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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 14(1): 9, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: DNA methylation studies have associated methylation levels at different CpG sites or genomic regions with lung function. Moreover, genetic ancestry has been associated with lung function in Latinos. However, no epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of lung function has been performed in this population. Here, we aimed to identify DNA methylation patterns associated with lung function in pediatric asthma among Latinos. RESULTS: We conducted an EWAS in whole blood from 250 Puerto Rican and 148 Mexican American children and young adults with asthma. A total of five CpGs exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold of p = 1.17 × 10-7 in the combined analyses from Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: cg06035600 (MAP3K6, p = 6.13 × 10-8) showed significant association with pre-bronchodilator Tiffeneau-Pinelli index, the probes cg00914963 (TBC1D16, p = 1.04 × 10-7), cg16405908 (MRGPRE, p = 2.05 × 10-8), and cg07428101 (MUC2, p = 5.02 × 10-9) were associated with post-bronchodilator forced vital capacity (FVC), and cg20515679 (KCNJ6) with post-bronchodilator Tiffeneau-Pinelli index (p = 1.13 × 10-8). However, these markers did not show significant associations in publicly available data from Europeans (p > 0.05). A methylation quantitative trait loci analysis revealed that methylation levels at these CpG sites were regulated by genetic variation in Latinos and the Biobank-based Integrative Omics Studies (BIOS) consortium. Additionally, two differentially methylated regions in REXOC and AURKC were associated with pre-bronchodilator Tiffeneau-Pinelli index (adjusted p < 0.05) in Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Moreover, we replicated some of the previous differentially methylated signals associated with lung function in non-Latino populations. CONCLUSIONS: We replicated previous associations of epigenetic markers with lung function in whole blood and identified novel population-specific associations shared among Latino subgroups.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(5): 1324-1331.e12, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease. Clinical blood parameters differ by race/ethnicity and are used to distinguish asthma subtypes and inform therapies. Differences in subtypes may explain population-specific trends in asthma outcomes. However, these differences in racial/ethnic minority pediatric populations are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of blood parameters and asthma subtypes with asthma outcomes and examined population-specific eligibility for biologic therapies in minority pediatric populations. METHODS: Using data from 2 asthma case-control studies of pediatric minority populations, we performed case-control (N = 3738) and case-only (N = 2743) logistic regressions to quantify the association of blood parameters and asthma subtypes with asthma outcomes. Heterogeneity of these associations was tested using an interaction term between race/ethnicity and each exposure. Differences in therapeutic eligibility were investigated using chi-square tests. RESULTS: Race/ethnicity modified the association between total IgE and asthma exacerbations. Elevated IgE level was associated with worse asthma outcomes in Puerto Ricans. Allergic asthma was associated with worse outcomes in Mexican Americans, whereas eosinophilic asthma was associated with worse outcomes in Puerto Ricans. A lower proportion of Puerto Ricans met dosing criteria for allergic asthma-directed biologic therapy than other groups. A higher proportion of Puerto Ricans qualified for eosinophilic asthma-directed biologic therapy than African Americans. CONCLUSIONS: We found population-specific associations between blood parameters and asthma subtypes with asthma outcomes. Our findings suggest that eligibility for asthma biologic therapies differs across pediatric racial/ethnic populations. These findings call for more studies in diverse populations for equitable treatment of minority patients with asthma.

