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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625409

RESUMO

Up to 10% of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) carry underlying germline pathogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes. The GENetic Education Risk Assessment and TEsting (GENERATE) study aimed to evaluate novel methods of genetic education and testing in relatives of patients with PDAC. Eligible individuals had a family history of PDAC and a relative with a germline pathogenic variant in APC, ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, EPCAM, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PALB2, PMS2, STK11, or TP53 genes. Participants were recruited at six academic cancer centers and through social media campaigns and patient advocacy efforts. Enrollment occurred via the study website (https://GENERATEstudy.org) and all participation, including collecting a saliva sample for genetic testing, could be done from home. Participants were randomized to one of two remote methods that delivered genetic education about the risks of inherited PDAC and strategies for surveillance. The primary outcome of the study was uptake of genetic testing. From 5/8/2019 to 5/6/2020, 49 participants were randomized to each of the intervention arms. Overall, 90 of 98 (92%) of randomized participants completed genetic testing. The most frequently detected pathogenic variants included those in BRCA2 (N = 15, 17%), ATM (N = 11, 12%), and CDKN2A (N = 4, 4%). Participation in the study remained steady throughout the onset of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Preliminary data from the GENERATE study indicate success of remote alternatives to traditional cascade testing, with genetic testing rates over 90% and a high rate of identification of germline pathogenic variant carriers who would be ideal candidates for PDAC interception approaches. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Preliminary data from the GENERATE study indicate success of remote alternatives for pancreatic cancer genetic testing and education, with genetic testing uptake rates over 90% and a high rate of identification of germline pathogenic variant carriers who would be ideal candidates for pancreatic cancer interception.

2.
Science ; 373(6561): eabj0486, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529467
3.
Nature ; 597(7878): 641-642, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526690
4.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) plays an essential role in protein folding, transportation, and degradation, thus regulates ER homeostasis and promotes cell survival, proliferation and invasion. GRP78 expression in PDAC patients who received neoadjuvant therapy has not been reported. METHODS: This retrospective study of resected PDAC patients included 125 patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) and 140 patients treated with surgery first (SF). The expression of GRP78 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays and the results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and survival. RESULTS: GRP78 expression was higher in SF patients compared to NAT patients (P < 0.001). In SF cohort, the median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with GRP78-positive tumors were 11.2 months and 25.0 months, respectively, compared to DFS of 52.1 months (P = 0.008) and OS of 69.5 months (P = 0.02) for those with GRP78-negative tumors. GRP78 expression correlated with higher frequency of recurrent/metastasis (P = 0.045). In NAT cohort, GRP78 expression correlated with shorter OS (P = 0.03), but not DFS (P = 0.08). GRP78 expression was an independent prognosticator for both DFS (P = 0.02) and OS (P = 0.049) in SF cohort and was an independent prognosticator for OS (P = 0.03), but not for DFS (P = 0.06) in NAT cohort by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that GRP78 expression in NAT cohort is lower than that in SF cohort. GRP78 expression correlated with shorter survival in both SF and NAT patients. Our findings suggest that targeting GRP78 may help to improve the prognosis in PDAC patients.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426439

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Precision medicine approaches in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are imperative for improving disease outcomes. With molecular subtypes of PDAC gaining relevance in the context of therapeutic stratification, the ability to characterize heterogeneity of cancer-specific gene expression patterns is of great interest. In addition, understanding patterns of immune evasion within PDAC is of importance as novel immunotherapeutic strategies are developed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is readily applicable to limited biopsies from human primary and metastatic PDAC and identifies most cancers as being an admixture of previously described epithelial transcriptomic subtypes. RESULTS: Integrative analyses of our data provide an in-depth characterization of the heterogeneity within the tumor microenvironment, including cancer-associated fibroblast subclasses, and predicts for a multitude of ligand-receptor interactions, revealing potential targets for immunotherapy approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates that the use of de novo biopsies from patients with PDAC paired with scRNA-seq may facilitate therapeutic prediction from limited biopsy samples.

