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1.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(3): 394-402, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522404

RESUMO

Objectives: Disturbed sleep patterns might alter the autonomic tone and lead to various cardiovascular morbidities. This study aimed to determine sleep patterns (quality, duration, efficiency and daytime sleepiness) and explore their association with blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in apparently healthy, young Saudi females. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia between March 2019 and December 2019. Self-reported Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaires were used to collect data. In addition, the participants' BP and HRV was measured. Based on the cut-off values of sleep quality, duration, efficiency and daytime sleepiness scores, participants were categorised into groups. HRV and BP were compared between the groups by a t-test/one-way ANOVA. Results: A total of 98 participants were included in this study (response rate: 72.6%). Poor sleep patterns (quality, duration and efficiency) were observed, but no association was found with BP and HRV parameters among groups with different sleep quality, duration and efficiency. Systolic BP was significantly increased in the moderate to severe daytime sleepiness group (P = 0.039). Dozing off as a passenger in a car, in the afternoon and after lunch were negatively correlated with HRV parameters (P <0.05). Conclusion: Sleep quality, duration and efficiency were not found to be statistically significant, but various dozing-off situations were associated with fluctuations in HRV parameters. Daytime sleepiness may augment sympathetic responses in apparently healthy female participants.


Assuntos
Sono , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
2.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(7): 1590-1595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235580

RESUMO

Objectives: There is lack of evidence exploring sympathetic effect by baroreceptor sensitivity in obese consuming energy drink. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of energy drink on individuals baroreceptor sensitivity in young healthy normal weight and overweight/obese males. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Physiology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. After getting ethical approval, 25 male participants were recruited by convenient sampling and informed consent was obtained. Participants were grouped into normal weight and overweight/obese on basis of body mass index. Finger arterial blood pressure was recorded with Finometer® at baseline, 30min and 60 minutes in the post-energy drink period and baroreceptor sensitivity was calculated. As data was not normally distributed it was log transformed. Results: The baseline baroreceptor sensitivity was lower (P<0.05) in overweight/obese compared to normal weight participants. Baroreceptor sensitivity reduced significantly (P<0.05) at 60 minutes after energy drink consumption in the whole cohort of both normal weight and overweight/obese. Baroreceptor sensitivity remained lower in overweight/obese compared to normal weight at 60min but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink acutely reduced baroreceptor sensitivity in both normal weight and obese young healthy males with an earlier onset of effect in overweight/obese indicating enhanced sympathetic activity. Energy drinks consumption could place the obese in a more vulnerable state to hypertension and arrhythmia.

3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1511-1518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present study compared cardiovascular autonomic activity and reactivity during fasting (FS) and hyperglycemia (HS) states in young healthy females. METHODS: This case crossover study was conducted on 30 females recruited by convenient sampling. Blood glucose levels were measured in FS and after oral glucose load i.e., HS. Finger arterial blood pressure (BP) and ECG were recorded constantly to monitor baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Autonomic reactivity was tested with deep breathing (DB), Valsalva manoeuvre (VM), and head-up-tilt (HUT) test under FS and HS. HRV parameters not normally distributed were natural log (ln) transformed. RESULTS: Significantly reduced Valsalva ratio and higher heart rate and BP were observed in HS that continued during HUT (P < 0.05). The lnSDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals) and lnRMSSD (root mean square of successive differences) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in HS during HUT. After HUT, lnRMSSD remained lower (P = 0.031), whereas lnLF/HF (low frequency/high frequency power) ratio (P = 0.042) and LFnu (normalized units) (P = 0.024) were higher in HS. BRS was significantly lower in supine position in HS compared to FS and further reduced in HUT position in both FS and HS (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared to FS, the HS exhibited heightened sympathetic activity with attenuation of parasympathetic activity and this phenomenon was further accentuated by HUT. BRS was more sensitive indicator of autonomic effects of hyperglycemia in resting state. In addition to standard tests, autonomic reactivity in vulnerable young subjects could be useful to detect autonomic imbalance at an early stage.