4.
Genetics ; 218(1)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

5.
Ethn Dis ; 31(1): 77-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519158

RESUMO

Objective: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Short-acting bronchodilator medications are the most commonly prescribed asthma treatment worldwide, regardless of disease severity. Puerto Rican children display the highest asthma morbidity and mortality of any US population. Alarmingly, Puerto Rican children with asthma display poor bronchodilator drug response (BDR). Reduced BDR may explain, in part, the increased asthma morbidity and mortality observed in Puerto Rican children with asthma. Gene-environment interactions may explain a portion of the heritability of BDR. We aimed to identify gene-environment interactions associated with BDR in Puerto Rican children with asthma. Setting: Genetic, environmental, and psycho-social data from the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) case-control study. Participants: Our discovery dataset consisted of 658 Puerto Rican children with asthma; our replication dataset consisted of 514 Mexican American children with asthma. Main Outcome Measures: We assessed the association of pairwise interaction models with BDR using ViSEN (Visualization of Statistical Epistasis Networks). Results: We identified a non-linear interaction between Native American genetic ancestry and air pollution significantly associated with BDR in Puerto Rican children with asthma. This interaction was robust to adjustment for age and sex but was not significantly associated with BDR in our replication population. Conclusions: Decreased Native American ancestry coupled with increased air pollution exposure was associated with increased BDR in Puerto Rican children with asthma. Our study acknowledges BDR's phenotypic complexity, and emphasizes the importance of integrating social, environmental, and biological data to further our understanding of complex disease.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Asma , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Porto Rico
6.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(1): 106-115, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe asthma exacerbations are a major cause of asthma morbidity and increased healthcare costs. Several studies have shown racial and ethnic differences in asthma exacerbation rates. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with severe exacerbations in two high-risk populations for asthma. METHODS: A genome-wide association study of asthma in children and youth with severe exacerbations was performed in 1283 exacerbators and 2027 controls without asthma of Latino ancestry. Independent suggestive variants (P ≤ 5 × 10-6 ) were selected for replication in 448 African Americans exacerbators and 595 controls. Case-only analyses were performed comparing the exacerbators with additional 898 Latinos and 524 African Americans asthma patients without exacerbations, while adjusting by treatment category as a proxy of asthma severity. We analyzed the functionality of associated variants with in silico methods and by correlating genotypes with methylation levels in whole blood in a subset of 473 Latinos. RESULTS: We identified two genome-wide significant associations for susceptibility to asthma with severe exacerbations, including a novel locus located at chromosome 2p21 (rs4952375, odds ratio = 1.39, P = 3.8 × 10-8 ), which was also associated with asthma exacerbations in a case-only analysis (odds ratio = 1.25, P = 1.95 × 10-3 ). This polymorphism is an expression quantitative trait locus of the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1913 (LINC01913) in lung tissues (P = 1.3 × 10-7 ) and influences methylation levels of the protein kinase domain-containing cytoplasmic (PKDCC) gene in whole-blood cells (P = 9.8 × 10-5 ). CONCLUSION: We identified a novel susceptibility locus for severe asthma exacerbations in Hispanic/Latino and African American youths with functional effects in gene expression and methylation status of neighboring genes.


Assuntos
Asma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 45(2): 190-208, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989782

RESUMO

Bronchodilator (BD) drugs are commonly prescribed for treatment and management of obstructive lung function present with diseases such as asthma. Administration of BD medication can partially or fully restore lung function as measured by pulmonary function tests. The genetics of baseline lung function measures taken before BD medication have been extensively studied, and the genetics of the BD response itself have received some attention. However, few studies have focused on the genetics of post-BD lung function. To address this gap, we analyzed lung function phenotypes in 1103 subjects from the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environment, a pediatric asthma case-control cohort, using an integrative genomic analysis approach that combined genotype, locus-specific genetic ancestry, and functional annotation information. We integrated genome-wide association study (GWAS) results with an admixture mapping scan of three pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 ], forced vital capacity [FVC], and FEV1 /FVC) taken before and after albuterol BD administration on the same subjects, yielding six traits. We identified 18 GWAS loci, and five additional loci from admixture mapping, spanning several known and novel lung function candidate genes. Most loci identified via admixture mapping exhibited wide variation in minor allele frequency across genotyped global populations. Functional fine-mapping revealed an enrichment of epigenetic annotations from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, fetal lung tissue, and lung fibroblasts. Our results point to three novel potential genetic drivers of pre- and post-BD lung function: ADAMTS1, RAD54B, and EGLN3.


Assuntos
Asma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Criança , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Genômica , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Pulmão , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(4): 424-436, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966749

RESUMO

Rationale: The 17q12-21.1 locus is one of the most highly replicated genetic associations with asthma. Individuals of African descent have lower linkage disequilibrium in this region, which could facilitate identifying causal variants.Objectives: To identify functional variants at 17q12-21.1 associated with early-onset asthma among African American individuals.Methods: We evaluated African American participants from SAPPHIRE (Study of Asthma Phenotypes and Pharmacogenomic Interactions by Race-Ethnicity) (n = 1,940), SAGE II (Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes and Environment) (n = 885), and GCPD-A (Study of the Genetic Causes of Complex Pediatric Disorders-Asthma) (n = 2,805). Associations with asthma onset at ages under 5 years were meta-analyzed across cohorts. The lead signal was reevaluated considering haplotypes informed by genetic ancestry (i.e., African vs. European). Both an expression-quantitative trait locus analysis and a phenome-wide association study were performed on the lead variant.Measurements and Main Results: The meta-analyzed results from SAPPHIRE, SAGE II, and the GCPD-A identified rs11078928 as the top association for early-onset asthma. A haplotype analysis suggested that the asthma association partitioned most closely with the rs11078928 genotype. Genetic ancestry did not appear to influence the effect of this variant. In the expression-quantitative trait locus analysis, rs11078928 was related to alternative splicing of GSDMB (gasdermin-B) transcripts. The phenome-wide association study of rs11078928 suggested that this variant was predominantly associated with asthma and asthma-associated symptoms.Conclusions: A splice-acceptor polymorphism appears to be a causal variant for asthma at the 17q12-21.1 locus. This variant appears to have the same magnitude of effect in individuals of African and European descent.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , /genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Asma/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5139, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046696

