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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e992, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reports the genetic features of four Caucasian males from the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region affected by partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) with hypotonia, epilepsy, developmental delay, microcephaly, hypoplasia, and autistic behavior. METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify new genes involved in this pathological phenotype. The regions of interest were subsequently sequenced for family members. RESULTS: Single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) and insertions or deletions were detected in genes potentially implicated in brain defects observed in these patients. One patient did not have mutations in genes related to ACC, but carried a de novo pathogenic mutation in Mucolipin-1 (MCOLN1) and was diagnosed with mucolipidosis type IV. Among the other probands, missense SNVs were observed in DCLK2 (Doublecortin Like Kinase 2), HERC2 (HECT And RLD Domain Containing E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 2), and KCNH3 (Potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H, member 3). One patient also carried a non-frameshift insertion in CACNA1A (Cav2.1(P/Q-type) calcium channels). CONCLUSION: Although no common genetic defect was observed in this study, we provide evidence for new avenues of investigation for ACC, such as molecular pathways involving HERC2, CACNA1A, KCNH3, and more importantly DCLK2. We also allowed to diagnose an individual with mucolipidosis type IV.

2.
Nature ; 573(7773): 281-286, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485078

RESUMO

Enzymes that catalyse CpG methylation in DNA, including the DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1), 3A (DNMT3A) and 3B (DNMT3B), are indispensable for mammalian tissue development and homeostasis1-4. They are also implicated in human developmental disorders and cancers5-8, supporting the critical role of DNA methylation in the specification and maintenance of cell fate. Previous studies have suggested that post-translational modifications of histones are involved in specifying patterns of DNA methyltransferase localization and DNA methylation at promoters and actively transcribed gene bodies9-11. However, the mechanisms that control the establishment and maintenance of intergenic DNA methylation remain poorly understood. Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is a childhood overgrowth disorder that is defined by germline mutations in DNMT3A. TBRS shares clinical features with Sotos syndrome (which is caused by haploinsufficiency of NSD1, a histone methyltransferase that catalyses the dimethylation of histone H3 at K36 (H3K36me2)8,12,13), which suggests that there is a mechanistic link between these two diseases. Here we report that NSD1-mediated H3K36me2 is required for the recruitment of DNMT3A and maintenance of DNA methylation at intergenic regions. Genome-wide analysis shows that the binding and activity of DNMT3A colocalize with H3K36me2 at non-coding regions of euchromatin. Genetic ablation of Nsd1 and its paralogue Nsd2 in mouse cells results in a redistribution of DNMT3A to H3K36me3-modified gene bodies and a reduction in the methylation of intergenic DNA. Blood samples from patients with Sotos syndrome and NSD1-mutant tumours also exhibit hypomethylation of intergenic DNA. The PWWP domain of DNMT3A shows dual recognition of H3K36me2 and H3K36me3 in vitro, with a higher binding affinity towards H3K36me2 that is abrogated by TBRS-derived missense mutations. Together, our study reveals a trans-chromatin regulatory pathway that connects aberrant intergenic CpG methylation to human neoplastic and developmental overgrowth.

3.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537618

RESUMO

The major obstacle in successfully treating triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy, the mainstay of treatment in this disease. Previous preclinical models of chemoresistance in TNBC have suffered from a lack of clinical relevance. Using a single high dose chemotherapy treatment, we developed a novel MDA-MB-436 cell-based model of chemoresistance characterized by a unique and complex morphologic phenotype, which consists of polyploid giant cancer cells giving rise to neuron-like mononuclear daughter cells filled with smaller but functional mitochondria and numerous lipid droplets. This resistant phenotype is associated with metabolic reprogramming with a shift to a greater dependence on fatty acids and oxidative phosphorylation. We validated both the molecular and histologic features of this model in a clinical cohort of primary chemoresistant TNBCs and identified several metabolic vulnerabilities including a dependence on PLIN4, a perilipin coating the observed lipid droplets, expressed both in the TNBC-resistant cells and clinical chemoresistant tumors treated with neoadjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. These findings thus reveal a novel mechanism of chemotherapy resistance that has therapeutic implications in the treatment of drug-resistant cancer. IMPLICATIONS: These findings underlie the importance of a novel morphologic-metabolic phenotype associated with chemotherapy resistance in TNBC, and bring to light novel therapeutic targets resulting from vulnerabilities in this phenotype, including the expression of PLIN4 essential for stabilizing lipid droplets in resistant cells.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(8): e1008344, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469826

