that the within-country variability of human values (e.g., equality and helpfulness) clearly outweighs between-country variability. Across three countries (Brazil, India, and the United Kingdom), the present research tested in student samples whether between-nation differences reside more in the behaviors used to concretely instantiate (i.e., exemplify or understand) values than in their importance as abstract ideals. In Study 1 (N = 630), we found several meaningful between-country differences in the behaviors that were used to concretely instantiate values, alongside high within-country variability. In Study 2 (N = 677), we found that participants were able to match instantiations back to the values from which they were derived, even if the behavior instantiations were spontaneously produced only by participants from another country or were created by us. Together, these results support the hypothesis that people in different nations can differ in the behaviors that are seen as typical as instantiations of values, while holding similar ideas about the abstract meaning of the values and their importance.

10.
Psico USF ; 22(3): 461-472, set.-dez. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-878081

RESUMO

Dois estudos (N = 457) examinaram as propriedades psicométricas da versão reduzida do Questionário de Necessidade de Emoções (Need for Affect Questionnaire: NAQ-S) no contexto brasileiro. No primeiro estudo, uma análise de componentes principais indicou uma estrutura bifatorial, com cinco itens cada: aproximação (α = 0,70) e evitação (α = 0,75). Confirmou-se essa estrutura no segundo estudo (GFI = 0,92; CFI = 0,90), mostrando-se invariante quanto ao sexo. Para verificar os correlatos do NAQ-S, utilizou-se, nos dois estudos, medidas que visam avaliar os valores humanos, a solidão e a necessidade de pertença, além dos cinco fatores da personalidade no segundo estudo. Os resultados demonstraram que uma maior necessidade de emoção foi associada com maior extroversão, maiores escores em valores de experimentação e interativos, e escores mais baixos de solidão. Os estudos apresentam suporte de validade do NAQ-S no Brasil, mostrando sua utilidade para fins de pesquisa.(AU)


Two studies (N=457) examined the psychometric properties of the short version of the Need for Affect Questionnaire (NAQS) in the Brazilian context. In the first study, a principal components analysis indicated a two-factor structure, with five items each: approach (α= .70) and avoidance (α= .75). This structure was confirmed in the second study (GFI= .92; CFI= .90), and it was invariant across gender. To verify the correlates of NAQ-S, we used measures to evaluate the human values, loneliness and need to belong in both studies, besides the five personality factors in the second study. The results showed that higher need for affect was associated with higher extraversion, higher scores in excitement and interactive values, and with lower loneliness scores. The studies support the validity of the NAQ-S in Brazil, showing its usefulness for research purposes.(AU)


Dos estudios (N=457) examinaron las propriedades psicométricas de la versión reducida del Cuestionario de Necesidad de Emociones (Need for Affect Questionnaire; NAQ-S) en el contexto brasileño. En el primer estudio, un análisis de componentes principales indicó una estructura bifactorial, con cinco ítems cada una: aproximación (α = .70) y evitación (α = .75). Se confirmo esta estructura en el segundo estudio (GFI=.92; FCI=.90), mostrándose invariable con relación al sexo. Para verificar las correlaciones del NAQ-S, fue utilizado en ambos estudios medidas que tienden a evaluar los valores humanos, la soledad y la necesidad de pertenencia, además de evaluarse en el segundo estudio los cinco factores de personalidad. Los resultados mostraron que una mayor necesidad de emoción, fue asociada con mayor extraversión, con resultados mayores en valores de experimentación e interactivos, y resultados más bajos de soledad. Los estudios presentan apoyo de validez del NAQ-S en Brasil, mostrando su utilidad para fines de investigación.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Emoções , Extroversão Psicológica , Solidão/psicologia , Valores Sociais , Análise Fatorial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 481, 2017 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28915911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent years have seen an increasing number of studies using smartphones to sample participants' mood states. Moods are usually collected by asking participants for their current mood or for a recollection of their mood states over a specific period of time. The current study investigates the reasons to favour collecting mood through current or daily mood surveys and outlines design recommendations for mood sampling using smartphones based on these findings. These recommendations are also relevant to more general smartphone sampling procedures. RESULTS: N=64 participants completed a series of surveys at the beginning and end of the study providing information such as gender, personality, or smartphone addiction score. Through a smartphone application, they reported their current mood 3 times and daily mood once per day for 8 weeks. We found that none of the examined intrinsic individual qualities had an effect on matches of current and daily mood reports. However timing played a significant role: the last followed by the first reported current mood of the day were more likely to match the daily mood. Current mood surveys should be preferred for a higher sampling accuracy, while daily mood surveys are more suitable if compliance is more important.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica/normas , Aplicativos Móveis , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 43(6): 828-844, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903673

RESUMO

Three studies examined the role of need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC) in intergroup perception. We hypothesized that NFA predicts a preference for stereotypically warm groups over stereotypically cold groups, whereas NFC predicts a preference for stereotypically competent groups over stereotypically incompetent groups. Study 1 supported these hypotheses for attitudes toward stereotypically ambivalent groups, which are stereotyped as high on one of the trait dimensions (e.g., high warmth) and low on the other (e.g., low competence), but not for stereotypically univalent groups, which are seen as high or low on both dimensions. Studies 2 and 3 replicated this pattern for stereotypically ambivalent groups, and yielded provocative evidence regarding several putative mechanisms underlying these associations. Together, these findings help integrate and extend past evidence on attitude-relevant individual differences with research on intergroup perception.


