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1.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 50(2): 107-113, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies on mechanical ventilation in patients with cirrhosis have focused mainly on survival, as the disease is considered to carry a poor prognosis. The process of weaning in these patients has never been studied. With improving survival, it would be ideal to study the weaning indices that could add experience in clinical management. The integrative weaning index is known to predict weaning failure, even in those who tolerate the spontaneous breathing trial. However, it has been evaluated mainly in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our aim is to study the integrative weaning index in predicting the outcome of the spontaneous breathing trial in patients with cirrhosis undergoing mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Adult cirrhotic patients requiring mechanical ventilation for the first time were enrolled. Twenty-seven patients were found eligible for weaning. After the decision to wean, the patients were put on pressure support mode of ventilator followed by spontaneous breathing trial using T-piece for 2 hours. RESULTS: The study population was divided into two groups: successful spontaneous breathing trial group (Group S) and unsuccessful spontaneous breathing trial group (Group U) based on the outcome of the breathing trial. The mean respiratory rate was significantly lower in Group S as compared to Group U. The compliance of the respiratory system and integrative weaning index were found to be significantly higher in Group S. An integrative weaning index of 28 mL/cmH2O breaths/min/L was found to be a good predictor of weaning success. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that weaning from mechanical ventilation is possible in critically ill patients with cirrhosis. An integrative weaning index of 28 mL/cmH2O breaths/min/L could be a successful predictor of weaning from mechanical ventilation.

2.
Hepatol Commun ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502507

RESUMO

Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) have a high probability of developing systemic inflammation and sepsis due to immune dysregulation. Fifty-nine patients with ACLF (12 without and 19 with systemic inflammation, and 28 with sepsis) were serially monitored for clinical and immunological changes at baseline, 6 hours, 24 hours, day 3, and day 7 following hospitalization. Ten healthy controls were also included. At all time points, soluble plasma factors and monocyte functions were studied. Patients with ACLF and systemic inflammation showed higher interleukin (IL)-6, vascular endothelial growth factor-a, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß than patients with no systemic inflammation. Patients with ACLF with sepsis had raised (p < 0.001) levels of IL-1Ra, IL-18, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1) compared to patients with ACLF-systemic inflammation. Five of the 19 (26.3%) patients with systemic inflammation developed sepsis within 48-72 hours with a rapid rise in plasma levels of IL-1Ra (1203-35,000 pg/ml), IL-18 (48-114 pg/ml), and TREM1 (1273-4865 pg/ml). Monocytes of patients with ACLF with systemic inflammation and sepsis showed reduced human leukocyte antigen-DR but increased programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM3) (p < 0.04) expression with increased ETosis by monocytes at baseline and until day 7. Conclusion: High and rising levels of plasma IL-1Ra, IL-18, TREM1 soluble factors, and increased suppressive monocytes (PDL1+ve , TIM3+ve ) at baseline can stratify patients with ACLF at high risk of developing sepsis within 48-72 hours of hospitalization.

4.
J Hepatol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The choice of resuscitation fluid in cirrhosis patients with sepsis-induced hypotension (SIH) is unclear. 5% albumin has been superior to normal saline in the FRISC study. We compared the efficacy and safety of 20% albumin, which has greater oncotic properties with plasmalyte in reversing SIH. METHODS: Critically-ill cirrhosis(CIC) patients underwent open-label randomization to receive either 20% albumin [0.5-1.0gm/kg over 3 hours; n=50] or plasmalyte (30ml/kg over 3 hours, n=50). The primary end-point of the study was the attainment of mean arterial pressure (MAP) above 65 mmHg at three hours. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were comparable in albumin and plasmalyte groups; arterial lactate(mmol/L) [6.16±3.18 vs. 6.38±4.77; p=0.78), MAP (mmHg) [51.4±6.52 vs. 49.9±4.45; p=0.17] and SOFA score [10.8±2.96 vs. 11.1±4.2; p=0.68] respectively. Most patients were alcoholics (39%) and had pneumonia (40%). In the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, albumin was superior to plasmalyte in achieving the primary end-point (62% vs. 22%; p<0.001). A rapid decline in arterial lactate (P=0.03), a lesser proportion of dialysis [48% vs. 62%; p=0.16], and a higher time to initiation of dialysis (in hours) [68.13±47.79 vs. 99.7± 63.4; p=0.06] was seen with albumin. However, the 28-day mortality was not different (58% vs. 62%, p=0.57). Patients in the albumin group required discontinuation of therapy in 11 (22%) patients due to adverse effects compared to none in plasmalyte group. CONCLUSION: In patients with cirrhosis and SIH, 20% albumin transiently improves the hemodynamics with early lactate clearance than plasmalyte but needs monitoring as it is more often attended with pulmonary complications. Both fluids provide comparable 28 days survival. NCT02721238 LAY SUMMARY: The current randomized controlled trial performed in critically ill patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension highlights that 20% albumin restores hemodynamics but causes more pulmonary complications than plasmalyte. The impact on renal functions was also modest. These effects did not result in improvement in deaths at 28-days. Plasmalyte is safer and well-tolerated and can be considered for volume resuscitation in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension.

