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1.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 739-742, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074500

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the challenges of pharmacy schools worldwide is the need to link theoretical training with the mastery of practical skills. A virtual pharmacy simulation, MyDispense, developed by the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at Monash University, enables students to practice the skills of a professional pharmacist, from novice to highly advanced, in a safe virtual environment that is web-based and highly accessible. The free online simulation allows students to undertake scenarios where patients can present with prescription or self-care requirements, and are also challenged with validation tasks requiring them to check the work of virtual colleagues for accuracy, legality, and medicine safety. COMMENTARY: This commentary describes the use of a virtual simulation, MyDispense, in enhancing didactic instruction, complementing experiential education, and the challenges of the virtual simulation to pharmacy educators. MyDispense is now deployed to 186 schools of pharmacy across 34 countries to over 25,000 students worldwide who have completed over 963,000 exercises globally. IMPLICATIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (aka COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to pharmacy education requiring many educators to switch to remote online learning. Simulation programs, such as MyDispense, help to replicate aspects of pharmacy practice and can be used creatively to meet course needs. The use of MyDispense is an excellent example of pharmacy educators collaborating globally and learning from each other to improve student learning.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Profissional , Humanos
2.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(5): 242-247, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879285

RESUMO

Pharmacists have an important role assisting older people with medication management as the complexity of medication regimens tends to increase with age. Effective communication with older people requires competency in oral communication and empathy skills. Development of these skills in Monash University pharmacy students includes a workshop with older people. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, this workshop was adapted from face-to-face learning to an online telehealth version. This article describes the conversion of the workshop, and the challenges and positive aspects of the modification.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Farmácia , Telemedicina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804801

RESUMO

Pharmacists have a crucial role in the supply of medications and ensuring optimal patient outcomes. However, with the increased use of prescription medications, there is a potential for dispensing errors to occur. Some dispensing errors can result in patient harm, with some leading to death. The development of safe and accurate dispensing skills in pharmacy students is an essential part of the pharmacy curriculum to prevent such dispensing errors from occurring. A retrospective study was conducted on a virtual dispensing assessment completed by first-year pharmacy students using MyDispense at Monash University. Students were assessed on their ability to safely and accurately dispense four prescriptions. The students' answers in the assessment were then analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Errors in drug quantity, number of repeats, product, patient and prescriber selection were quantitatively analyzed. Through the development of a codebook, frequency of errors was determined for label directions and appropriate use of ancillary labels. In this study, the dispensing errors that were identified depended on the class of medication. Errors in label directions were most common, with the majority of errors displaying incorrect route of administration, drug formulation and/or frequency of dosing. Identified errors were then further categorized into potential severity of harm, ranging from "no harm" to "severe harm". The findings from this study show the types of errors made by students that are preventable and the potential for first-year pharmacy students to benefit from more comprehensive introductions to dispensing guides and safe environments to practice.

4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(1): 82-89.e3, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Deprescribing has gained awareness recently, but the clinical benefits observed from randomized trials are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led 5-step team-care deprescribing intervention in nursing homes to reduce falls (fall risks and fall rates). Secondary aims include reducing mortality, number of hospitalized residents, pill burden, medication cost, and assessing the deprescribing acceptance rate. DESIGN: Pragmatic multicenter stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Residents across 4 nursing homes in Singapore were included if they were aged 65 years and above, and taking 5 or more medications. METHODS: The intervention involved a 5-step deprescribing intervention, which involved a multidisciplinary team-care medication review with pharmacists, physicians, and nurses (in which pharmacists discussed with other team members the feasibility of deprescribing and implementation using the Beers and STOPP criteria) or to an active waitlist control for the first 3 months. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-five residents from 4 nursing homes participated in the study from February 2017 to March 2018. At 6 months, the deprescribing intervention did not reduce falls. Subgroup analysis showed that intervention reduced fall risk scores within the deprescribing-naïve group by 0.18 (P = .04). Intervention was associated with a reduction in mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.07, 0.41; P < .001] and number of hospitalized residents (HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.10, 0.26; P < .001). Pre-post analysis witnessed a reduction in pill burden at the end of the study, and a conservative daily cost saving estimate of US$11.42 (SG$15.65) for the study population. Approximately three-quarters of deprescribing interventions initiated by the pharmacists were accepted by the physicians. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Multidisciplinary medication review-directed deprescribing was associated with reductions in mortality and number of hospitalized residents in nursing homes and should be considered for all nursing home residents.

