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1.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 43, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674717

RESUMO

Although artificial intelligence algorithms are often developed and applied for narrow tasks, their implementation in other medical settings could help to improve patient care. Here we assess whether a deep-learning system for volumetric heart segmentation on computed tomography (CT) scans developed in cardiovascular radiology can optimize treatment planning in radiation oncology. The system was trained using multi-center data (n = 858) with manual heart segmentations provided by cardiovascular radiologists. Validation of the system was performed in an independent real-world dataset of 5677 breast cancer patients treated with radiation therapy at the Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center between 2008-2018. In a subset of 20 patients, the performance of the system was compared to eight radiation oncology experts by assessing segmentation time, agreement between experts, and accuracy with and without deep-learning assistance. To compare the performance to segmentations used in the clinic, concordance and failures (defined as Dice < 0.85) of the system were evaluated in the entire dataset. The system was successfully applied without retraining. With deep-learning assistance, segmentation time significantly decreased (4.0 min [IQR 3.1-5.0] vs. 2.0 min [IQR 1.3-3.5]; p < 0.001), and agreement increased (Dice 0.95 [IQR = 0.02]; vs. 0.97 [IQR = 0.02], p < 0.001). Expert accuracy was similar with and without deep-learning assistance (Dice 0.92 [IQR = 0.02] vs. 0.92 [IQR = 0.02]; p = 0.48), and not significantly different from deep-learning-only segmentations (Dice 0.92 [IQR = 0.02]; p ≥ 0.1). In comparison to real-world data, the system showed high concordance (Dice 0.89 [IQR = 0.06]) across 5677 patients and a significantly lower failure rate (p < 0.001). These results suggest that deep-learning algorithms can successfully be applied across medical specialties and improve clinical care beyond the original field of interest.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5471, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727623

RESUMO

Tumor histology is an important predictor of therapeutic response and outcomes in lung cancer. Tissue sampling for pathologist review is the most reliable method for histology classification, however, recent advances in deep learning for medical image analysis allude to the utility of radiologic data in further describing disease characteristics and for risk stratification. In this study, we propose a radiomics approach to predicting non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor histology from non-invasive standard-of-care computed tomography (CT) data. We trained and validated convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on a dataset comprising 311 early-stage NSCLC patients receiving surgical treatment at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), with a focus on the two most common histological types: adenocarcinoma (ADC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). The CNNs were able to predict tumor histology with an AUC of 0.71(p = 0.018). We also found that using machine learning classifiers such as k-nearest neighbors (kNN) and support vector machine (SVM) on CNN-derived quantitative radiomics features yielded comparable discriminative performance, with AUC of up to 0.71 (p = 0.017). Our best performing CNN functioned as a robust probabilistic classifier in heterogeneous test sets, with qualitatively interpretable visual explanations to its predictions. Deep learning based radiomics can identify histological phenotypes in lung cancer. It has the potential to augment existing approaches and serve as a corrective aid for diagnosticians.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mean heart dose (MHD) over 10 Gy and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery volume (V) receiving 15 Gy (V15Gy) greater than 10% can significantly increase the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to characterize the discordance between MHD and LAD dose and the association of this classification on the risk of MACE after radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The coefficient of determination for MHD and LAD V15Gy was calculated in this retrospective analysis of 701 patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with radiation therapy. Four groups were defined on the basis of high or low MHD (≥10 Gy vs <10 Gy) and LAD V15Gy (≥10% vs <10%). MACE (unstable angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and cardiac death) cumulative incidence was estimated, and Fine and Gray regressions were performed. RESULTS: The proportion of variance in LAD V15Gy predictable from MHD was only 54.5% (R2 = 0.545). There was discordance (where MHD was high [≥10 Gy] and LAD low [V15Gy < 10%], or vice versa) in 23.1% of patients (n = 162). Two-year MACE estimates were 4.2% (MHDhigh/LADlow), 7.6% (MHDhigh/LADhigh), 1.8% (MHDlow/LADlow), and 13.0% (MHDlow/LADhigh). Adjusting for pre-existing coronary heart disease and other prognostic factors, MHDhigh/LADlow (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.93; P = .036) and MHDlow/LADlow (SHR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.53; P < .001) were associated with a significantly reduced risk of MACE. CONCLUSIONS: MHD is insufficient to predict LAD V15Gy with confidence. When MHD and LAD V15Gy dose exposure is discordant, isolated low LAD V15Gy significantly reduces the risk of MACE in patients with locally advanced NSCLC after radiation therapy, suggesting that the validity of whole heart metrics for optimally predicting cardiac events should be reassessed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545300