5.
Am J Stem Cells ; 11(1): 12-27, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35295591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cellular and functional exhaustion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) is significantly associated with the loss of HSCs and hepatic osteodystrophy in cirrhosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of BM-MSCs are not well understood. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of cellular and functional exhaustion of BM-MSCs in cirrhosis. METHODS: The MSCs were isolated retrospectively from bone marrow of decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis patients {(Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01902511) (n=10; MELD=16.2±2.3; CTP=8.7±2.3)} and age and gender-matched healthy controls (n=8). Global gene expression profile of healthy bone marrow MSCs (hBM-MSCs) and cirrhosis patients BM-MSCs (cBM-MSCs) were done by mRNA sequencing. XFe24-bioanalyzer analyzed the bioenergetic potential of cells. Level of different cytokines and growth factors in BM-plasma and MSCs secretome were analyzed by Luminex-based bead array. RESULTS: Analysis of differentially expressed genes showed significant (P<0.01) up-regulation of genes associated with ubiquitination and catabolism of proteins; TNF signaling, insulin resistance, and down-regulation of genes associated with DNA repair, protein processing, cell cycle, and mitochondrial respiration in cBM-MSCs in comparison to hBM-MSCs. Compared to hBM-MSCs, cBM-MSCs showed a significant defect in glycolysis due to insulin resistance and poor glucose uptake (P=0.002). This led to compromised self-renewal capacity and cellular loss of MSCs in cirrhosis. cBM-MSCs also showed a significant impairment in Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) due to mitochondrial dysfunction leading to defects in the osteogenic differentiation with early aging and senescence. CONCLUSION: Compromised energy metabolism due to inflammatory and metabolic stress-induced insulin resistance underlies the cellular and functional exhaustion of BM-MSCs in cirrhosis.