6.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 37(5): 532-538, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387255

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is third leading cause of cancer death in the United States, a lethal disease with no screening strategy. Although diagnosis at an early stage is associated with improved survival, clinical detection of PDAC is typically at an advanced symptomatic stage when best in class therapies have limited impact on survival. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years this status quo has been challenged by the identification of novel risk factors, molecular markers of early-stage disease and innovations in pancreatic imaging. There is now expert consensus that screening may be pursued in a cohort of individuals with increased likelihood of developing PDAC based on genetic and familial risk. SUMMARY: The current review summarizes the known risk factors of PDAC, current knowledge and recent observations pertinent to early detection of PDAC in these risk groups and outlines future approaches that will potentially advance the field.

7.
Thorax ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung clearance index (LCI) is a valuable research tool in cystic fibrosis (CF) but clinical application has been limited by technical challenges and uncertainty about how to interpret longitudinal change. In order to help inform clinical practice, this study aimed to assess feasibility, repeatability and longitudinal LCI change in children and adults with CF with predominantly mild baseline disease. METHODS: Prospective, 3-year, multicentre, observational study of repeated LCI measurement at time of clinical review in patients with CF >5 years, delivered using a rapid wash-in system. RESULTS: 112 patients completed at least one LCI assessment and 98 (90%) were still under follow-up at study end. The median (IQR) age was 14.7 (8.6-22.2) years and the mean (SD) FEV1 z-score was -1.2 (1.3). Of 81 subjects with normal FEV1 (>-2 z-scores), 63% had raised LCI (indicating worse lung function). For repeat stable measurements within 6 months, the mean (limits of agreement) change in LCI was 0.9% (-18.8% to 20.7%). A latent class growth model analysis identified four discrete clusters with high accuracy, differentiated by baseline LCI and FEV1. Baseline LCI was the strongest factor associated with longitudinal change. The median total test time was under 19 min. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with CF with well-preserved lung function show stable LCI over time. Cluster behaviours can be identified and baseline LCI is a risk factor for future progression. These results support the use of LCI in clinical practice in identifying patients at risk of lung function decline.

8.
Mol Cell ; 81(14): 2989-3006.e9, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197737

RESUMO

Stalled DNA replication fork restart after stress as orchestrated by ATR kinase, BLM helicase, and structure-specific nucleases enables replication, cell survival, and genome stability. Here we unveil human exonuclease V (EXO5) as an ATR-regulated DNA structure-specific nuclease and BLM partner for replication fork restart. We find that elevated EXO5 in tumors correlates with increased mutation loads and poor patient survival, suggesting that EXO5 upregulation has oncogenic potential. Structural, mechanistic, and mutational analyses of EXO5 and EXO5-DNA complexes reveal a single-stranded DNA binding channel with an adjacent ATR phosphorylation motif (T88Q89) that regulates EXO5 nuclease activity and BLM binding identified by mass spectrometric analysis. EXO5 phospho-mimetic mutant rescues the restart defect from EXO5 depletion that decreases fork progression, DNA damage repair, and cell survival. EXO5 depletion furthermore rescues survival of FANCA-deficient cells and indicates EXO5 functions epistatically with SMARCAL1 and BLM. Thus, an EXO5 axis connects ATR and BLM in directing replication fork restart.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , DNA/genética , Exonucleases/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , RecQ Helicases/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Fosforilação/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4626, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330913

