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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732492

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to determine operator impressions of an airway obstruction procedure using a custom silicone model of low cost and high accuracy. BACKGROUND: Current procedural education for therapeutic bronchoscopy relies on animal models, supervised in-patient training, and inanimate artificial models. Model manufacturing via lost-wax casting allows for the flexibility of the material selection and reproduction of complex airway shapes. METHODS: A patient computed tomography scan was anonymized and segmented into a stereolithographic (STL) file. The water dissolvable interior airway mold was 3-dimensional (D) printed using polyvinyl alcohol and the exterior mold was printed with polylactic acid. Flexible silicone was injected into the mold. During advanced bronchoscopy courses (2017-2018) at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, participants were asked to evaluate both standard bronchoscopy manikin and the manikin with 3D customization. RESULTS: We evaluated 17 participants with different levels in training in the pulmonary field. All of them reported that they previously have performed >100 bronchoscopies, 88% having treated patients with airway stenosis. In total, 77% of participants thought the 3D model was better or much better for airway inspection when compared with Broncho-Boy. Overall, 94% of participants reported the 3D model was accurate or very accurate for realism. In total, 69% of trainees reported the overall experience as excellent. All of them reported 3D model would improve their skills on stent placement. CONCLUSION: 3D printing with silicone lost wax casting can be used to reproduce airway abnormalities for tactile simulation bronchoscopy. Reproducible custom airway models can be created for a relatively low cost.

2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829904

RESUMO

Dyspnea, cough, sputum production, and recurrent respiratory infections are frequently encountered clinical concerns leading patients to seek medical care. It is not unusual for a well-defined etiology to remain elusive or for the therapeutics of a presumed etiology to be incompletely effective. Either scenario should prompt consideration of central airway pathology as a contributor to clinical manifestations. Over the past decade, recognition of dynamic central airway collapse during respiration associated with multiple respiratory symptoms has become more commonly appreciated. Expiratory central airway collapse may represent the answer to this diagnostic void. Expiratory central airway collapse is an underdiagnosed disorder that can coexist with and mimic asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis. Awareness of expiratory central airway collapse and its spectrum of symptoms is paramount to its recognition. This review includes clear definitions, diagnostics, and therapeutics for this challenging condition. We performed a narrative review through the PubMed (MEDLINE) database using the following MeSH terms: airway collapse, tracheobronchomalacia, tracheomalacia, and bronchomalacia. We include reports from systematic reviews, narrative reviews, clinical trials, and observational studies from 2005 to 2020. Two reviewers evaluated potential references. No systematic reviews were found. A total of 28 references were included into our review. Included studies report experience in the diagnosis and/or treatment of dynamic central airway collapse; case reports and non-English or non-Spanish studies were excluded. We describe the current diagnostic dilemma, highlighting the role of dynamic bronchoscopy and tracheobronchial stent trial; outline the complex therapeutic options (eg, tracheobronchoplasty); and present future directions and challenges.

4.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(1): 109-117, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730443

RESUMO

Systematic reviews evaluating multiple interventions can be useful in different clinical situations. However, some concerns arise when more than two interventions are compared and there is a paucity of good quality randomized clinical trials. A novel statistical method based on indirect comparisons, called network meta-analysis (NMA), can be a useful approach to find a clinical answer when multiple interventions are evaluated for the same outcome or comparator. The aim of this review is to describe the main characteristics and provide a user guide for a critical analysis of NMA focusing on its three main domains, namely homogeneity, transitivity and consistency.

5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(9): 1174-1175, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667224
6.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(8): 958-964, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421353

RESUMO

Rationale: Pleural infection is frequently encountered in clinical practice and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Limited evidence exists regarding the optimal treatment. Although both early medical thoracoscopy (MT) and tube thoracostomy with intrapleural instillation of tissue plasminogen activator and human recombinant deoxyribonuclease are acceptable treatments for patients with complicated pleural infection, there is a lack of comparative data for these modes of management.Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of early MT versus intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) in selected patients with multiloculated pleural infection and empyema.Methods: This was a prospective multicenter, randomized controlled trial involving patients who underwent MT or IPFT for pleural infection. The primary outcome was the length of hospital stay after either intervention. Secondary outcomes included the total length of hospital stay, treatment failure, 30-day mortality, and adverse events.Results: Thirty-two patients with pleural infection were included in the study. The median length of stay after an intervention was 4 days in the IPFT arm and 2 days in the MT arm (P = 0.026). The total length of hospital stay was 6 days in the IPFT arm and 3.5 days in MT arm (P = 0.12). There was no difference in treatment failure, mortality, or adverse events between the treatment groups, and no serious complications related to either intervention were recorded.Conclusions: When used early in the course of a complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema, MT is safe and might shorten hospital stays for selected patients as compared with IPFT therapy. A multicenter trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these findings.Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02973139).