6.
Hepatol Int ; 16(1): 171-182, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is considered a main prognostic event in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We analyzed the 28-day and 90-day mortality in ACLF patients with or without underlying cirrhosis enrolled in the ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database. METHODS: A total of 1,621 patients were prospectively enrolled and 637 (39.3%) of these patients had cirrhosis. Baseline characteristics, complications and mortality were compared between patients with and without cirrhosis. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was more common in cirrhosis than non-cirrhosis (66.4% vs. 44.2%, p < 0.0001), while non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/cryptogenic CLD (10.9% vs 5.8%, p < 0.0001) and chronic HBV reactivation (18.8% vs 11.8%, p < 0.0001) were more common in non-cirrhosis. Only 0.8% of patients underwent liver transplantation. Overall, 28-day and 90-day mortality rates were 39.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis had a greater chance of survival compared to those without cirrhosis both at 28-day (HR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.36-0.63, p < 0.0001) and 90-day (HR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.72, p < 0.0001), respectively. In alcohol CLD, non-cirrhosis patients had a higher 28-day (49.9% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.001) and 90-day (58.4% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001) mortality rate than cirrhosis patients. ACLF patients with cirrhosis had longer mean survival than non-cirrhosis patients (25.5 vs. 18.8 days at 28-day and 65.2 vs. 41.2 days at 90-day). Exaggerated systemic inflammation might be the reason why non-cirrhosis patients had a poorer prognosis than those with cirrhosis after ACLF had occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The 28-day and 90-day mortality rates of ACLF patients without cirrhosis were significantly higher than those with cirrhosis in alcoholic CLD. The presence of cirrhosis and its stage should be evaluated at baseline to guide for management. Thai Clinical Trials Registry, TCTR20191226002.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Prognóstico
7.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(4): e831-e854, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High volume plasma-exchange (HVPE) improves survival in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), but apprehension regarding volume overload and worsening of cerebral edema remain. METHODS: In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 40 consecutive patients of ALF were randomized 1:1 to either standard medical treatment (SMT) or SMT with standard-volume plasma-exchange (SVPE). SVPE was performed using centrifugal apheresis [target volume of 1.5 to 2.0 plasma volumes per session] until desired response was achieved. Cerebral edema was assessed by brain imaging. Results were analyzed in an intention-to-treat analysis. Primary outcome was 21-day transplant-free survival. The levels of cytokines, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and endotoxins were analyzed at baseline and day 5. RESULTS: ALF patients [aged 31.5 ± 12.2 years, 60% male, 78% viral, 83% hyperacute, 70% with SIRS were included. At day 5, SVPE [mean sessions 2.15 ± 1.42, median plasma volume replaced 5.049 L] compared to SMT alone, resulted in higher lactate clearance (p = .02), amelioration of SIRS (84% vs. 26%; P = .02), reduction in ammonia levels [(221.5 ± 96.9) vs.(439 ± 385.6) µg/dl, P = .02) and SOFA scores [9.9(±3.3) vs. 14.6(±4.8); P = .001]. There were no treatment related deaths. SVPE was associated with a higher 21-day transplant free-survival [75% vs. 45%; P = .04, HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.01-0.88]. A significant decrease in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines along with a decrease in endotoxin and DAMPs was seen with SVPE. CONCLUSION: In ALF patients with cerebral edema, SVPE is safe and effective and improves survival possibly by a reduction in cytokine storm and ammonia. CLINICALTRIAL: gov (identifier: NCT02718079).


Assuntos
Falência Hepática Aguda , Troca Plasmática , Adulto , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dig Dis ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raised intracranial pressure due to cerebral edema (CE) is central to development of hepatic encephalopathy in ALF. Mannitol (MT) & Hypertonic saline (HS) has been shown to improve CE. We compared the efficacy & safety of the two modalities Methods: ALF with CE were prospectively randomized in an open study to receive either 5 ml/kg of either 3% HS, as continuous infusion; titrated every 6 hourly to achieve serum sodium of <160(Group A; n=26) or 1 g/kg of 20% MN as a IV bolus, repeated every six hourly (Group B; n=25) in addition to standard ALF care. Primary end-point was reduction of intracranial pressure defined as optic nerve sheath diameter <5mm and middle cerebral arterial pulsatility index (PI) <1.2 at 12 hours. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with ALF, hepatitis E being commonest (33.3%), median jaundice to HE interval of 8(1-16) days, were randomized to HS (n=26) or MN (n=25). Baseline characteristics were comparable including King's college criteria [>2: 38.4% vs.40%]. Overall, 61.5% patients in HS and 56% in MN group showed reduction in ICP at 12 hr. (p=0.25). Rebound increase in ICP indices was noted in 5(20%) patients in MT and none in HS (p<0.05) group. New onset acute kidney injury was commoner in MT than HS group. The ICU stay, and 28-day transplant free survival were not different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: While both agents had comparable efficacy in reducing ICP and mortality in ALF patients was comparable, HS was significantly better in preventing reducing rebound CE with lower renal dysfunction.

9.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis have high prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to study the efficacy and safety of tadalafil for ED in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: 140 cirrhotic males with ED were randomized into tadalafil 10 mg daily (n = 70) or placebo (n = 70) for 12 weeks. ED was diagnosed if erectile function (EF) domain score was < 25 in International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. The erectile function domain consists of six questions concerning erection frequency, erection firmness, frequency of partner penetration, frequency of maintaining erection after penetration, ability to maintain erection to completion of intercourse and confidence in achieving and maintaining erection. Primary outcome was proportion of patients having an increase in > 5 points in EF domain of the IIEF. Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) questionnaire was used for screening and severity measuring of GAD. The presence of depression was screened using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the assessment of health related quality of life was done using the Short Form (36) Health Survey. RESULTS: At the end of 12 weeks, more patients in tadalafil group achieved > 5 points increase in the EF domain of the IIEF when compared with the placebo group [44(62.9%) vs. 21(30%), p < 0.001]. At the end of 12 weeks, patients receiving tadalafil had significantly more change in scores on the erectile function domain, orgasmic function domain, intercourse satisfaction domain, overall satisfaction domain, erection vaginal penetration rates and successful intercourse; significantly more decline in the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores; significantly more improvement in scores of five of the eight domains of SF-36 (general health perception, vitality score, social functioning, role emotional and mental health) and the mental component summary rates when compared with placebo. The development of side effects and the changes in HVPG were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Tadalafil therapy may enhance erectile function, improve anxiety, depression and quality of life; and is well tolerated by men with cirrhosis (CTP score < 10) and ED. However, further larger and long-term studies are needed to confirm these results and look for rarer side effects of using tadalafil in patients with cirrhosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT03566914; first posted date: June 25, 2018.