RESUMO

Natural language processing (NLP), which aims to convert human language into expressions that can be analyzed by computers, is one of the most rapidly developing and widely used technologies in the field of artificial intelligence. Natural language processing algorithms convert unstructured free text data into structured data that can be extracted and analyzed at scale. In medicine, this unlocking of the rich, expressive data within clinical free text in electronic medical records will help untap the full potential of big data for research and clinical purposes. Recent major NLP algorithmic advances have significantly improved the performance of these algorithms, leading to a surge in academic and industry interest in developing tools to automate information extraction and phenotyping from clinical texts. Thus, these technologies are poised to transform medical research and alter clinical practices in the future. Radiation oncology stands to benefit from NLP algorithms if they are appropriately developed and deployed, as they may enable advances such as automated inclusion of radiation therapy details into cancer registries, discovery of novel insights about cancer care, and improved patient data curation and presentation at the point of care. However, challenges remain before the full value of NLP is realized, such as the plethora of jargon specific to radiation oncology, nonstandard nomenclature, a lack of publicly available labeled data for model development, and interoperability limitations between radiation oncology data silos. Successful development and implementation of high quality and high value NLP models for radiation oncology will require close collaboration between computer scientists and the radiation oncology community. Here, we present a primer on artificial intelligence algorithms in general and NLP algorithms in particular; provide guidance on how to assess the performance of such algorithms; review prior research on NLP algorithms for oncology; and describe future avenues for NLP in radiation oncology research and clinics.

6.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556580

RESUMO

Cardiac metastases pose clinical challenges for radiation oncologists given the need to balance the benefit of local therapy against the risks of cardiac toxicity in the setting of cardiac motion, respiratory motion, and nearby organs-at-risk. Stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR)-guided adaptive radiotherapy (SMART) has recently become more commonly used, conferring benefits in tumor visualization for setup, real-time motion management monitoring, and enabling plan adaptation for daily changes in tumor and/or normal tissues. Given these benefits, we developed and implemented a workflow for local treatment of metastatic disease within the heart using SMART.

7.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476841

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) have a high prevalence of pre-existing coronary heart disease and face excess cardiac risk after thoracic radiation therapy. We sought to assess whether statin therapy is a predictor of overall survival (OS) after thoracic radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 748 patients with LA-NSCLC treated with thoracic radiation therapy, using Kaplan-Meier OS estimates and Cox regression. RESULTS: Statin use among high cardiac risk patients (Framingham risk ≥20% or pre-existing coronary heart disease; n = 496) was 51.2%. After adjustment for baseline cardiac risk and other prognostic factors, statin therapy was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.91; P = .048) but not major adverse cardiac events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.52-2.68; P = .69). Among statin-naïve patients, mean heart dose ≥10 Gy versus <10 Gy was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.68; P = .022), with 2-year OS estimates of 46.9% versus 60.0%, respectively. However, OS did not differ by heart dose among patients on statin therapy (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.76-1.32; P = 1.00; P-interaction = .031), with 2-year OS estimates of 46.9% versus 50.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with LA-NSCLC, only half of statin-eligible high cardiac risk patients were on statin therapy, reflecting the highest cardiac risk level of our cohort. Statin use was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality but not major adverse cardiac events. Elevated mean heart dose (≥10 Gy) was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in statin-naïve patients but not among those on statin therapy, identifying a group of patients in which early intervention with statins may mitigate the deleterious effects of high heart radiation therapy dose. This warrants evaluation in prospective trials.

