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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(20): 207703, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462007

RESUMO

We measure the rates and coupling coefficients for local Andreev, nonlocal Andreev, and elastic cotunneling processes. The nonlocal Andreev process, giving rise to Cooper pair splitting, exhibits the same coupling coefficient as the elastic cotunneling whereas the local Andreev process is more than 2 orders of magnitude stronger than the corresponding nonlocal one. Theory estimates describe the findings and explain the large difference in the nonlocal and local coupling arising from competition between electron diffusion in the superconductor and tunnel junction transparency.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(4): 040602, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148140

RESUMO

We study experimentally work fluctuations in a Szilard engine that extracts work from information encoded as the occupancy of an electron level in a semiconductor quantum dot. We show that as the average work extracted per bit of information increases toward the Landauer limit k_{B}Tln2, the work fluctuations decrease in accordance with the work fluctuation-dissipation relation. We compare the results to a protocol without measurement and feedback and show that when no information is used, the work output and fluctuations vanish simultaneously, contrasting the information-to-energy conversion case where increasing amount of work is produced with decreasing fluctuations. Our study highlights the importance of fluctuations in the design of information-to-work conversion processes.

3.
Nano Lett ; 22(2): 630-635, 2022 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030004

RESUMO

The Wiedemann-Franz law states that the charge conductance and the electronic contribution to the heat conductance are proportional. This sets stringent constraints on efficiency bounds for thermoelectric applications, which seek a large charge conduction in response to a small heat flow. We present experiments based on a quantum dot formed inside a semiconducting InAs nanowire transistor, in which the heat conduction can be tuned significantly below the Wiedemann-Franz prediction. Comparison with scattering theory shows that this is caused by quantum confinement and the resulting energy-selective transport properties of the quantum dot. Our results open up perspectives for tailoring independently the heat and electrical conduction properties in semiconductor nanostructures.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(27): 270601, 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638287

RESUMO

In this Letter, we explore the use of thermodynamic length to improve the performance of experimental protocols. In particular, we implement Landauer erasure on a driven electron level in a semiconductor quantum dot, and compare the standard protocol in which the energy is increased linearly in time with the one coming from geometric optimization. The latter is obtained by choosing a suitable metric structure, whose geodesics correspond to optimal finite-time thermodynamic protocols in the slow driving regime. We show experimentally that geodesic drivings minimize dissipation for slow protocols, with a bigger improvement as one approaches perfect erasure. Moreover, the geometric approach also leads to smaller dissipation even when the time of the protocol becomes comparable with the equilibration timescale of the system, i.e., away from the slow driving regime. Our results also illustrate, in a single-electron device, a fundamental principle of thermodynamic geometry: optimal finite-time thermodynamic protocols are those with constant dissipation rate along the process.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6358, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737273

RESUMO

Controlled generation and detection of quantum entanglement between spatially separated particles constitute an essential prerequisite both for testing the foundations of quantum mechanics and for realizing future quantum technologies. Splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor provides entangled electrons at separate locations. However, experimentally accessing the individual split Cooper pairs constitutes a major unresolved issue as they mix together with electrons from competing processes. Here, we overcome this challenge with the first real-time observation of the splitting of individual Cooper pairs, enabling direct access to the time-resolved statistics of Cooper pair splitting. We determine the correlation statistics arising from two-electron processes and find a pronounced peak that is two orders of magnitude larger than the background. Our experiment thereby allows to unambiguously pinpoint and select split Cooper pairs with 99% fidelity. These results open up an avenue for performing experiments that tap into the spin-entanglement of split Cooper pairs.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5130, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446735

RESUMO

Converting incoming photons to electrical current is the key operation principle of optical photodetectors and it enables a host of emerging quantum information technologies. The leading approach for continuous and efficient detection in the optical domain builds on semiconductor photodiodes. However, there is a paucity of efficient and continuous photon detectors in the microwave regime, because photon energies are four to five orders of magnitude lower therein and conventional photodiodes do not have that sensitivity. Here we tackle this gap and demonstrate how microwave photons can be efficiently and continuously converted to electrical current in a high-quality, semiconducting nanowire double quantum dot resonantly coupled to a cavity. In particular, in our photodiode device, an absorbed photon gives rise to a single electron tunneling through the double dot, with a conversion efficiency reaching 6%.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(18): 180601, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28524675

RESUMO

Statistical physics provides the concepts and methods to explain the phase behavior of interacting many-body systems. Investigations of Lee-Yang zeros-complex singularities of the free energy in systems of finite size-have led to a unified understanding of equilibrium phase transitions. The ideas of Lee and Yang, however, are not restricted to equilibrium phenomena. Recently, Lee-Yang zeros have been used to characterize nonequilibrium processes such as dynamical phase transitions in quantum systems after a quench or dynamic order-disorder transitions in glasses. Here, we experimentally realize a scheme for determining Lee-Yang zeros in such nonequilibrium settings. We extract the dynamical Lee-Yang zeros of a stochastic process involving Andreev tunneling between a normal-state island and two superconducting leads from measurements of the dynamical activity along a trajectory. From the short-time behavior of the Lee-Yang zeros, we predict the large-deviation statistics of the activity which is typically difficult to measure. Our method paves the way for further experiments on the statistical mechanics of many-body systems out of equilibrium.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(38): 13786-9, 2014 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25201966

RESUMO

The most succinct manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics is the limitation imposed by the Landauer principle on the amount of heat a Maxwell demon (MD) can convert into free energy per single bit of information obtained in a measurement. We propose and realize an electronic MD based on a single-electron box operated as a Szilard engine, where kBT ln 2 of heat is extracted from the reservoir at temperature T per one bit of created information. The information is encoded in the position of an extra electron in the box.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(3): 036801, 2014 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24484157

RESUMO

We employ a single-charge counting technique to measure the full counting statistics of Andreev events in which Cooper pairs are either produced from electrons that are reflected as holes at a superconductor-normal-metal interface or annihilated in the reverse process. The full counting statistics consists of quiet periods with no Andreev processes, interrupted by the tunneling of a single electron that triggers an avalanche of Andreev events giving rise to strongly super-Poissonian distributions.

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