5.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(6): 1053-1060, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of decision-making preference of patients and caregivers is needed to facilitate deprescribing. This study aimed to assess the perspectives of caregivers and older adults towards deprescribing in an Asian population. Secondary objectives were to identify and compare characteristics associated with these attitudes and beliefs. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of two groups of participants was conducted using the Revised Patients' Attitudes Towards Deprescribing questionnaire. Descriptive results were reported for participants' characteristics and questionnaire responses from four factors (belief in medication inappropriateness, medication burden, concerns about stopping, and involvement) and two global questions. Correlation between participant characteristics and their responses was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1,057 (615 older adults; 442 caregivers) participants were recruited from 10 institutions in Singapore. In which 511 (83.0%) older adults and 385 (87.1%) caregivers reported that they would be willing to stop one or more of their medications if their doctor said it was possible, especially among older adults recruited from acute-care hospitals (85.3%) compared with older adults in community pharmacies (73.6%). Individuals who take more than five medications and those with higher education were correlated with greater agreement in inappropriateness and involvement, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider discussing deprescribing with older adults and caregivers in their regular clinical practice, especially when polypharmacy is present. Further research is needed into how to engage older adults and caregivers in shared decision making based on their attitudes toward deprescribing.

7.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081062

RESUMO

Pharmacists have a role in educating patients on the self-management of their medications, using accurate medicines lists. Thus, pharmacy students need to be adequately trained and assessed in health-literacy skills to be competent for future patient-education consultations using medicines lists. Performance-based assessments using patient simulation are often utilized to examine students' competence in clinical knowledge and communication skills. Due to COVID-19, education systems changed to remote online delivery utilizing video conferencing platforms (i.e., ZoomTM), which proved challenging for performance-based assessments. These challenges include difficulty in observing non-verbal cues over ZoomTM and not having adequate internet access. Adaptations to reduce reliance on internet access were made where students submitted a video-recording task wherein they educated a simulated patient on a medicines list, under lockdown restrictions during the pandemic. A total of 304 submissions were received where students performed the role-play with a simulated patient, such as their family members, housemates or peers either at home in person or via ZoomTM. Although it was not an original goal of the task, the collaborative effort between pharmacy instructors, students and the public helped increase awareness of medicines lists through this task.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e030106, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the determinants of deprescribing among health professionals in nursing homes, focusing on knowledge, practice and attitude. DESIGN: This was a qualitative study comprising semi-structured face-to-face interviews guided by 10 open-ended questions. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved and no new ideas were formed. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed for themes. To derive themes, we employed directed content analysis of transcript data. Coding was completed using a combination of open, axial and selective coding. SETTING: Four nursing homes in Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: The study involved 17 participants (comprising 4 doctors, 4 pharmacists and 9 nurses). RESULTS: Two key themes were identified, enablers and challenges. These were enablers and challenges faced by doctors, pharmacists and nurses towards deprescribing. The identified subthemes for enablers of deprescribing were: (1) awareness of medications that are unnecessary or could be targeted for deprescribing; (2) improving quality of life for patients with limited life expectancy; (3) improving communication between doctors, pharmacists and nurses; (4) systematic deprescribing practice and educational tools and (5) acknowledgement of possible benefits of deprescribing. The identified subthemes for challenges of deprescribing were: (1) symptoms not acknowledged as possibly drug-related; (2) lack of knowledge in patient's and family members' preferences; (3) lack of coordination between health professionals in hospitals and nursing homes and (4) limited tools for deprescribing. The development of a local guideline, mentoring nurses, case discussions, better shared decision-making and improving multidisciplinary communication, may help to support the process of deprescribing. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study highlighted that deprescribing in the nursing homes is perceived by health professionals to be challenging and future research could assess how routine case studies, mentoring and better multidisciplinary communication could improve deprescribing knowledge and process in the nursing homes.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Desprescrições , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Casas de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Farmacêuticos , Médicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Singapura
9.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(12): 2668-2688, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465121