10.
Hepatol Int ; 15(6): 1376-1388, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a rapidly progressive illness with high short-term mortality. Timely liver transplant (LT) may improve survival. We evaluated various indices for assessment of the severity of liver failure and their application for eligibility and timing of living donor LT (LDLT). METHODS: Altogether 1021 patients were analyzed for the severity and organ failure at admission to determine transplant eligibility and 28 day survival with or without transplant. RESULTS: The ACLF cohort [mean age 44 ± 12.2 years, males 81%) was of sick patients; 55% willing for LT at admission, though 63% of them were ineligible due to sepsis or organ failure. On day 4, recovery in sepsis and/or organ failure led to an improvement in transplant eligibility from 37% at baseline to 63.7%. Delay in LT up to 7 days led to a higher incidence of multiorgan failure (p < 0.01) contributing to 23% of the first week and 55% of all-cause 28-day mortality. In a matched cohort analysis, the actuarial survival with LT (n = 41) and conditional survival in the absence of transplant (n = 191) were comparable, when the condition, i.e., transplant was adjusted. The comparison curve showed differentiation in survival beyond 7 days (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ACLF is a rapidly progressive disease and risk stratification within the first week of hospitalization is needed. 'Emergent LT' should be defined in the first week in the ACLF patients; the transplant window for improving survival in a live donor setting.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 280-286, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346270

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Transfusion in cirrhotic patients remains a challenge due to the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Our study aimed to determine the indication of transfusion and the associated transfusion thresholds in cirrhotic patients. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at a tertiary care liver center from October 2018 to March 2019. The blood bank and patient records of cirrhotic patients admitted during the study period were retrieved and analyzed to determine the current transfusion practice. Results: A total of 992 cirrhotic patients were included in the study. Blood components were transfused to 402 (40.5%) patients. Sixty-nine (17.2%) patients were transfused to control/treat active bleeding, while 333 (82.8%) were transfused prophylactically. Packed red blood cells (65.4%) was the most commonly transfused blood component, followed by fresh frozen plasma (35.6%), among patients receiving transfusions (therapeutic & prophylactic). The mean pre-transfusion thresholds for: (i) packed red blood cell transfusion: hemoglobin less than 7 g/dL; (ii) fresh frozen plasma transfusion: international normalized ratio over 2.6; (iii) platelet concentrate transfusion: platelet count less than 40,700/µL, and; (iv) cryoprecipitate transfusion: fibrinogen less than 110 mg/dL. The average length of stay of the study population was 5 days (3-9. Conclusion: To conclude, 40.5% of our hospitalized cirrhotic patients were transfused, with the majority of the transfusions being prophylactic (82.8%). Separate guidelines are required for this patient population, as these patients have an altered hemostasis which responds differently to the transfusion of blood components.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Transfusão de Sangue , Cirrose Hepática , Índia
12.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Feed intolerance (FI) is common in cirrhosis patients in intensive care units (ICU). Prokinetics are the first line treatment for FI but their efficacy and safety in critically ill patient with cirrhosis is unknown. We evaluated the role of prokinetics in reversal of FI and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted in ICU developing new-onset FI, were randomized to receive either intravenous metoclopramide (Gr.A, n = 28), erythromycin (Gr.B, n = 27) or placebo (Gr.C, n = 28). FI was defined with the presence of 3 of 5 variables- absence of bowel sounds, gastric residual volume ≥ 500 ml, vomiting, diarrhoea and bowel distension. Primary end-point was complete resolution of FI (≥ 3 variables resolved) within 24-h and secondary end-points included resolution within 72-h and survival at 7-days. RESULTS: Of the 1030 ICU patients, 201 (19.5%) developed FI and 83 patients were randomized. Baseline parameters between the groups were comparable. Complete resolution at 24-h was higher in Gr.A (7.14%) and B (22.2%) than C (0%, p = 0.017). Overall, 58 (69.9%) patients achieved resolution within 72 h, more with metoclopramide (n = 24, 85.7%) and erythromycin (n = 25, 92.6%) than with placebo (n = 9, 32.1%, p < 0.001). The 7-day survival was better in patients who achieved resolution within 72-h (65.5 vs. 36%, p = 0.011) than non-responders. High lactate (OR-3.32, CI-1.45-7.70, p = 0.005), shock at baseline (OR-6.34, CI-1.67-24.1, p = 0.007) and resolution of FI within 72 h (OR-0.11, CI, 0.03-0.51, p = 0.04) predicted 7-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: FI is common in critically-ill cirrhosis patients and non-resolution carries high mortality. Early recognition and treatment with prokinetics is recommended to improve short-term survival.