8.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(2): 206-219, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331883

RESUMO

Importance: Radiotherapy accelerates coronary heart disease (CHD), but the dose to critical cardiac substructures has not been systematically studied in lung cancer. Objective: To examine independent cardiac substructure radiotherapy factors for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort analysis of 701 patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with thoracic radiotherapy at Harvard University-affiliated hospitals between December 1, 2003, and January 27, 2014, was performed. Data analysis was conducted between January 12, 2019, and July 22, 2020. Cardiac substructures were manually delineated. Radiotherapy dose parameters (mean, maximum, and the volume [V, percentage] receiving a specific Gray [Gy] dose in 5-Gy increments) were calculated. Receiver operating curve and cut-point analyses estimating MACE (unstable angina, heart failure hospitalization or urgent visit, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and cardiac death) were performed. Fine and Gray and Cox regressions were adjusted for preexisting CHD and other prognostic factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: MACE and all-cause mortality. Results: Of the 701 patients included in the analysis, 356 were men (50.8%). The median age was 65 years (interquartile range, 57-73 years). The optimal cut points for substructure and radiotherapy doses (highest C-index value) were left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery V15 Gy greater than or equal to 10% (0.64), left circumflex coronary artery V15 Gy greater than or equal to 14% (0.64), left ventricle V15 Gy greater than or equal to 1% (0.64), and mean total coronary artery dose greater than or equal to 7 Gy (0.62). Adjusting for baseline CHD status and other prognostic factors, an LAD coronary artery V15 Gy greater than or equal to 10% was associated with increased risk of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio, 13.90; 95% CI, 1.23-157.21; P = .03) and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.09-2.29; P = .02). Among patients without CHD, associations with increased 1-year MACE were noted for LAD coronary artery V15 Gy greater than or equal to 10% (4.9% vs 0%), left circumflex coronary artery V15 Gy greater than or equal to 14% (5.2% vs 0.7%), left ventricle V15 Gy greater than or equal to 1% (5.0% vs 0.4%), and mean total coronary artery dose greater than or equal to 7 Gy (4.8% vs 0%) (all P ≤ .001), but only a left ventricle V15 Gy greater than or equal to 1% increased the risk among patients with CHD (8.4% vs 4.1%; P = .046). Among patients without CHD, 2-year all-cause mortality was increased with an LAD coronary artery V15 Gy greater than or equal to 10% (51.2% vs 42.2%; P = .009) and mean total coronary artery dose greater than or equal to 7 Gy (53.2% vs 40.0%; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that optimal cardiac dose constraints may differ based on preexisting CHD. Although the LAD coronary artery V15 Gy greater than or equal to 10% appeared to be an independent estimator of the probability of MACE and all-cause mortality, particularly in patients without CHD, left ventricle V15 Gy greater than or equal to 1% appeared to confer an increased risk of MACE among patients with CHD. These constraints are worthy of further study because there is a need for improved cardiac risk stratification and aggressive risk mitigation strategies.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305025

RESUMO

Purpose: MR-linacs (MRLs) have enabled the use of stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) guided online adaptive radiotherapy (SMART) across many cancers. As data emerges to support SMART, uncertainty remains regarding optimal technical parameters, such as optimal patient positioning, immobilization, image quality, and contouring protocols. Prior to clinical implementation of SMART, we conducted a prospective study in healthy volunteers (HVs) to determine optimal technical parameters and to develop and practice a multidisciplinary SMART workflow. Methods: HVs 18 years or older were eligible to participate in this IRB-approved study. Using a 0.35 T MRL, simulated adaptive treatments were performed by a multi-disciplinary treatment team in HVs. For each scan, image quality parameters were assessed on a 5-point scale (5 = extremely high, 1 = extremely poor). Adaptive recontouring times were compared between HVs and subsequent clinical cases with a t-test. Results: 18 simulated treatments were performed in HVs on MRL. Mean parameters for visibility of target, visibility of nearby organs, and overall image quality were 4.58, 4.62, and 4.62, respectively (range of 4-5 for all measures). In HVs, mean ART was 15.7 min (range 4-35), comparable to mean of 16.1 (range 7-33) in the clinical cases (p = 0.8963). Using HV cases, optimal simulation and contouring guidelines were developed across a range of disease sites and have since been implemented clinically. Conclusions: Prior to clinical implementation of SMART, scans of HVs on an MRL resulted in acceptable image quality and target visibility across a range of organs with similar ARTs to clinical SMART. We continue to utilize HV scans prior to clinical implementation of SMART in new disease sites and to further optimize target tracking and immobilization. Further study is needed to determine the optimal duration of HV scanning prior to clinical implementation.