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer that has remained clinically challenging to manage. Here we employ an RNAi-based in vivo functional genomics platform to determine epigenetic vulnerabilities across a panel of patient-derived PDAC models. Through this, we identify protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) as a critical dependency required for PDAC maintenance. Genetic and pharmacological studies validate the role of PRMT1 in maintaining PDAC growth. Mechanistically, using proteomic and transcriptomic analyses, we demonstrate that global inhibition of asymmetric arginine methylation impairs RNA metabolism, which includes RNA splicing, alternative polyadenylation, and transcription termination. This triggers a robust downregulation of multiple pathways involved in the DNA damage response, thereby promoting genomic instability and inhibiting tumor growth. Taken together, our data support PRMT1 as a compelling target in PDAC and informs a mechanism-based translational strategy for future therapeutic development.Statement of significancePDAC is a highly lethal cancer with limited therapeutic options. This study identified and characterized PRMT1-dependent regulation of RNA metabolism and coordination of key cellular processes required for PDAC tumor growth, defining a mechanism-based translational hypothesis for PRMT1 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Dano ao DNA , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , RNA/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Animais , Biocatálise/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/prevenção & controle , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
11.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(6): e26601, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for noninvasive imaging markers that can help identify the aggressive subtype(s) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) at diagnosis and at an earlier time point, and evaluate the efficacy of therapy prior to tumor reduction. In the past few years, there have been two major developments with potential for a significant impact in establishing imaging biomarkers for PDAC and pancreatic cancer premalignancy: (1) hyperpolarized metabolic (HP)-magnetic resonance (MR), which increases the sensitivity of conventional MR by over 10,000-fold, enabling real-time metabolic measurements; and (2) applications of artificial intelligence (AI). OBJECTIVE: Our objective of this review was to discuss these two exciting but independent developments (HP-MR and AI) in the realm of PDAC imaging and detection from the available literature to date. METHODS: A systematic review following the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines was performed. Studies addressing the utilization of HP-MR and/or AI for early detection, assessment of aggressiveness, and interrogating the early efficacy of therapy in patients with PDAC cited in recent clinical guidelines were extracted from the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. The studies were reviewed following predefined exclusion and inclusion criteria, and grouped based on the utilization of HP-MR and/or AI in PDAC diagnosis. RESULTS: Part of the goal of this review was to highlight the knowledge gap of early detection in pancreatic cancer by any imaging modality, and to emphasize how AI and HP-MR can address this critical gap. We reviewed every paper published on HP-MR applications in PDAC, including six preclinical studies and one clinical trial. We also reviewed several HP-MR-related articles describing new probes with many functional applications in PDAC. On the AI side, we reviewed all existing papers that met our inclusion criteria on AI applications for evaluating computed tomography (CT) and MR images in PDAC. With the emergence of AI and its unique capability to learn across multimodal data, along with sensitive metabolic imaging using HP-MR, this knowledge gap in PDAC can be adequately addressed. CT is an accessible and widespread imaging modality worldwide as it is affordable; because of this reason alone, most of the data discussed are based on CT imaging datasets. Although there were relatively few MR-related papers included in this review, we believe that with rapid adoption of MR imaging and HP-MR, more clinical data on pancreatic cancer imaging will be available in the near future. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of AI, HP-MR, and multimodal imaging information in pancreatic cancer may lead to the development of real-time biomarkers of early detection, assessing aggressiveness, and interrogating early efficacy of therapy in PDAC.

13.
Gene Ther ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958732

RESUMO

Adeno-associated virus' (AAV) relatively simple structure makes it accommodating for engineering into controllable delivery platforms. Cancer, such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), are often characterized by upregulation of membrane-bound proteins, such as MMP-14, that propagate survival integrin signaling. In order to target tumors, we have engineered an MMP-14 protease-activatable AAV vector that responds to both membrane-bound and extracellularly active MMPs. This "provector" was generated by inserting a tetra-aspartic acid inactivating motif flanked by the MMP-14 cleavage sequence IPESLRAG into the capsid subunits. The MMP-14 provector shows lower background transduction than previously developed provectors, leading to a 9.5-fold increase in transduction ability. In a murine model of PDAC, the MMP-14 provector shows increased delivery to an allograft tumor. This proof-of-concept study illustrates the possibilities of membrane-bound protease-activatable gene therapies to target tumors.