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, an emerging virus that utilizes host proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2 as entry factors. Understanding the factors affecting the pattern and levels of expression of these genes is important for deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 tropism and pathogenesis. Here we explore the role of genetics and co-expression networks in regulating these genes in the airway, through the analysis of nasal airway transcriptome data from 695 children. We identify expression quantitative trait loci for both ACE2 and TMPRSS2, that vary in frequency across world populations. We find TMPRSS2 is part of a mucus secretory network, highly upregulated by type 2 (T2) inflammation through the action of interleukin-13, and that the interferon response to respiratory viruses highly upregulates ACE2 expression. IL-13 and virus infection mediated effects on ACE2 expression were also observed at the protein level in the airway epithelium. Finally, we define airway responses to common coronavirus infections in children, finding that these infections generate host responses similar to other viral species, including upregulation of IL6 and ACE2. Our results reveal possible mechanisms influencing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19 clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008927, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797036

RESUMO

The genetic control of gene expression is a core component of human physiology. For the past several years, transcriptome-wide association studies have leveraged large datasets of linked genotype and RNA sequencing information to create a powerful gene-based test of association that has been used in dozens of studies. While numerous discoveries have been made, the populations in the training data are overwhelmingly of European descent, and little is known about the generalizability of these models to other populations. Here, we test for cross-population generalizability of gene expression prediction models using a dataset of African American individuals with RNA-Seq data in whole blood. We find that the default models trained in large datasets such as GTEx and DGN fare poorly in African Americans, with a notable reduction in prediction accuracy when compared to European Americans. We replicate these limitations in cross-population generalizability using the five populations in the GEUVADIS dataset. Via realistic simulations of both populations and gene expression, we show that accurate cross-population generalizability of transcriptome prediction only arises when eQTL architecture is substantially shared across populations. In contrast, models with non-identical eQTLs showed patterns similar to real-world data. Therefore, generating RNA-Seq data in diverse populations is a critical step towards multi-ethnic utility of gene expression prediction.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA-Seq/métodos , RNA-Seq/normas , Padrões de Referência
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(7): 962-972, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459537

RESUMO

Rationale: Puerto Ricans have the highest childhood asthma prevalence in the United States (23.6%); however, the etiology is uncertain.Objectives: In this study, we sought to uncover the genetic architecture of lung function in Puerto Rican youth with and without asthma who were recruited from the island (n = 836).Methods: We used admixture-mapping and whole-genome sequencing data to discover genomic regions associated with lung function. Functional roles of the prioritized candidate SNPs were examined with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, RNA sequencing, and expression quantitative trait loci data.Measurements and Main Results: We discovered a genomic region at 1q32 that was significantly associated with a 0.12-L decrease in the lung volume of exhaled air (95% confidence interval, -0.17 to -0.07; P = 6.62 × 10-8) with each allele of African ancestry. Within this region, two SNPs were expression quantitative trait loci of TMEM9 in nasal airway epithelial cells and MROH3P in esophagus mucosa. The minor alleles of these SNPs were associated with significantly decreased lung function and decreased TMEM9 gene expression. Another admixture-mapping peak was observed on chromosome 5q35.1, indicating that each Native American ancestry allele was associated with a 0.15-L increase in lung function (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.21; P = 5.03 × 10-6). The region-based association tests identified four suggestive windows that harbored candidate rare variants associated with lung function.Conclusions: We identified common and rare genetic variants that may play a critical role in lung function among Puerto Rican youth. We independently validated an inflammatory pathway that could potentially be used to develop more targeted treatments and interventions for patients with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Asma/fisiopatologia , Brônquios/citologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Mucosa Esofágica/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Porto Rico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
12.
Genetics ; 215(3): 869-886, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327564