Assuntos
Afeto , Atitude , Orientação , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Psychol ; 8: 528, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439248

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS  We show the promotion intervention has positive effects during intergroup contact, but that high levels of compunction can have negative effects. Intergroup contact is probably the longest standing and most comprehensively researched intervention to reduce discrimination. It is also part of ordinary social experience, and a key context in which discrimination is played out. In this paper, we explore two additional interventions which are also designed to reduce discrimination, but which have not yet been applied to real intergroup interactions. The promotion intervention encourages participants to relax and enjoy an interaction, while the compunction intervention motivates participants to avoid discrimination. Across two studies, we tested the separate effects of promotion (Study 1) and then compunction (Study 2) on participants' interactions with a confederate whom they believed to have a history of schizophrenia. In Study 1, participants received either a promotion intervention to "relax and have an enjoyable dialogue" or no intervention (control; n = 67). In Study 2, participants completed a Single-Category Implicit Attitude Test before being told that they were high in prejudice (high compunction condition) or low in prejudice (low compunction condition; n = 62). Results indicated that promotion was associated with broadly positive effects: participants reported more positive experience of the interaction (enjoyment and interest in a future interaction), and more positive evaluations of their contact partner (increased friendliness and reduced stereotyping). There were no effects on participants' reported intergroup anxiety. In contrast, high compunction had broadly negative effects: participants reported more negative experiences of the interaction and more negative evaluations of their contact partner (using the same dependent measures outlined above). In addition, participants in the high compunction condition reported increased intergroup anxiety and increased self-anxiety (anxiety around thinking or doing something that is prejudiced). Participants in the high compunction condition also reported reduced expectancies of self-efficacy (i.e., they were less confident that they would be able to make a good impression).

14.
Soc Neurosci ; 12(5): 494-505, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27128463

RESUMO

Motivational interdependence is an organizing principle in Schwartz's circumplex model of social values, which has received abundant cross-cultural support. We used fMRI to test whether motivational relations between social values predict different brain responses in a situation of choice between values. We hypothesized that differences in brain responses would become evident when the more important value had to be selected in pairs of congruent (e.g., wealth and success) as opposed to incongruent (e.g., curiosity and stability) values as they are described in Schwartz's model, because the former serve mutually facilitating motives, whereas the latter serve mutually inhibiting motives. Consistent with the model, choosing between congruent values led to longer response times and more activation in conflict-related brain regions (e.g., the supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) than selecting between incongruent values. These results provide novel neural evidence supporting the circumplex model's predictions about motivational interdependence between social values. In particular, our results show that the neural networks underlying social values are organized in a way that allows activation patterns related to motivational similarity between congruent values to be dissociated from those related to incongruent values.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Pers ; 85(5): 658-674, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27392549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. METHOD: Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. RESULTS: Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations.


Assuntos
Poder Psicológico , Preconceito , Percepção Social , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo , Sexismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Soc Neurosci ; 12(6): 673-684, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27635795

RESUMO

Human values guide behavior and the smooth functioning of societies. Schwartz's circumplex model of values predicts a sinusoidal waveform in relations between ratings of the importance of diverse human value types (e.g., achievement, benevolence) and any variables psychologically relevant to them. In this neuroimaging study, we examined these nonlinear associations between values types and brain structure. In 85 participants, we found the predicted sinusoidal relationship between ratings of values types and two measures of white matter (WM), volume and myelin volume fraction, as well as for grey matter (GM) parameters in several frontal regions. These effects reveal new functional associations for structural brain parameters and provide a novel cross-validation of Schwartz's model. Moreover, the sinusoidal waveform test can be applied to other circumplex models in social, affective and cognitive neuroscience.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 42(6): 769-81, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460271

RESUMO

Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Emoções , Autoimagem , Valores Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 42(6): 798-810, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460272

RESUMO

Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed.


Assuntos
Afeto , Atitude , Cognição , Individualidade , Personalidade , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Genes Brain Behav ; 15(4): 361-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915771

RESUMO

Human values and personality have been shown to share genetic variance in twin studies. However, there is a lack of evidence about the genetic components of this association. This study examined the interplay between genes, values and personality in the case of neuroticism, because polygenic scores were available for this personality trait. First, we replicated prior evidence of a positive association between the polygenic neuroticism score (PNS) and neuroticism. Second, we found that the PNS was significantly associated with the whole human value space in a sinusoidal waveform that was consistent with Schwartz's circular model of human values. These results suggest that it is useful to consider human values in the analyses of genetic contributions to personality traits. They also pave the way for an investigation of the biological mechanisms contributing to human value orientations.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Personalidade/genética
20.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 54(3): 483-99, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25564748

RESUMO

In the present research, we examine the ways in which exposure to hostile sexism influences women's competitive collective action intentions. Prior to testing our main model, our first study experimentally induced high versus low levels of security-comfort with the aim of providing experimental evidence for the proposed causal link between these emotions and intentions to engage in social competition. Results showed that lower levels of security-comfort reduced women's readiness to compete socially with men. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of hostile sexism on women's emotional reactions and readiness to engage in social competition. Consistent with the proposed model, results showed that exposure to hostile beliefs about women (1) increased anger-frustration and (2) decreased security-comfort. More specifically, exposure to hostile sexism had a positive indirect effect on social competition intentions through anger-frustration, and a negative indirect effect through security-comfort.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Hostilidade , Intenção , Motivação , Sexismo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
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