10.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(6): 1267-1273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305087

RESUMO

Purpose: Pulmonary metastases are common in many pediatric solid tumors; however, little is known about safety and efficacy of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for pediatric patients. We conducted a phase I/II study to investigate the minimum effective dose level of SBRT with an acceptable safety profile in pediatric patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with sarcoma and metastatic pulmonary lesions ≤3 cm in diameter and ≤21 years of age were enrolled. Dose levels 1, 2, and 3 were 24, 30, and 36 Gy in 3 fractions, respectively. Enrolled patients with metastases from primary renal tumors and sarcoma histologies were to begin at dose level 1 and 2, respectively. Exclusion criteria included receipt of whole-lung/hemi-thorax irradiation >12 Gy within 6 months of consent. Primary endpoints were tolerability and safety per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grading and disease response at 6 weeks post-SBRT per response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria. Secondary endpoints included rates of local control and distant failure within the lung, but outside of the treatment volume. Results: Five patients with median age of 13 years (range, 7-21) received SBRT at dose level 2. Primary tumor histologies included Ewing sarcoma (n = 3), anaplastic chordoma (n = 1), and osteosarcoma (n = 1). No grade ≥3 adverse events were observed. At 6 weeks after SBRT, 7/8 (87.5%) lesions achieved partial response. With median follow-up of 2.1 years (range, 1.4-2.5), 2-year local control and distant failure-free survival were 60% (n = 8) and 40% (n = 5), respectively. One patient developed widespread metastases and succumbed to disease 1.4 years after SBRT. Conclusions: SBRT for pulmonary metastases produces responses in pediatric patients with sarcoma at 6 weeks with acceptable toxicity; however, patients remain at risk of local and distant failure within the lung. Future prospective studies are needed to investigate whether higher doses of SBRT, possibly in combination with other therapies, are safe and provide more durable response.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously described safety of preschool peanut oral immunotherapy (P-OIT) in a real-world setting; 0.4% of patients experienced a severe reaction, and 4.1% received epinephrine, during build-up. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of preschool P-OIT after 1 year of maintenance. METHODS: Preschoolers (9-70 months) with at least 1 objective reaction to peanut (during baseline oral food challenge (OFC) or P-OIT build-up) received a follow-up OFC to cumulative 4000 mg protein after 1 year on 300 mg peanut daily maintenance. Effectiveness of desensitization was defined as proportion of patients with a negative follow-up OFC. Symptoms and treatment at follow-up OFC were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 117 patients who successfully completed 1 year of P-OIT and subsequently underwent a cumulative 4000-mg follow-up OFC, 92 (78.6%) had a negative OFC and 115 (98.3%) tolerated a cumulative dose of greater than or equal to 1000 mg. For the 25 (21.4%) who reacted, their threshold increased by 3376 mg (95% CI, 2884-3868) from baseline to follow-up; 17 (14.5%) patients experienced grade 1 reactions, 7 (6.00%) grade 2, and 1 (0.85%) grade 3. Two patients (1.71%) received epinephrine associated with P-OIT, and 1 (0.85%) went to the emergency department. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that real-world preschool P-OIT is effective after 1 year of maintenance for those who received a follow-up OFC. For those who reacted, their threshold increased sufficiently to protect against accidental exposures. P-OIT should be considered for preschoolers as an alternative to current recommendations to avoid peanut.

13.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850403

RESUMO

Various forms of arsenic were used in China and elsewhere for over 5,000 years. Following the initial success of intravenous arsenic trioxide (i.v. As2O3), we revived an oral formulation of pure As2O3 in 1998 for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We were the first to produce a 1 mg/ml oral-As2O3 solution and showed that it had comparable bioavailability to i.v. As2O3. Moreover, we also reported that intracellular arsenic concentrations were considerably higher than the corresponding plasma values. Our oral-As2O3 was patented internationally and registered in Hong Kong for the treatment of APL. Safety, tolerability and clinical efficacy was confirmed in long-term follow-up studies. We have extended the use of oral-As2O3 to frontline induction of newly diagnosed APL. With these findings, we are moving toward an era of completely oral and chemotherapy-free management of APL.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab (pembro) ± radiation therapy (RT) in a phase 2 study among patients with progressive, metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients had metastatic ACC with progression within the last year and ≥1 measurable lesion. Patients were randomized to pembro alone or with RT to 30 Gy in 5 fractions (pembroRT). The primary endpoint was objective response rate outside the RT field. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and local RT responses. RESULTS: We randomized 20 patients (10 per arm) from 2017 to 2018. We did not observe objective response outside of the radiation treatment field; stable disease (SD) was the best response in 12 (60%) patients and was not different per arm (7 pembro, 5 pembroRT, P = .65). A tumor growth rate decrease (TGR) of >25% was noted among 7 of 12 patients and >75% in 4 patients. There were local responses in the irradiated field among all evaluable pembroRT patients. Median PFS and OS were 4.5/not reached for pembroRT and 6.6 / 27.2 months for pembro patients. One patient developed grade 3 liver enzyme elevation after 27 cycles of therapy. Correlative analyses confirm low levels of programmed death-ligand 1 expression (PD-L1), and CD8 infiltrating T-cells. We identified associations between local response and both MYB/NFIB translocation and PD-L1 expression and between changes in systemic immune populations and RT. CONCLUSIONS: Pembrolizumab and pembroRT were well tolerated. We observed no objective responses, but 60% of patients with PD before the study achieved SD, the majority with decreased TGR and half (n = 10) with clinical benefit (SD >6 months). We observed favorable local responses within the RT field. Additional strategies are needed to further delay progression and effect response.