7.
Chest ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is a useful tool for the diagnosis of lesions near central airways; however, the diagnostic accuracy of these procedures for peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) is a matter of ongoing debate. In this setting, electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a technique used to navigate and obtain samples from these lesions. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to explore the sensitivity of ENB in patients with PPLs suspected of lung cancer. RESEARCH QUESTION: xxx STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A comprehensive search of several databases was performed. Extracted data included sensitivity of ENB for malignancy, adequacy of the tissue sample, and complications. The study quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool, and the combined data were meta-analyzed using a bivariate method model. A summary receiver operatic characteristic curve (sROC) was created. Finally, the quality of evidence was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: Forty studies with a total of 3,342 participants were included in our analysis. ENB reported a pooled sensitivity of 77% (95% CI, 72%-82%; I2 = 80.6%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99%-100%; I2 = 0%) for malignancy. The sROC showed an area under the curve of 0.955 (P = .03). ENB achieved a sufficient sample for ancillary tests in 90.9% (95% CI, 84.8%-96.9%; I2 = 80.7%). Risk of pneumothorax was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.0-3.0; I2 = 45.2%). We found subgroup differences according to the risk of bias and the number of sampling techniques. Meta-regression showed an association between sensitivity and the mean distance of the sensor tip to the center of the nodule, the number of tissue sampling techniques, and the cancer prevalence in the study. INTERPRETATION: ENB is very safe with good sensitivity for diagnosing malignancy in patients with PPLs. The applicability of our findings is limited because most studies were done with the superDimension navigation system and heterogeneity was high. TRIAL REGISTRY: PROSPERO; No.: CRD42019109449; URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.

8.
Respiration ; 99(4): 353-359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchial stents are widely used devices in interventional pulmonology; however, the current literature on the effectiveness and complication rates of the different types of stents is limited. OBJECTIVE: We report the largest case series of airway Bonastent placement and describe the efficacy and early (<30 days) and late (≥30 days) complication rates. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of our prospectively collected database of patients who underwent therapeutic bronchoscopy with stent placement. All adult patients who had a tracheal/bronchial Bona-stent placed between July 1, 2017, and July 30, 2019, for any indication at our institution were included. The efficacy as well as intraoperative and short- and long-term complications of Bonastent placement were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty Bonastents were placed in 50 patients. The etiology was malignant in 90% of the cases, while 2 patients had a tracheoesophageal fistula. All procedures were performed via rigid bronchoscopy. The most common location for stent placement was the bronchus intermedius, followed by the trachea, in 32 and 30% of the cases, respectively. Seventy percent of the patients (35/50) had improvement of respiratory symptoms within 30 days. Twenty-eight stents (48%) were removed at a mean of 74 days. Seventeen patients (34%) died within 30 days of stent placement. The overall complication rate was 54% (27/50 patients) at a mean follow-up of 111 days. The stent-related complication rate was 23.3% (14/60 cases) within <30 days and 53% (18/34 cases) at ≥30 days. CONCLUSIONS: The tracheobronchial Bonastent is effective for the treatment of patients with central airway obstruction and tracheoesophageal fistulae with an acceptable safety profile.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rigid bronchoscopy intubation poses a significant risk of complication to patients from mechanical trauma. Despite the importance of precision in forces exerted by surgeons during intubation, no prior study has analyzed the overall forces and torques involved in rigid bronchoscopy intubation, and whether existing training modalities accurately replicate them. METHODS: A bronchoscope was equipped with a 6-axis load sensor to measure forces and torques applied during rigid bronchoscopy intubation. The device was applied to measure intubation forces in low-fidelity manikins and patients by interventional pulmonologists. RESULTS: Axial and lateral forces were measured during rigid bronchoscope intubation from the mouth to the mid-trachea. The mean axial/lateral forces recorded during manikin trials were 6.93/18.06 N, whereas those recorded during patient trials were 4.57/9.43 N. Average axial and lateral force application was therefore 51.6% and 92.6% higher in manikin, respectively. Applied axial torque averaged across all human trials was 130.5 N-mm compared with 78.3 N-mm for manikin trials, 40% lower in manikin than in human. Lateral torque application during manikin intubation showed greater variation in between trials and a greater range of SDs within trials. CONCLUSION: This was the first application of a rigid bronchoscope measurement device designed to measure forces applied at the handle. Force and torque discrepancies between manikin training and patient applications were found, indicating a possible mismatch between the haptic feedback received by physicians during rigid training and application. This inconsistency could be resolved via novel haptic training modalities and help increase atraumatic intubations.