15.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 14(7): 729-740, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893071

RESUMO

Early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is key to improving patient outcomes; however, PDAC is usually diagnosed late. Therefore, blood-based minimally invasive biomarker assays for limited volume clinical samples are urgently needed. A novel miRNA profiling platform (Abcam Fireplex-Oncology Panel) was used to investigate the feasibility of developing early detection miRNA biomarkers with 20 µL plasma from a training set (58 stage II PDAC cases and 30 controls) and two validation sets (34 stage II PDAC cases and 25 controls; 44 stage II PDAC cases and 18 controls). miR-34a-5p [AUC = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.87], miR-130a-3p (AUC = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.84), and miR-222-3p (AUC = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58-0.81) were identified as significantly differentially abundant in plasma from stage II PDAC versus controls. Although none of the miRNAs individually outperformed the currently used serologic biomarker for PDAC, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), combining the miRNAs with CA 19-9 improved AUCs from 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.95) for CA 19-9 alone to 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.97), 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.98), and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.87-0.97), respectively. Gene set enrichment analyses of transcripts correlated with high and low expression of the three miRNAs in The Cancer Genome Atlas PDAC sample set. These miRNA biomarkers, assayed in limited volume plasma together with CA19-9, discriminate stage II PDAC from controls with good sensitivity and specificity. Unbiased profiling of larger cohorts should help develop an informative early detection biomarker assay for diagnostic settings. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Development of minimally invasive biomarker assays for detection of premalignant disease and early-stage pancreatic cancer is key to improving patient survival. This study describes a limited volume plasma miRNA biomarker assay that can detect early-stage resectable pancreatic cancer in clinical samples necessary for effective prevention and clinical intervention.

16.
Cancer Discov ; 11(8): 2094-2111, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839689

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost uniformly fatal and characterized by early metastasis. Oncogenic KRAS mutations prevail in 95% of PDAC tumors and co-occur with genetic alterations in the TP53 tumor suppressor in nearly 70% of patients. Most TP53 alterations are missense mutations that exhibit gain-of-function phenotypes that include increased invasiveness and metastasis, yet the extent of direct cooperation between KRAS effectors and mutant p53 remains largely undefined. We show that oncogenic KRAS effectors activate CREB1 to allow physical interactions with mutant p53 that hyperactivate multiple prometastatic transcriptional networks. Specifically, mutant p53 and CREB1 upregulate the prometastatic, pioneer transcription factor FOXA1, activating its transcriptional network while promoting WNT/ß-catenin signaling, together driving PDAC metastasis. Pharmacologic CREB1 inhibition dramatically reduced FOXA1 and ß-catenin expression and dampened PDAC metastasis, identifying a new therapeutic strategy to disrupt cooperation between oncogenic KRAS and mutant p53 to mitigate metastasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Oncogenic KRAS and mutant p53 are the most commonly mutated oncogene and tumor suppressor gene in human cancers, yet direct interactions between these genetic drivers remain undefined. We identified a cooperative node between oncogenic KRAS effectors and mutant p53 that can be therapeutically targeted to undermine cooperation and mitigate metastasis.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1861.

17.
Pancreas ; 50(3): 251-279, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835956

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Despite considerable research efforts, pancreatic cancer is associated with a dire prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of only 10%. Early symptoms of the disease are mostly nonspecific. The premise of improved survival through early detection is that more individuals will benefit from potentially curative treatment. Artificial intelligence (AI) methodology has emerged as a successful tool for risk stratification and identification in general health care. In response to the maturity of AI, Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the 2020 AI and Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer Virtual Summit (www.pdac-virtualsummit.org) in conjunction with the American Pancreatic Association, with a focus on the potential of AI to advance early detection efforts in this disease. This comprehensive presummit article was prepared based on information provided by each of the interdisciplinary participants on one of the 5 following topics: Progress, Problems, and Prospects for Early Detection; AI and Machine Learning; AI and Pancreatic Cancer-Current Efforts; Collaborative Opportunities; and Moving Forward-Reflections from Government, Industry, and Advocacy. The outcome from the robust Summit conversations, to be presented in a future white paper, indicate that significant progress must be the result of strategic collaboration among investigators and institutions from multidisciplinary backgrounds, supported by committed funders.