RESUMO

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) is a lethal malignancy that is familial or associated with genetic syndromes in 10% of cases. Gene-based surveillance strategies for at-risk individuals may improve clinical outcomes. However, familial PC (FPC) is plagued by genetic heterogeneity and the genetic basis for the majority of FPC remains elusive, hampering the development of gene-based surveillance programs. The study was powered to identify genes with a cumulative pathogenic variant prevalence of at least 3%, which includes the most prevalent PC susceptibility gene, BRCA2. Since the majority of known PC susceptibility genes are involved in DNA repair, we focused on genes implicated in these pathways. We performed a region-based association study using the Mixed-Effects Score Test, followed by leave-one-out characterization of PC-associated gene regions and variants to identify the genes and variants driving risk associations. We evaluated 398 cases from two case series and 987 controls without a personal history of cancer. The first case series consisted of 109 patients with either FPC (n = 101) or PC at ≤50 years of age (n = 8). The second case series was composed of 289 unselected PC cases. We validated this discovery strategy by identifying known pathogenic BRCA2 variants, and also identified SMG1, encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase, to be significantly associated with PC following correction for multiple testing (p = 3.22x10-7). The SMG1 association was validated in a second independent series of 532 FPC cases and 753 controls (p<0.0062, OR = 1.88, 95%CI 1.17-3.03). We showed segregation of the c.4249A>G SMG1 variant in 3 affected relatives in a FPC kindred, and we found c.103G>A to be a recurrent SMG1 variant associating with PC in both the discovery and validation series. These results suggest that SMG1 is a novel PC susceptibility gene, and we identified specific SMG1 gene variants associated with PC risk.

6.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(9): 1516-1531, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285585

RESUMO

Salmonella presents a global public health concern. Central to Salmonella pathogenicity is an ability to subvert host defences through strategically targeting host proteins implicated in restricting infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the host-pathogen interactions governing Salmonella infection, we performed an in vivo genome-wide mutagenesis screen to uncover key host defence proteins. This revealed an uncharacterized role of CYRI (FAM49B) in conferring host resistance to Salmonella infection. We show that CYRI binds to the small GTPase RAC1 through a conserved domain present in CYFIP proteins, which are known RAC1 effectors that stimulate actin polymerization. However, unlike CYFIP proteins, CYRI negatively regulates RAC1 signalling, thereby attenuating processes such as macropinocytosis, phagocytosis and cell migration. This enables CYRI to counteract Salmonella at various stages of infection, including bacterial entry into non-phagocytic and phagocytic cells as well as phagocyte-mediated bacterial dissemination. Intriguingly, to dampen its effects, the bacterial effector SopE, a RAC1 activator, selectively targets CYRI following infection. Together, this outlines an intricate host-pathogen signalling interplay that is crucial for determining bacterial fate. Notably, our study also outlines a role for CYRI in restricting infection mediated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes. This provides evidence implicating CYRI cellular functions in host defence beyond Salmonella infection.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219280, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276534

RESUMO

Mutations in EFTUD2 are responsible for the autosomal dominant syndrome named MFDM (mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly). However, it is not clear how reduced levels of EFTUD2 cause abnormalities associated with this syndrome. To determine if the mouse can serve as a model for uncovering the etiology of abnormalities found in MFDM patients, we used in situ hybridization to characterize expression of Eftud2 during mouse development, and used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a mutant mouse line with deletion of exon 2 of the mouse gene. We found that Eftud2 was expressed throughout embryonic development, though its expression was enriched in the developing head and craniofacial regions. Additionally, Eftud2 heterozygous mutant embryos had reduced EFTUD2 mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Eftud2 heterozygous embryos were born at the expected Mendelian frequency, and were viable and fertile despite being developmentally delayed. In contrast, Eftud2 homozygous mutant embryos were not found post-implantation but were present at the expected Mendelian frequency at embryonic day (E) 3.5. Furthermore, only wild-type and heterozygous E3.5 embryos survived ex vivo culture. Our data indicate that Eftud2 expression is enriched in the precusor of structures affected in MFDM patients and show that heterozygous mice carrying deletion of exon 2 do not model MFDM. In addition, we uncovered a requirement for normal levels of Eftud2 for survival of pre-implantation zygotes.