12.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 27(3): 195-199, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchoplasty is the definitive treatment for patients with symptomatic excessive central airway collapse. This procedure is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Bronchoscopic techniques are an appealing alternative with less morbidity and the ability to apply it in nonsurgical patients. Although thermoablative methods have been proposed as treatment options to induce fibrosis of the posterior tracheobronchial wall, no studies have compared direct histologic effects of such methods. This study compared the effects of electrocautery, radiofrequency ablation, potassium titanyl phosphate laser, and argon plasma coagulation (APC) in the tracheobronchial tree in an ex vivo animal model. METHODS: Four adult sheep cadavers were used for this study. Under flexible bronchoscopy, the posterior tracheal membrane was treated using different power settings on 4 devices. The airways were assessed for the presence of treatment-related histopathologic changes. RESULTS: Histologic changes observed were that of acute thermal injury including: surface epithelium ablation, collagen fiber condensation, smooth muscle cytoplasm condensation, and chondrocyte pyknosis. No distinct histologic differences in the treated areas among different modalities and treatment effects were observed. APC at higher power settings was the only modality that produced consistent and homogenous thermal injury effects across all tissue layers with no evidence of complete erosion. CONCLUSION: Although electrocautery, radiofrequency ablation, potassium titanyl phosphate laser, and APC all induce thermal injury of the airway wall, only APC at high power settings achieves this effect without complete tissue erosion, favoring potential regeneration and fibrosis. Live animal studies are now plausible.

13.
Chest ; 158(1): 393-400, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transbronchial lung biopsies are commonly performed for a variety of indications. Although generally well tolerated, complications such as bleeding do occur. Description of bleeding severity is crucial both clinically and in research trials; to date, there is no validated scale that is widely accepted for this purpose. Can a simple, reproducible tool for categorizing the severity of bleeding after transbronchial biopsy be created? METHODS: Using the modified Delphi method, an international group of bronchoscopists sought to create a new scale tailored to assess bleeding severity among patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with transbronchial lung biopsies. Cessation criteria were specified a priori and included reaching > 80% consensus among the experts or three rounds, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: Thirty-six expert bronchoscopists from eight countries, both in academic and community practice settings, participated in the creation of the scale. After the live meeting, two iterations were made. The second and final scale was vetted by all 36 participants, with a weighted average of 4.47/5; 53% were satisfied, and 47% were very satisfied. The panel reached a consensus and proposes the Nashville Bleeding Scale. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a simplified airway bleeding scale that can be applied at bedside is an important, necessary tool for categorizing the severity of bleeding. Uniformity in reporting clinically significant airway bleeding during bronchoscopic procedures will improve the quality of the information derived and could lead to standardization of management. In addition to transbronchial biopsies, this scale could also be applied to other bronchoscopic procedures, such as endobronchial biopsy or endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration.

14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(1): 109-117, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094213

RESUMO

Systematic reviews evaluating multiple interventions can be useful in different clinical situations. However, some concerns arise when more than two interventions are compared and there is a paucity of good quality randomized clinical trials. A novel statistical method based on indirect comparisons, called network meta-analysis (NMA), can be a useful approach to find a clinical answer when multiple interventions are evaluated for the same outcome or comparator. The aim of this review is to describe the main characteristics and provide a user guide for a critical analysis of NMA focusing on its three main domains, namely homogeneity, transitivity and consistency.

16.
Chest ; 157(2): 446-453, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472155

RESUMO

Central airway obstruction (CAO) is associated with significant morbidity and increased mortality. Bronchoscopic electrosurgical and laser ablative tools have proven to be safe and effective instruments for the treatment of malignant CAO. Although therapeutic modalities such as electrocautery, argon plasma coagulation, and laser have been used for decades, additional tools including radiofrequency ablation catheters continue to be developed for the treatment of CAO. These modalities are considered safe in the hands of experienced operators, although serious complications can occur. This review describes various electrosurgical and laser therapy tools used for the treatment of malignant CAO along with the specific advantages and disadvantages of each device.