RESUMO

Baseline lung function, quantified as forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation (FEV1), is a standard diagnostic criterion used by clinicians to identify and classify lung diseases. Using whole-genome sequencing data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine project, we identified a novel genetic association with FEV1 on chromosome 12 in 867 African American children with asthma (P = 1.26 × 10-8, ß = 0.302). Conditional analysis within 1 Mb of the tag signal (rs73429450) yielded one major and two other weaker independent signals within this peak. We explored statistical and functional evidence for all variants in linkage disequilibrium with the three independent signals and yielded nine variants as the most likely candidates responsible for the association with FEV1 Hi-C data and expression QTL analysis demonstrated that these variants physically interacted with KITLG (KIT ligand, also known as SCF), and their minor alleles were associated with increased expression of the KITLG gene in nasal epithelial cells. Gene-by-air-pollution interaction analysis found that the candidate variant rs58475486 interacted with past-year ambient sulfur dioxide exposure (P = 0.003, ß = 0.32). This study identified a novel protective genetic association with FEV1, possibly mediated through KITLG, in African American children with asthma. This is the first study that has identified a genetic association between lung function and KITLG, which has established a role in orchestrating allergic inflammation in asthma.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Asma/genética , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fator de Células-Tronco/genética , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Fator de Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 31, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global gene expression levels are known to be highly dependent upon gross demographic features including age, yet identification of age-related genomic indicators has yet to be comprehensively undertaken in a disease and treatment-specific context. METHODS: We used gene expression data from CD4+ lymphocytes in the Asthma BioRepository for Integrative Genomic Exploration (Asthma BRIDGE), an open-access collection of subjects participating in genetic studies of asthma with available gene expression data. Replication population participants were Puerto Rico islanders recruited as part of the ongoing Genes environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II), who provided nasal brushings for transcript sequencing. The main outcome measure was chronic asthma control as derived by questionnaires. Genomic associations were performed using regression of chronic asthma control score on gene expression with age in years as a covariate, including a multiplicative interaction term for gene expression times age. RESULTS: The SMARCD1 gene (SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily D member 1) interacted with age to influence chronic asthma control on inhaled corticosteroids, with a doubling of expression leading to an increase of 1.3 units of chronic asthma control per year (95% CI [0.86, 1.74], p = 6 × 10- 9), suggesting worsening asthma control with increasing age. This result replicated in GALA II (p = 3.8 × 10- 8). Cellular assays confirmed the role of SMARCD1 in glucocorticoid response in airway epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Focusing on age-dependent factors may help identify novel indicators of asthma medication response. Age appears to modulate the effect of SMARCD1 on asthma control with inhaled corticosteroids.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/biossíntese , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , /genética , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Asma/metabolismo , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(2): 533-540, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In cystic fibrosis (CF), the spectrum and frequency of CFTR variants differ by geography and race/ethnicity. CFTR variants in White patients are well-described compared with Latino patients. No studies of CFTR variants have been done in patients with CF in the Dominican Republic or Puerto Rico. METHODS: CFTR was sequenced in 61 Dominican Republican patients and 21 Puerto Rican patients with CF and greater than ​​​​60 mmol/L sweat chloride. The spectrum of CFTR variants was identified and the proportion of patients with 0, 1, or 2 CFTR variants identified was determined. The functional effects of identified CFTR variants were investigated using clinical annotation databases and computational prediction tools. RESULTS: Our study found 10% of Dominican patients had two CFTR variants identified compared with 81% of Puerto Rican patients. No CFTR variants were identified in 69% of Dominican patients and 10% of Puerto Rican patients. In Dominican patients, there were 19 identified CFTR variants, accounting for 25 out of 122 disease alleles (20%). In Puerto Rican patients, there were 16 identified CFTR variants, accounting for 36 out of 42 disease alleles (86%) in Puerto Rican patients. Thirty CFTR variants were identified overall. The most frequent variants for Dominican patients were p.Phe508del and p.Ala559Thr and for Puerto Rican patients were p.Phe508del, p.Arg1066Cys, p.Arg334Trp, and p.I507del. CONCLUSIONS: In this first description of the CFTR variants in patients with CF from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, there was a low detection rate of two CFTR variants after full sequencing with the majority of patients from the Dominican Republic without identified variants.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Porto Rico/epidemiologia