4.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(4): 755-760, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494269

RESUMO

Objective: There is a lack of studies exploring the effects of Zamzam water on human physiology. The present study determined the effects of Zamzam water on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: This comparative interventional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, of our university in March 2018. A total number of 97 female subjects drank 500 ml of either Zamzam water or mineral water in one minute. Finometer Pro and PowerLab (ADInstrumentsR) with ECG electrodes through bioamplifier and attached finger pulse transducer were used to collect data at the baseline (for five minutes), during (for one minute) and after the drink (for five minutes). Paired and uunpaired student's t-test, one-way ANCOVA and one-way repeated measure ANOVA were used for analysis. Blood pressure parameters were followed minute by minute and HRV parameters were compared as a 5-minute of baseline segment to 5-minute post drink segment. Results: Within-the-group comparison exhibited significant increases in blood pressure parameters (systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressure), over a 5-minute post-drinking period in both groups. Zamzam water caused a significant increase in SDRR (an indication of overall HRV) and RMSSD (an indication of vagal activity) as compared to baseline. Conclusion: Both drinks cause a significant increase in systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressure within five minutes post-drinking period. Zamzam water produce a significant increase in cardiac vagal tone but has no effect on cardiac sympathetic activity. Mineral water has no significant effect on both, cardiac vagal and sympathetic activity.

5.
Explore (NY) ; 16(6): 372-375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown favorable effects of chocolate products on the cardiovascular system and reported an inverse relationship between chocolate consumption and adverse cardiac events; however, relationships between chocolate eating habits and heart rate variability have not yet been studied. The purpose of the present research was to determine the relationship, if any, between chocolate consumption frequency and heart rate variability. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 98 young females (19-21 years old). The study included the evaluation of chocolate eating habits by a questionnaire and heart rate variability parameters by Finometer and Powerlab as primary outcomes along with measuring anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting blood sugar levels as predictors to account for potential confounding. RESULTS: Three chocolate eating patterns were distinguished: "No regular chocolate consumption (n:42), 2-4 servings/week (n:20), 5 or more servings/week (n:36)". An ANOVA test revealed insignificant differences (p > 0.05) in heart rate variability parameters (time domain: Heart rate, RRms, SDNN, RMSSD; frequency domain: LF, HF, LF/HF) and pressures (systolic, diastolic, pulse, mean arterial) among three groups of individuals having different chocolate eating habits. Relative frequency of chocolate intake did not correlate with any of the cardiovascular, time-domain or frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability in study participants. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we conclude that relative frequency of chocolate eating may not affect autonomic regulation of the heart in young females. Also, it may have no correlation with any of the cardiovascular, time-domain or frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability.

6.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 11(5): 71-76, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114197

RESUMO

Sunlight is regarded among greatest gifts that are presented in abundance to the human beings from the God. Sunlight is also a rich source of Vitamin D (Vit D) that prevents us from numerous ailments such as autoimmune disorders, various types of cancer, and the above all cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Evident from recent research that Vit D deficiency may be the cause for hypertension, cardiac autonomic imbalance, vascular endothelial dysfunction, metabolic syndrome, and even diabetes. Concurrently, many studies present research outcomes that are contradictory to earlier results and also raised a concern not for general public but also among their treating physicians. The sole focus of this review is to systematically present the available research data and critically evaluate the link between Vit D deficiency and development of risk factors for CVD.