8.
Cancer Res ; 79(13): 3205-3219, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898839

RESUMO

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is an aggressive sarcoma with recurrent loss-of-function alterations in polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2), a histone-modifying complex involved in transcriptional silencing. To understand the role of PRC2 loss in pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets, we conducted parallel global epigenomic and proteomic analysis of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human MPNST with and without PRC2 loss (MPNSTLOSS vs. MPNSTRET). Loss of PRC2 resulted in increased histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) associated with active transcription, most notably H3K27Ac and H3K36me2, whereas repressive H3K27 di- and trimethylation (H3K27me2/3) marks were globally lost without a compensatory gain in other repressive PTMs. Instead, DNA methylation globally increased in MPNSTLOSS. Epigenomic changes were associated with upregulation of proteins in growth pathways and reduction in IFN signaling and antigen presentation, suggesting a role for epigenomic changes in tumor progression and immune evasion, respectively. These changes also resulted in therapeutic vulnerabilities. Knockdown of NSD2, the methyltransferase responsible for H3K36me2, restored MHC expression and induced interferon pathway expression in a manner similar to PRC2 restoration. MPNSTLOSS were also highly sensitive to DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Overall, these data suggest that global loss of PRC2-mediated repression renders MPNST differentially dependent on DNA methylation to maintain transcriptional integrity and makes them susceptible to therapeutics that promote aberrant transcription initiation. SIGNIFICANCE: Global profiling of histone PTMs and protein expression in archival human MPNST illustrates how PRC2 loss promotes oncogenesis but renders tumors vulnerable to pharmacologic modulation of transcription.See related commentary by Natarajan and Venneti, p. 3172.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bainha Neural , Neurofibrossarcoma , Carcinogênese , Epigenômica , Humanos , Proteômica
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1262, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890717

RESUMO

Lys-27-Met mutations in histone 3 genes (H3K27M) characterize a subgroup of deadly gliomas and decrease genome-wide H3K27 trimethylation. Here we use primary H3K27M tumor lines and isogenic CRISPR-edited controls to assess H3K27M effects in vitro and in vivo. We find that whereas H3K27me3 and H3K27me2 are normally deposited by PRC2 across broad regions, their deposition is severely reduced in H3.3K27M cells. H3K27me3 is unable to spread from large unmethylated CpG islands, while H3K27me2 can be deposited outside these PRC2 high-affinity sites but to levels corresponding to H3K27me3 deposition in wild-type cells. Our findings indicate that PRC2 recruitment and propagation on chromatin are seemingly unaffected by K27M, which mostly impairs spread of the repressive marks it catalyzes, especially H3K27me3. Genome-wide loss of H3K27me3 and me2 deposition has limited transcriptomic consequences, preferentially affecting lowly-expressed genes regulating neurogenesis. Removal of H3K27M restores H3K27me2/me3 spread, impairs cell proliferation, and completely abolishes their capacity to form tumors in mice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Histonas/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Adolescente , Idoso , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Criança , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/patologia , Células HEK293 , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Metionina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Neurogênese/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Kidney Int ; 95(1): 57-61, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612599

RESUMO

Although sequence variants in CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) have been identified in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), definitive proof of causality in human disease is meager. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frame-shift mutation in CD2AP (p.S198fs) in three siblings born of consanguineous parents who developed childhood-onset FSGS and end stage renal disease. When the same frameshift mutation was introduced in mice by gene editing, the mice developed FSGS and kidney failure. These results provide conclusive evidence that homozygous mutation of CD2AP causes FSGS in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/genética , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Animais , Consanguinidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Edição de Genes , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/patologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
Brain ; 142(3): 542-559, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668673