Gastrointestinal dysmotility is common in cirrhosis and higher incidence in critically ill patients. Promotility drugs are the first line of medication especially in ICU patients. In our study, we found that feed intolerance is present in nearly one in five critically ill cirrhosis and is associated with higher mortality. Patients who achieve resolution had an improved short-term survival. Prokinetic medications are safe in critically ill cirrhosis and help in early resolution of feed intolerance. Feed intolerance in critically ill cirrhosis should be recognized as an organ dysfunction and approaches for prevention and early diagnosis of feed intolerance could help in improving the outcomes in critical illness.

13.
Hepatol Int ; 15(6): 1389-1401, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct clinical entity with high probability of organ failure and mortality. Since patients generally present late, experimental models are needed to understand the pathophysiology and natural course of the disease. METHODOLOGY: To reproduce the syndrome of ACLF, chronic liver disease was induced in C57BL6 mice (6-8 weeks; approximately 20-24 g weight) by intraperitoneal administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 10 weeks followed by an acute injury with acetaminophen (APAP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Blood, ascitic fluid, and organs were collected to study cell death, regeneration, and fibrosis. RESULTS: At 24 h post-APAP/LPS infusion, the liver tissue showed increased hepatocyte ballooning and endothelial cell TUNEL positivity. This was followed by progressive hepatocyte necrosis from perivascular region at day 7 to lobular region by day 11. ACLF (day 7 and day 11) animals showed increase in bilirubin (p < 0.05), prothrombin time (p < 0.0001), blood ammonia (p < 0.001), and portal pressure post-acute hepatocellular injury similar to human ACLF. Ascites was noticed by day 11 with median serum-ascites albumin gradient of 1.2 (1.1-1.3) g/dL. In comparison to cirrhosis, ACLF group (day 7 and day 11) showed significant decrease in Sirius red (p ≤ 0.0001), collagen1 (p < 0.0001), and a-SMA proportionate area (p < 0.0001) with loss of hepatocytes regeneration (p < 0.005). At day 11, ACLF animals also showed significant increase in serum creatinine (p < 0.05) and acute tubular necrosis suggestive of organ failure, compared to cirrhotic animals. CONCLUSION: The CCL4/APAP/LPS (CALPS) model of ACLF mimics the clinical, biochemical, and histological features of ACLF with demonstrable progressive hepatocellular necrosis, liver failure, impaired regeneration, development of portal hypertension, and organ dysfunction in an animal with chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Hipertensão Portal , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia
14.
Clin Immunol ; 231: 108829, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419620