17.
Respiration ; 99(1): 62-72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spiration Valve System (SVS) is an alternative for patients with severe heterogeneous emphysema; however, data about efficacy from randomized controlled trials (RCT) are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To explore both efficacy and safety of SVS in patients with severe emphysema and hyperinflation. METHODS: We included PubMed, EMBASE, Coch-rane database. All searches were performed until August 2019. Only RCTs were included for analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tool. A meta-analysis evaluated change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), 6-min walking test (6MWT), residual volume, modified medical research council (mMRC) and Saint George respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ), all-cause mortality, risk of pneumothorax, and risk of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Quality of the evidence was rated using GRADE approach. RESULTS: Four RCTs including 629 subjects were included. SVS showed an overall change of 0.03 L (-0.07 to 0.13, I2 = 90%) in the in FEV1 (L) and a 2.03% (-2.50 to 6.57, I2 = 96%) in the predicted FEV1 (%) compared to baseline; however, studies without collateral ventilation (CV) showed an improvement of 0.12 L (95% CI 0.09-0.015, I2 = 0%), This subgroup also reported better results in SGRQ -12.27 points (95% CI -15.84 to -8.70, I2 = 0%) and mMRC -0.54 (95% CI -0.74 to -0.33, I2 = 0%). We found no benefit in 6MWT mean difference = 4.56 m (95% CI -21.88 to 31.00, I2 = 73%). Relative risk of mortality was 2.54 (95% CI 0.81-7.96, I2 = 0%), for pneumothorax 3.3 (95% CI 0.61-18.12, I2 = 0%) and AECOPD 1.68 (95% CI 1.04-2.70, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe heterogeneous emphysema and hyperinflation without CV, SVS is an alternative that showed an improvement in pulmonary function, quality of life, and dyspnea score with an acceptable risk profile.

19.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 27(2): 128-134, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with severe emphysema and complete fissures, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with valves reduces target lobe volume providing improvement in respiratory symptoms, lung function, quality of life, and exercise capacity. It is estimated that up to 88% of patients with emphysema have at least 1 incomplete interlobar fissure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of creating a complete fissure with stapling via minimally invasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) followed by bronchoscopic valve placement to induce lobar collapse in a swine model. METHODS: Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on 2 swine and at least 1 target incomplete fissure was identified. Both swine underwent VATS to complete the target fissure using a surgical stapler, followed by bronchoscopic placement of the Spiration endobronchial valves. A chest CT scan was performed immediately postprocedure. Follow-up bronchoscopy and CT scans were performed 2 weeks after the initial procedure prior to sacrifice. RESULTS: Successful fissure completion was accomplished using VATS and confirmed at postmortem explanted lung gross examination. Flexible bronchoscopy 2 weeks following valve placement showed proper positioning of the valves. Effectiveness of combined procedures was confirmed by a chest CT scan that showed complete atelectasis of the target lobe at 2-week follow-up. There was no perioperative or postoperative morbidity or mortality. CONCLUSION: Combined minimally invasive VATS fissure stapling with bronchoscopic valve placement to induce lobar atelectasis appears safe and feasible in the swine model. Future research in humans using a combined procedure is needed to confirm safety and clinical efficacy.

20.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 27(3): 190-194, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most pleural procedures need the presence of a moderate effusion to allow safe access to the pleural space. We propose a technique to allow safe access in patients with a drained pleural space who require further pleural evaluation or treatment during the same hospital stay. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. All patients who underwent any pleural intervention with a prior infusion of fluid in the pleural space using a pre-existing chest tube (≤14 Fr) were included. Before the pleural intervention, warm saline was infused into the pleural space through the small-bore chest tube until enough fluid was detected on thoracic ultrasound to allow pleural access. Data on patient demographics, indication for the pleural procedure, and patient outcome was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients with pleural disease underwent definitive pleural procedure facilitated by fluid infusion. Median volume of fluid infused was 1000 mL (850, 1500 mL). The median time between the initial chest tube insertion and the subsequent definitive pleural procedure was 3 days (2, 7 d). All procedures were completed successfully. One patient had a hemothorax secondary to fluid infusion. CONCLUSION: Fluid infusion through a chest tube is a feasible technique for patients that require a pleural procedure and have minimal fluid after initial pleural drainage. This approach may facilitate pleural procedures, reduce incidence of complications, and expedite the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pleural diseases. Pressure infusers should not be used during this procedure as there is a theoretical increased risk of complications.

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