RESUMO

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp-/- larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp-/- animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp-/- zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 740-751, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388401

RESUMO

Androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles are human pregnancies with no embryos and affect 1 in every 1,400 pregnancies. They have mostly androgenetic monospermic genomes with all the chromosomes originating from a haploid sperm and no maternal chromosomes. Androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles were described in 1977, but how they occur has remained an open question. We identified bi-allelic deleterious mutations in MEI1, TOP6BL/C11orf80, and REC114, with roles in meiotic double-strand breaks formation in women with recurrent androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles. We investigated the occurrence of androgenesis in Mei1-deficient female mice and discovered that 8% of their oocytes lose all their chromosomes by extruding them with the spindles into the first polar body. We demonstrate that Mei1-/- oocytes are capable of fertilization and 5% produce androgenetic zygotes. Thus, we uncover a meiotic abnormality in mammals and a mechanism for the genesis of androgenetic zygotes that is the extrusion of all maternal chromosomes and their spindles into the first polar body.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4572, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385747

RESUMO

Giant cell lesions of the jaw (GCLJ) are debilitating tumors of unknown origin with limited available therapies. Here, we analyze 58 sporadic samples using next generation or targeted sequencing and report somatic, heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations in KRAS, FGFR1, and p.M713V/I-TRPV4 in 72% (42/58) of GCLJ. TRPV4 p.M713V/I mutations are exclusive to central GCLJ and occur at a critical position adjacent to the cation permeable pore of the channel. Expression of TRPV4 mutants in HEK293 cells leads to increased cell death, as well as increased constitutive and stimulated channel activity, both of which can be prevented using TRPV4 antagonists. Furthermore, these mutations induce sustained activation of ERK1/2, indicating that their effects converge with that of KRAS and FGFR1 mutations on the activation of the MAPK pathway in GCLJ. Our data extend the spectrum of TRPV4 channelopathies and provide rationale for the use of TRPV4 and RAS/MAPK antagonists at the bedside in GCLJ.

14.
J Child Neurol ; : 883073818811223, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486714

RESUMO

AIMP1/p43, is a noncatalytic component of the mammalian multi-tRNA synthetase complex that catalyzes the ligation of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. AIMP1 is largely expressed in the central nervous system, where it is part of the regulatory machine of the neurofilament assembly, playing a crucial role in neuronal development and function. To date, nonsense mutations in AIMP1 have been associated with a primary neurodegenerative disorder consisting of cerebral atrophy, hypomyelination, microcephaly and epilepsy, whereas missense mutations have recently been linked to intellectual disability without neurodegeneration. Here, we report the first French-Canadian patient with a novel frameshift AIMP1 homozygous mutation (c.191_192delAA, p.Gln64Argfs*25), resulting in a severe neurodegenerative phenotype. We review and discuss the phenotypic spectrum associated with AIMP1 pathogenic variants.

15.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429576

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, the main-text sentence "In three patients of European ancestry, we identified the germline variant encoding p.Ile97Met in TIM-3, which was homozygous in two (P12 and P13) and heterozygous in one (P15) in the germline but with no TIM-3 plasma membrane expression in the tumor" misstated the identifiers of the two homozygous individuals, which should have been P13 and P14. The error has been corrected in the HTML, PDF and print versions of the paper.

16.
Nat Genet ; 50(12): 1650-1657, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374066

RESUMO

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SPTCL), a non-Hodgkin lymphoma, can be associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening immune activation that adversely affects survival1,2. T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3) is a modulator of immune responses expressed on subgroups of T and innate immune cells. We identify in ~60% of SPTCL cases germline, loss-of-function, missense variants altering highly conserved residues of TIM-3, c.245A>G (p.Tyr82Cys) and c.291A>G (p.Ile97Met), each with specific geographic distribution. The variant encoding p.Tyr82Cys TIM-3 occurs on a potential founder chromosome in patients with East Asian and Polynesian ancestry, while p.Ile97Met TIM-3 occurs in patients with European ancestry. Both variants induce protein misfolding and abrogate TIM-3's plasma membrane expression, leading to persistent immune activation and increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß, promoting HLH and SPTCL. Our findings highlight HLH-SPTCL as a new genetic entity and identify mutations causing TIM-3 alterations as a causative genetic defect in SPTCL. While HLH-SPTCL patients with mutant TIM-3 benefit from immunomodulation, therapeutic repression of the TIM-3 checkpoint may have adverse consequences.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362666