RESUMO

Massive cellular necrosis in acute liver failure (ALF) is dominantly immune mediated and innate immune cells are major pathophysiological determinants in liver damage. In fifty ALF and fifteen healthy, immune cells phenotyping by flow-cytometry, DAMPs using ELISA were analysed and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters. ALF patients (aged 27 ± 9 yr, 56% males, 78% viral aetiology) showed no difference in neutrophils and classical monocytes, but significantly increased intermediate monocytes (CD14+CD16+) (p < 0.01), decreased non-classical monocytes (CD14-CD16+) and CD3-veCD16+CD56+ NK cells compared to HC. ALF patients who survived, showed higher NK cells (9.28 vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001) among lymphocytes and lower serum lactate levels (6.1 vs. 28, Odds ratio 2.23, CI 1.27-3.94) than non- survivors had higher. Logistic regression model predicted the combination of lactate levels with NK cell percentage at admission for survival. In conclusion, Combination of NK cell frequency among lymphocytes and lactate levels at admission can reliably predict survival of ALF patients.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Falência Hepática Aguda/sangue , Falência Hepática Aguda/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Viroses/complicações
15.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(4): 453-465, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sleep-wake abnormalities [poor nighttime sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)] are common in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-wake abnormalities and clinical factors associated with these abnormalities in a group of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: 1098 patients with cirrhosis [Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) class A, 22.2%; CTP class B, 29.2% and CTP class C, 48.6%], with either no ascites or mild ascites controlled on diuretics, and no history of or current overt hepatic encephalopathy were included in the study. RESULTS: Poor nighttime sleep and EDS were found in 569 (51.8%) and 489 (44.5%) patients respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with poor nighttime sleep were CTP class C (vs. class A), presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), intermediate or evening type of diurnal preference category (vs. morning type), high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), diuretic use, presence of major depression, and presence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Factors associated with EDS on multivariate analysis were CTP class B and C (vs. class A), intermediate or evening type of diurnal preference category (vs. morning type), high risk for OSA, presence of major depression, and presence of GAD. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-wake abnormalities are common in patients with cirrhosis. CTP status, diurnal preference chronotype, risk of OSA, major depression and GAD are associated with both poor nighttime sleep and EDS. MHE and diuretic use are associated with poor nighttime sleep, but not with EDS.

17.
Semin Liver Dis ; 41(4): 476-494, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261138

RESUMO

Liver failure in the context of acute (ALF) and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with high mortality in the absence of a liver transplant. For decades, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is performed for the management of immune-mediated diseases. TPE has emerged as an attractive extracorporeal blood purification technique in patients with ALF and ACLF. The basic premise of using TPE is to remove the toxic substances which would allow recovery of native liver functions by facilitating liver regeneration. In recent years, encouraging data have emerged, suggesting the benefits of TPE in patients with liver failure. TPE has emerged as an attractive liver support device for the failing liver until liver transplantation or clinical recovery. The data in patients with ALF suggest routine use of high-volume TPE, while the data for such a strategy are less robust for patients with ACLF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Transplante de Fígado , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Humanos , Regeneração Hepática , Troca Plasmática
18.
Liver Transpl ; 27(11): 1538-1552, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143570