18.
Pancreatology ; 21(5): 942-949, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD73, a newly recognized immune checkpoint mediator, is expressed in several types of malignancies. However, CD73 expression and its impact on tumor microenvironment and clinical outcomes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. METHODS: This study included two cohorts: 138 patients from our institution (MDA) and 176 patients from TCGA dataset. CD73 expression, CD4+, CD8+, CD21+ and CD45RO + tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The results of CD73 expression were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters, survival and TILs. RESULTS: CD73 overexpression correlated with poor differentiation (P = 0.002) and tumor size (P = 0.049). For CD73-low group, median overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 26.9 ± 3.8 months and 12.6 ± 2.6 months, respectively, compared to 16.9 ± 4.4 months (P = 0.01) and 7.9 ± 1.2 months (P = 0.01), respectively, in CD73-high group. CD73 was an independent predictor for both RFS (P = 0.02) and OS (P = 0.01) by multivariate variate analysis. Similarly, CD73-high tumors had significantly shorter OS than CD73-low tumors in TCGA dataset (P < 0.0001). CD73-high correlated with decreased CD4+ TILs in MDA cohort and decreased CD8A and CR2 (CD21) expression in TCGA cohort. CONCLUSIONS: CD73 overexpression is associated with poor differentiation, tumor size, and shorter survival, and is an independent prognostic factor in PDAC patients. CD73 overexpression is associated with decreased CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+ TILs. Our data support that CD73 plays an important role in immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and promote tumor progression in PDAC.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 124(12): 1970-1977, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited accessibility of the tumour precludes longitudinal characterisation for therapy guidance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: We utilised dielectrophoresis-field flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) to isolate circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in 272 blood draws from 74 PDAC patients (41 localised, 33 metastatic) to non-invasively monitor disease progression. RESULTS: Analysis using multiplex imaging flow cytometry revealed four distinct sub-populations of CTCs: epithelial (E-CTC), mesenchymal (M-CTC), partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (pEMT-CTC) and stem cell-like (SC-CTC). Overall, CTC detection rate was 76.8% (209/272 draws) and total CTC counts did not correlate with any clinicopathological variables. However, the proportion of pEMT-CTCs (prop-pEMT) was correlated with advanced disease, worse progression-free and overall survival in all patients, and earlier recurrence after resection. CONCLUSION: Our results underscore the importance of immunophenotyping and quantifying specific CTC sub-populations in PDAC.

20.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(4): 702-707, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Isolation of Exophiala species from sputum samples has become increasingly reported in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). However, the clinical significance of Exophiala spp. with regards to the paediatric CF population is unknown. METHODS: A case control study was undertaken to compare CF children with and without chronic Exophiala spp. in their sputum samples. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively for each case from the date of Exophiala isolation and for 12 months preceding isolation. Each case was compared to three age and year-matched controls. To determine the effect of Exophiala on clinical course, patients were then followed for 12 months post isolation. RESULTS: In total, 27 of 244 eligible paediatric CF patients (11%) isolated Exophiala spp. on more than one occasion. There were no significant differences in the key clinical parameters: spirometry, mean number of intravenous (IV) antibiotic days and body mass index (BMI), between cases and controls (p = 0.91, p = 0.56 and p = 0.63 respectively). A higher proportion of cases isolated Candida spp. (67% vs 21%, p < 0.0001) and Aspergillus fumigatus (37% vs 26%, p = 0.37). There was no clinically significant difference in spirometry, mean number of IV antibiotic days and BMI in cases pre and post Exophiala spp. isolation. Posaconazole was the only drug used that successfully eradicated Exophiala. CONCLUSION: Despite the frequent isolation of Exophiala spp. in this cohort, in most patients it is not associated with significant clinical deterioration. It does however seem to be associated with isolation of other fungi.

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