7.
Ann Saudi Med ; 37(3): 181-188, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and caffeine consumption may lead to autonomic disturbances that can result in a wide range of cardiovascular disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine autonomic disturbances produced by the synergistic effects of overweight or obesity (OW/OB) and energy drinks. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, analytical. SETTING: Physiology department at a university in Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: University students, 18-22 years of age, of normal weight (NW) and OW/OB were recruited by convenience sampling. Autonomic testing by the Valsalva ratio (VR) along with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure were measured at baseline (0 minute) and 60 minutes after energy drink consumption. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Autonomic disturbance, hemodynamic changes. RESULTS: In 50 (27 males and 23 females) subjects, 21 NW and 29 OW/OB, a significant decrease in VR was observed in OW/OB subjects and in NW and OW/OB females at 60 minutes after energy drink consumption. Values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial blood pressure were also significantly higher in OW/OB and in females as compared to NW and males. BMI was negatively correlated with VR and diastolic blood pressure at 60 minutes. CONCLUSION: Obesity and energy drinks alter autonomic functions. In some individuals, OW/OB may augment these effects. LIMITATIONS: Due to time and resource restraints, only the acute effects of energy drinks were examined.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Manobra de Valsalva , Adolescente , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 10(2): 209-17, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Proper awareness among health professionals about organ donation is important for increasing organ procurement. Personal commitment and attitude of nurses are imperative as they have key role in identifying potential donors. The aim of this study was to compare prevailing knowledge and attitude of undergraduate female Saudi nursing and medical students' toward organ donation. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional questionnaire using 29 item were filled by nursing (n=46) and medical (n=63) students' at University of Dammam (KSA) during academic year 2014-15, to check and compare their knowledge and attitude about organ donation. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics; chi square test and bivariate analysis to find out correlation. RESULTS: Level of knowledge of nursing group were significantly lower (p=0.000) than medical group while no significant difference in attitude score (p=0.591) between the two groups were found. Major source of knowledge for nursing was media (65.2%) and college/university for medical (50.8%) group. Both groups chose "anyone in need" as preferred recipients' upon donation (nursing 60.3% and medical 52.2%) and opted "anyone" as donor in case of recipient (nursing 52.2% and medical 49.2%). The results indicate positive correlation between level of knowledge and attitude toward organ donation. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing students have low knowledge toward organ donation as compared to medical students although they shows positive attitude toward this issue. This study ascertains the need of an effective educational program for nursing students of Saudi Arabia to improve their knowledge regarding organ donation and to raise organ procurement.