15.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(12): e1007, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is an inherited recessive condition associated with extremely high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in affected individuals. It is usually caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous functional mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR). A number of mutations causing FH have been reported in literature and such genetic heterogeneity presents great challenges for disease diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the likely genetic defects responsible for three cases of pediatric HoFH in two kindreds. METHODS: We applied whole exome sequencing (WES) on the two probands to determine the likely functional variants among candidate FH genes. We additionally applied 10x Genomics (10xG) Linked-Reads whole genome sequencing (WGS) on one of the kindreds to identify potentially deleterious structural variants (SVs) underlying HoFH. A PCR-based screening assay was also established to detect the LDLR structural variant in a cohort of 641 patients with elevated LDL. RESULTS: In the Caucasian kindred, the FH homozygosity can be attributed to two compound heterozygous LDLR damaging variants, an exon 12 p.G592E missense mutation and a novel 3kb exon 1 deletion. By analyzing the 10xG phased data, we ascertained that this deletion allele was most likely to have originated from a Russian ancestor. In the Mexican kindred, the strikingly elevated LDL cholesterol level can be attributed to a homozygous frameshift LDLR variant p.E113fs. CONCLUSIONS: While the application of WES can provide a cost-effective way of identifying the genetic causes of FH, it often lacks sensitivity for detecting structural variants. Our finding of the LDLR exon 1 deletion highlights the broader utility of Linked-Read WGS in detecting SVs in the clinical setting, especially when HoFH patients remain undiagnosed after WES.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Sequência de Bases/genética , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Lipoproteínas LDL/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
16.
Chest ; 156(6): 1068-1079, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory disorder with a highly heterogeneous nature that remains poorly understood. The objective was to use whole genome sequencing (WGS) data to identify regions of common genetic variation contributing to lung function in individuals with a diagnosis of asthma. METHODS: WGS data were generated for 1,053 individuals from trios and extended pedigrees participating in the family-based Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica study. Asthma affection status was defined through a physician's diagnosis of asthma, and most participants with asthma also had airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. Family-based association tests for single variants were performed to assess the associations with lung function phenotypes. RESULTS: A genome-wide significant association was identified between baseline FEV1/FVC ratio and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the top hit cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain-containing 2 (CRISPLD2) (rs12051168; P = 3.6 × 10-8 in the unadjusted model) that retained suggestive significance in the covariate-adjusted model (P = 5.6 × 10-6). Rs12051168 was also nominally associated with other related phenotypes: baseline FEV1 (P = 3.3 × 10-3), postbronchodilator (PB) FEV1 (7.3 × 10-3), and PB FEV1/FVC ratio (P = 2.7 × 10-3). The identified baseline FEV1/FVC ratio and rs12051168 association was meta-analyzed and replicated in three independent cohorts in which most participants with asthma also had confirmed AHR (combined weighted z-score P = .015) but not in cohorts without information about AHR. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that using specific asthma characteristics, such as AHR, can help identify more genetically homogeneous asthma subgroups with genotype-phenotype associations that may not be observed in all children with asthma. CRISPLD2 also may be important for baseline lung function in individuals with asthma who also may have AHR.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Asma/fisiopatologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Capacidade Vital/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Costa Rica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 747-762, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543216