16.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(12): 771-781, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843739

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to fundamentally alter the way medicine is practised. AI platforms excel in recognizing complex patterns in medical data and provide a quantitative, rather than purely qualitative, assessment of clinical conditions. Accordingly, AI could have particularly transformative applications in radiation oncology given the multifaceted and highly technical nature of this field of medicine with a heavy reliance on digital data processing and computer software. Indeed, AI has the potential to improve the accuracy, precision, efficiency and overall quality of radiation therapy for patients with cancer. In this Perspective, we first provide a general description of AI methods, followed by a high-level overview of the radiation therapy workflow with discussion of the implications that AI is likely to have on each step of this process. Finally, we describe the challenges associated with the clinical development and implementation of AI platforms in radiation oncology and provide our perspective on how these platforms might change the roles of radiotherapy medical professionals.

17.
Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev ; 8(4): 285-293, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685159

RESUMO

Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Radiofrequency catheter ablation can be effective for the treatment of VT but it carries a high rate of recurrence often attributable to insufficient depth of penetration for reaching critical arrhythmogenic substrates. Stereotactic body radioablation (SBRT) is a commonly used technology developed for the non-invasive treatment of solid tumours. Recent evidence suggests that it can also be effective for the treatment of VT. It is a non-invasive procedure and it has the unique advantage of delivering ablative energy to any desired volume within the body to reach sites that are inaccessible with catheter ablation. This article summarises the pre-clinical studies that have formed the evidence base for SBRT in the heart, describes the clinical approaches for SBRT VT ablation and provides perspective on next steps for this new treatment modality.

18.
Lung Cancer ; 145: 132-139, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate the spectrum of radiographic patterns of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in lung cancer patients and identify imaging markers for high-grade RP and RP-related death. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with lung cancer treated with conventional chest radiotherapy who had symptomatic RP were identified from the radiation oncology database. The imaging features of RP were studied for association with high-grade RP (Grade ≥3) and RP-related death (Grade 5). RESULTS: RP was Grade 2 in 60 (73%), Grade 3 in 15 (18%), and Grade 5 in 7 patients (9%). Lower performance status (p = 0.04), squamous cell histology (p = 0.03), and FEV1 ≤ 2 (p = 0.009) were associated with high-grade pneumonitis. Older age (p = 0.03) and squamous cell histology (p = 0.03) were associated with RP-related death. The CT findings included ground-glass and reticular opacities in all patients, with traction bronchiectasis in 77 (94%) and consolidation in 74 (90%). The most common radiographic pattern of RP was cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) pattern (n = 54), followed by acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) pattern (n = 10). Higher extent of lung involvement, diffuse distribution, and AIP/ARDS pattern were associated with high-grade pneumonitis and RP-related death. AIP/ARDS pattern was a significant factor for high-grade pneumonitis (OR:12.62, p = 0.01) in multivariable analyses adjusting for clinical variables. CONCLUSION: COP pattern was the most common radiographic pattern for symptomatic RP in lung cancer patients. AIP/ARDS pattern was significantly associated with high-grade RP and RP-related deaths, and was an independent marker for high-grade RP. The recognition of the radiographic patterns of RP can help to effectively contribute to patient management.

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