9.
Ann Saudi Med ; 35(4): 282-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26497707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Consumption of energy drinks has adverse effects on the heart that might be potentiated in obese individuals. Since the incidence of obesity and use of energy drinks is high among Saudi youth, we used non-invasive tests to study hemodynamic changes produced by altered autonomic cardiac activ.ity following consumption of energy drinks in obese male students. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, over a one-year period from December 2013 to December 2014. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In Saudi male university students we measured continuous ECG recordings and a one-minute deep breathing maneuver to measure the expiratory-to-inspiratory ratio, the mean heart rate range (MHRR), the mean percentage variability. (M%VHR) and the corrected QT interval (QTc) at 0, 30 and 60 minutes after consumption of energy drink. RESULTS: We enrolled 31 students (18 overweight/obese and 13 normal weights. QTc was significantly in.creased at 60 min as compared with the resting state in overweight/obese subjects (P=.006). Heart rate variability was significantly less in obese as compared with normal weight subjects at 60 minutes as indicated by E:I ratio, (P=.037), MHRR (P=.012), M%VHR (P=.040) after energy drink consumption. Significant increases in diastolic (P=.020) and mean arterial blood pressure (P=.024) were observed at 30 minutes in the obese group. CONCLUSION: Hemodynamic changes after intake of energy drinks in obese subjects indicate that obesity and energy drinks could synergistically induce harmful effects. This finding warrants efforts to caution the obese on intake of energy drinks and timely intervention to motivate changes in lifestyle.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração , Descanso/fisiologia , Arábia Saudita , Estudantes , Universidades
10.
Saudi Med J ; 36(5): 580-6, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25935179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of energy drink consumption before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females. METHODS: This single blind placebo controlled experimental study was carried out at the Physiology Department, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to May 2012, on 32 healthy female students, in a crossover design. They were given either a standardized energy drink or the placebo 45 minutes before the exercise. Time to exhaustion and the stages of Bruce protocol achieved were noted. Heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and blood lactate were recorded before and after the exercise. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was calculated by formula. Paired sample t-test was used for statistics. RESULTS: The mean age was 19.93±0.8 years, mean height 156.40±3.83 cm, and the mean weight 51.73±3.65 kg. Time to exhaustion in the placebo group was 11.67±1.51 minutes and 11.41±1.56 in the energy drink group (p less than 0.157). The VO2max in the placebo group was 34.06±6.62, while it was 32.89±6.83 in the energy drink group (p less than 0.154). There were no significant differences between the placebo and the energy drinks groups in regards to heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate levels, before or after the exercise. However, there were significant differences before, immediately, and 30 minutes post exercise for all parameters between each group. CONCLUSION: The effects of energy drinks intake on physical performance during the exercise in our small sample does not significantly differ from placebo.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 18(8): 498-501, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18798586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequencies of serum antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal autoantibodies in female patients with chronic urticaria, and the association between thyroid autoantibodies and chronic urticaria, if any. STUDY DESIGN: Non-interventional, case-control analytic study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: This study was carried out by the Department of Physiology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from December 2004 to January 2006 on patients selected from Department of Dermatology and Medical Units of Civil Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi and from the Community Clinics in Karachi. METHODOLOGY: A total number of 90 subjects were enrolled and divided in three groups consisting of 30 patients each. Group 1 comprised of patients with diagnosis of chronic urticaria, Group 2 of diagnosed cases of hypothyroidism with/without urticaria, and Group 3 of normal age and gender-matched healthy volunteers. In all patients, serum antithyroid autoantibodies (antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal) and thyroid profile (serum T3, T4 and TSH levels) was carried out. Chi-square test was used to determine significance of proportion of variables at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Elevated titres of antithyroglobulin antibodies were found to be present in 9 (30%) patients in Group 1 (chronic urticaria), 24 (80%) patients in Group 2 (known cases of hypothyroidism) compared to control. Elevated titres of antimicrosomal antibodies were found to be present in 13 (43.3%) patients in Group 1, 27 (90%) patients in Group 2 (known cases of hypothyroidism) compared to control. The association between hypothyroidism and chronic urticaria with regard to autoantibodies titres was highly significance (p <0.001). CONCLUSION: A highly statistically significant association was found between chronic urticaria and hypothyroidism with special regard to antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal autoantibodies. Therefore, assays of these two autoantibodies are justified for the early diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis in combination with chronic urticaria for better treatment options.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Urticária/sangue , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Urticária/imunologia , Urticária/fisiopatologia
12.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 18(5): 299-302, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18541086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Isra University Hospital between September 2005 to August 2006. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. RESULTS: The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad [odd ratio (OR) = 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001], had a parental history of asthma (OR = 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR = 4, 95% CI = 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI = 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/etiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Paquistão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/complicações , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 19(3): 67-71, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18444595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is a serious clinical problem worldwide. There are many reasons a baby may not be able to take in enough oxygen before, during, or just after birth. Damage to brain tissues is a serious complication of low oxygen that can cause seizures and other neurological problems. This study was designed to asses the risk factors of birth asphyxia in neonates. METHODS: This descriptive, prospective study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, from April 2005 to April 2006. 125 newborn (75 males and 50 females) admitted to the neonatal care unit, who were delivered with delayed cry or low apgar score (< 7) were included. Detailed maternal history was taken, regarding their age, gestational age, and complications, if any. RESULTS: Out of 125 neonatal encephalopathy cases, 28% were diagnosed as suffering with moderate or severe encephalopathy, whereas 36% had mild encephalopathy. Risk of neonatal encephalopathy increased with increasing or decreasing maternal age. Antepartum risk factors included non-attendance for antenatal care (64%). Multiple births increased risk in 4.8%. Intrapartum risk factors included non-cephalic presentation (20%), prolonged rupture of membranes (24%) and various other complications. Particulate meconium was associated with encephalopathy in 9.6%. 60% mothers were anemic. Vaginal bleeding was strongly associated with birth asphyxia in 34.44% of neonates. 56% of mothers delivered at home, while 28% delivered at a private hospital or maternity home. Only 12% delivered at a tertiary care hospital. CONCLUSION: Lack of antenatal care, poor nutritional status, antepartum hemorrhage and maternal toxaemia were associated with higher incidence of asphyxia. Improvements in the public health of women with associated gains in female growth and nutrition must remain a longer-term goal. Early identification of high-risk cases with improved antenatal and perinatal care can decrease such high mortality. Safe motherhood policy is recommended.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paquistão , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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