RESUMO

We describe a family in which four siblings exhibited multiple or classic colonic polyposis with or without colorectal carcinoma (CRC). One female developed three primary tumors, including CRC and carcinomas of the ovary and breast. Whole-exome sequencing of germline DNA from affected and unaffected individuals revealed a novel missense mutation in the exonuclease domain of POLE (c.833C>A; p.Thr278Lys) associated with a highly penetrant, autosomal-dominant inheritance pattern. Functional studies in yeast and demonstration of a high mutational burden in the available tumors confirmed the pathogenicity of the novel variant. Prominent POLE-deficient somatic mutational signatures were seen in the CRCs, but in contrast, a mutational signature typical of concomitant tumoral loss of POLE and mismatch-repair function (POLE-exo* /MSI) was noted in the breast cancer. The breast cancer also showed distinctive pathological characteristics that reflect the presence of both the germline POLE variant and the secondary somatic MMR alterations.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 474-483, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220433

RESUMO

Advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing have revolutionized the discovery of variants in the human genome; however, interpreting the phenotypic effects of those variants is still a challenge. While several computational approaches to predict variant impact are available, their accuracy is limited and further improvement is needed. Here, we introduce ClinPred, an efficient tool for identifying disease-relevant nonsynonymous variants. Our predictor incorporates two machine learning algorithms that use existing pathogenicity scores and, notably, benefits from inclusion of normal population allele frequency from the gnomAD database as an input feature. Another major strength of our approach is the use of ClinVar-a rapidly growing database that allows selection of confidently annotated disease-causing variants-as a training set. Compared to other methods, ClinPred showed superior accuracy for predicting pathogenicity, achieving the highest area under the curve (AUC) score and increasing both the specificity and sensitivity in different test datasets. It also obtained the best performance according to various other metrics. Moreover, ClinPred performance remained robust with respect to disease type (cancer or rare disease) and mechanism (gain or loss of function). Importantly, we observed that adding allele frequency as a predictive feature-as opposed to setting fixed allele frequency cutoffs-boosts the performance of prediction. We provide pre-computed ClinPred scores for all possible human missense variants in the exome to facilitate its use by the community.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(8)2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096941

RESUMO

In experimental chambers for simulating the atmospheric near-surface conditions of Mars, or in situ measurements on Mars, the measurement of the humidity in carbon dioxide gas at low temperature and under low pressure is needed. For this purpose, polymer-based capacitive humidity sensors are used; however, these sensors are designed for measuring the humidity in the air on the Earth. The manufacturers provide only the generic calibration equation for standard environmental conditions in air, and temperature corrections of humidity signal. Because of the lack of freely available information regarding the behavior of the sensors in CO2, the range of reliable results is limited. For these reasons, capacitive humidity sensors (Sensirion SHT75) were tested at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in its Martian Simulation Facility (MSF). The sensors were investigated in cells with a continuously humidified carbon dioxide flow, for temperatures between -70 °C and 10 °C, and pressures between 10 hPa and 1000 hPa. For 28 temperature⁻pressure combinations, the sensor calibration equations were calculated together with temperature⁻dependent formulas for the coefficients of the equations. The characteristic curves obtained from the tests in CO2 and in air were compared for selected temperature⁻pressure combinations. The results document a strong cross-sensitivity of the sensors to CO2 and, compared with air, a strong pressure sensitivity as well. The reason could be an interaction of the molecules of CO2 with the adsorption sites on the thin polymeric sensing layer. In these circumstances, an individual calibration for each pressure with respect to temperature is required. The performed experiments have shown that this kind of sensor can be a suitable, lightweight, and relatively inexpensive choice for applications in harsh environments such as on Mars.

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