RESUMO

Accurate estimation of kidney function in cirrhosis is crucial for prognosis and decisions regarding dual-organ transplantation. We performed a systematic review/meta-analysis to assess the performance of creatinine-based and cystatin C (CysC)-based eGFR equations compared with measured GFR (mGFR) in patients with cirrhosis. A total of 25 studies (n = 4565, 52.0 years, 37.0% women) comprising 18 equations met the inclusion criteria. In all GFR equations, the creatinine-based equations overestimated GFR (standardized mean difference, SMD, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.71) and CysC-based equations underestimated GFR (SMD, -0.3; 95% CI, -0.60 to -0.02). Equations based on both creatinine and CysC were the least biased (SMD, -0.14; 95% CI, -0.46 to 0.18). Chronic kidney disease-Epi-serum creatinine-CysC (CESC) was the least biased but had low precision and underestimated GFR by -3.6 mL/minute/1.73 m2 (95% CI, -17.4 to 10.3). All equations significantly overestimated GFR (+21.7 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; 95% CI, 17.7-25.7) at GFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; of these, chronic kidney disease-Epi-CysC (10.3 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; 95% CI, 2.1-18.4) and GFR Assessment in Liver Disease (12.6 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; 95% CI, 7.2-18.0) were the least biased followed by Royal Free Hospital (15 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; 95% CI, 5.5-24.6) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 6 (15.7 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; 95% CI, 10.6-20.8); however, there was an overlap in the precision of estimates, and the studies were limited. In ascites, overestimation of GFR was common (+8.3 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ; 95% CI, -3.1 to 19.7). However, overestimation of GFR by 10 to 20 mL/minute/1.73m2 is common in patients with cirrhosis with most equations in ascites and/or kidney dysfunction. A tailored approach is required especially for decisions regarding dual-organ transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Creatinina , Cistatina C , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico
19.
J Hepatol ; 75(5): 1026-1033, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Corticosteroids are the only effective therapy for severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), defined by a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >20. However, there are patients who may be too sick to benefit from therapy. Herein, we aimed to identify the range of MELD scores within which steroids are effective for AH. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, international multicenter cohort study across 4 continents, including 3,380 adults with a clinical and/or histological diagnosis of AH. The main outcome was mortality at 30 days. We used a discrete-time survival analysis model, and MELD cut-offs were established using the transform-the-endpoints method. RESULTS: In our cohort, median age was 49 (40-56) years, 76.5% were male, and 79% had underlying cirrhosis. Median MELD at admission was 24 (19-29). Survival was 88% (87-89) at 30 days, 77% (76-78) at 90 days, and 72% (72-74) at 180 days. A total of 1,225 patients received corticosteroids. In an adjusted-survival-model, corticosteroid use decreased 30-day mortality by 41% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59; 0.47-0.74; p <0.001). Steroids only improved survival in patients with MELD scores between 21 (HR 0.61; 0.39-0.95; p = 0.027) and 51 (HR 0.72; 0.52-0.99; p = 0.041). The maximum effect of corticosteroid treatment (21-30% survival benefit) was observed with MELD scores between 25 (HR 0.58; 0.42-0.77; p <0.001) and 39 (HR 0.57; 0.41-0.79; p <0.001). No corticosteroid benefit was seen in patients with MELD >51. The type of corticosteroids used (prednisone, prednisolone, or methylprednisolone) was not associated with survival benefit (p = 0.247). CONCLUSION: Corticosteroids improve 30-day survival only among patients with severe AH, especially with MELD scores between 25 and 39. LAY SUMMARY: Alcohol-associated hepatitis is a condition where the liver is severely inflamed as a result of excess alcohol use. It is associated with high mortality and it is not clear whether the most commonly used treatments (corticosteroids) are effective, particularly in patients with very severe liver disease. In this worldwide study, the use of corticosteroids was associated with increased 30-day, but not 90- or 180-day, survival. The maximal benefit was observed in patients with an MELD score (a marker of severity of liver disease; higher scores signify worse disease) between 25-39. However, this benefit was lost in patients with the most severe liver disease (MELD score higher than 51).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hepatite/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
20.
Hepatol Int ; 15(4): 983-994, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036519

RESUMO

AIMS: Sepsis and septic shock are common causes of hospitalization and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. There is no data on the choice of fluid and resuscitation protocols in sepsis-induced hypotension in cirrhosis. METHODS: In this open-label trial conducted at a single center, we enrolled 308 cirrhotics with sepsis-induced hypotension and randomized them to receive either 5% albumin or normal saline. The primary endpoint was a reversal of hypotension [mean arterial pressure, MAP, ≥ 65 mmHg] at 3 h. Secondary endpoints included serial effects on heart rate, arterial lactate and urine output. RESULTS: 154 patients each received 5% albumin (males, 79.8%, mean MAP 52.9 ± 7.0 mm Hg) or 0.9% saline (85.1%, 53.4 ± 6.3 mm Hg) with comparable baseline parameters and liver disease severity. Reversal of hypotension was higher in patients receiving 5% albumin than saline at the end of one hour [25.3% and 11.7%, p = 0.03, Odds ratio (95% CI)-1.9 (1.08-3.42)] and at the end of three hours [11.7% and 3.2%, p = 0.008, 3.9 (1.42-10.9)]. Sustained reduction in heart rate and hyperlactatemia (p < 0.001) was better in the albumin group. At one week, the proportion of patients surviving was higher in the albumin group than those receiving saline (43.5% vs 38.3%, p = 0.03). Female gender and SOFA ≥ 11 were predictors of non-response to fluid. CONCLUSIONS: 5% human albumin is safe and beneficial in reversing sepsis-induced hypotension compared to normal saline in patients with cirrhosis improving clinically assessable parameters of systemic hemodynamics, tissue perfusion and in-hospital short-term survival of cirrhosis patients with sepsis.


Assuntos
Hipotensão Controlada , Sepse , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Solução Salina , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/terapia , Albumina Sérica Humana
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