RESUMO

Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are important genomic features that manifest when an individual inherits two haplotypes that are identical by descent. Their length distributions are informative about population history, and their genomic locations are useful for mapping recessive loci contributing to both Mendelian and complex disease risk. We have previously shown that ROH, and especially long ROH that are likely the result of recent parental relatedness, are enriched for homozygous deleterious coding variation in a worldwide sample of outbred individuals. However, the distribution of ROH in admixed populations and their relationship to deleterious homozygous genotypes is understudied. Here we analyze whole-genome sequencing data from 1,441 unrelated individuals from self-identified African American, Puerto Rican, and Mexican American populations. These populations are three-way admixed between European, African, and Native American ancestries and provide an opportunity to study the distribution of deleterious alleles partitioned by local ancestry and ROH. We re-capitulate previous findings that long ROH are enriched for deleterious variation genome-wide. We then partition by local ancestry and show that deleterious homozygotes arise at a higher rate when ROH overlap African ancestry segments than when they overlap European or Native American ancestry segments of the genome. These results suggest that, while ROH on any haplotype background are associated with an inflation of deleterious homozygous variation, African haplotype backgrounds may play a particularly important role in the genetic architecture of complex diseases for admixed individuals, highlighting the need for further study of these populations.


Assuntos
Homozigoto , Alelos , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(8): 1241-1252, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358948

RESUMO

Monitor lizards are unique among ectothermic reptiles in that they have high aerobic capacity and distinctive cardiovascular physiology resembling that of endothermic mammals. Here, we sequence the genome of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis, the largest extant monitor lizard, and generate a high-resolution de novo chromosome-assigned genome assembly for V. komodoensis using a hybrid approach of long-range sequencing and single-molecule optical mapping. Comparing the genome of V. komodoensis with those of related species, we find evidence of positive selection in pathways related to energy metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, and haemostasis. We also show species-specific expansions of a chemoreceptor gene family related to pheromone and kairomone sensing in V. komodoensis and other lizard lineages. Together, these evolutionary signatures of adaptation reveal the genetic underpinnings of the unique Komodo dragon sensory and cardiovascular systems, and suggest that selective pressure altered haemostasis genes to help Komodo dragons evade the anticoagulant effects of their own saliva. The Komodo dragon genome is an important resource for understanding the biology of monitor lizards and reptiles worldwide.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Lagartos , Aclimatação , Animais , Cromossomos
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 839-845.e10, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) can serve as a potential biomarker for conditions associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, such as asthma. Air pollution can induce oxidative stress. Understanding the relationship between TL, asthma, and air pollution is important for identifying risk factors contributing to unhealthy aging in children. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate associations between exposures to ambient air pollutants and TL in African American children and adolescents and to examine whether African ancestry, asthma status, and steroid medication use alter the association. METHODS: Linear regression was used to examine associations between absolute telomere length (aTL) and estimated annual average residential ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) exposures in a cross-sectional analysis of 1072 children in an existing asthma case-control study. African ancestry, asthma status, and use of steroid medications were examined as effect modifiers. RESULTS: Participants' aTLs were measured by using quantitative PCR. A 1-ppb and 1 µg/m3 increase in annual average exposure to O3 and PM2.5 were associated with a decrease in aTL of 37.1 kilo-base pair (kb; 95% CI, -66.7 to -7.4 kb) and 57.1 kb (95% CI, -118.1 to 3.9 kb), respectively. African ancestry and asthma were not effect modifiers; however, exposure to steroid medications modified the relationships between TL and pollutants. Past-year exposure to O3 and PM2.5 was associated with shorter TLs in patients without steroid use. CONCLUSION: Exposure to air pollution was associated with shorter TLs in nonasthmatic children and adolescents. This was not the case for asthmatic children as a group, but those receiving steroid medication had less shortening than those not using steroids. Reduced exposure to air pollution in childhood might help to preserve TL.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Poluição do Ar , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Exposição Ambiental , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Telômero , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Asma/etnologia , Criança , Humanos , Ozônio , Material Particulado , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 19(3): 249-259, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206298

RESUMO

Short-acting ß2-adrenergic receptor agonists (SABAs) are the most commonly prescribed asthma medications worldwide. Response to SABAs is measured as bronchodilator drug response (BDR), which varies among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, the genetic variation that contributes to BDR is largely undefined in African Americans with asthma. To identify genetic variants that may contribute to differences in BDR in African Americans with asthma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR in 949 African-American children with asthma, genotyped with the Axiom World Array 4 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) followed by imputation using 1000 Genomes phase III genotypes. We used linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and genetic ancestry to test for an association between BDR and genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To increase power and distinguish between shared vs. population-specific associations with BDR in children with asthma, we performed a meta-analysis across 949 African Americans and 1830 Latinos (total = 2779). Finally, we performed genome-wide admixture mapping to identify regions whereby local African or European ancestry is associated with BDR in African Americans. We identified a population-specific association with an intergenic SNP on chromosome 9q21 that was significantly associated with BDR (rs73650726, p = 7.69 × 10-9). A trans-ethnic meta-analysis across African Americans and Latinos identified three additional SNPs within the intron of PRKG1 that were significantly associated with BDR (rs7903366, rs7070958 and rs7081864, p ≤ 5 × 10-8). Our results failed to replicate in three additional populations of 416 Latinos and 1615 African Americans. Our findings indicate that both population-specific and shared genetic variation contributes to differences in BDR in minority children with asthma, and that the genetic underpinnings of BDR may differ between racial/ethnic groups.

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