RESUMO

AIMS: Pharmacists have been contributing to the care of residents in nursing homes and play a significant role in ensuring quality use of medicine. However, the changing role of pharmacist in nursing homes and their impact on residents is relatively unknown. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched from inception until November 2018 for articles published in English examining the services offered by pharmacists in nursing homes. Studies were included if it examined the impact of interventions by pharmacists to improve the quality use of medicine in nursing homes. RESULTS: Fifty-two studies (30 376 residents) were included in the current review. Thirteen studies were randomised controlled studies, while the remainder were either pre-post, retrospective or case-control studies where pharmacists provided services such as clinical medication review in collaboration with other healthcare professionals as well as staff education. Pooled analysis found that pharmacist-led services reduced the mean number of falls (-0.50; 95% confidence interval: -0.79 to -0.21) among residents in nursing homes. Mixed results were noted on the impact of pharmacists' services on mortality, hospitalisation and admission rates among residents. The potential financial savings of such services have not been formally evaluated by any studies thus far. The strength of evidence was moderate for the outcomes of mortality and number of fallers. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists contribute substantially to patient care in nursing homes, ensuring quality use of medication, resulting in reduced fall rates. Further studies with rigorous design are needed to measure the impact of pharmacist services on the economic benefits and other patient health outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas
11.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(4): 1074-1084, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197546

RESUMO

Background Off-label prescribing in children is associated with several prerequisites such as ensuring sound and scientific evidence and obtaining written consent prior to use of off-label drugs to ensure that protection is provided to patients and healthcare professionals. Adherence to the pre-requisites depends on the attitude, views and knowledge of the pharmacists and doctors involved in this practice. Objective To explore the attitudes, knowledge and views on off-label prescribing in children among hospital-based pharmacists and paediatric doctors. Setting The study was conducted in a 620-bedded general hospital located in the urban area of central Peninsular Malaysia. Method Face to face, semi-structured interviews with 12 pharmacists and 12 paediatric doctors. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using constant comparison method. Main outcome measure Themes surrounding hospital-based pharmacists' and paediatric doctors' attitude, knowledge and views on off-label prescribing in children. Results Four themes were derived: knowledge on off-label prescribing in children, views on off-label prescribing in children, attitude towards off-label prescribing in children and guidance on off-label prescribing in children. Conclusion There is a need to increase the knowledge of hospital-based pharmacists and paediatric doctors and address several concerns on off-label prescribing in children. The decision to prescribe or dispense off-label drugs involved collective decision-making mechanisms and guidance is required with regards to offlabel prescribing in children.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uso Off-Label , Pediatras/psicologia , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino
12.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(9): 1133-1137, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early hospital readmissions are a challenging and costly experience for both patients and the healthcare service. Reducing hospital readmission rates is a priority for health services globally and this is evident with the establishment of multiple outpatient services to promote early follow-up and to initiate secondary preventative care measures. One such intervention has been the introduction of a pharmacist-led, Hospital Outreach Medication Review (HOMR) service. However, the demand for the service has meant reaching this target has become an increasingly ambitious goal within allocated resources. OBJECTIVE: To validate a risk-stratification tool to identify low-risk patients in whom a telephone medication review would be a safe and effective alternative to a home-based review. METHOD: A risk tool was derived and applied to a retrospective sample to act as the parent cohort. A prospective cohort was stratified into low and high-risk based on this tool, and received either a telephone or a traditional home medication review respectively. RESULTS: 235 patients were included in final analysis (n = 113 prospective, n = 122 baseline controls). High-risk patients were more likely to be readmitted at 60 and 90 days in the baseline cohort (9/38 vs 7/84, p = 0.04 and 11/38 vs 9/84, p = 0.02 respectively), with a trend towards increased readmissions at 30 days (5/38 vs 3/84, p = 0.11). Logistic regression identified the risk tool as an independent predictor of hospital readmission (IRR 1.18, p = 0.04), whereas age and Charlson comorbidity were not (p = 0.80 and 0.31 respectively). There was no significant difference between the new model (incorporating phone reviews) and the parent cohort (p = 0.25). CONCLUSION: Our risk score was able to identify those at highest risk of hospital readmission at 60 and 90 days. Utilising this risk score, a telephone HOMR for low-risk patients was a safe and efficient alternative to a traditional home review.


Assuntos
Reconciliação de Medicamentos/métodos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Medição de Risco
13.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(3): 362-372.e11, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Deprescribing is effective in addressing concerns relating to polypharmacy in residents of nursing homes. However, the clinical outcomes of deprescribing interventions among residents in nursing homes are not well understood. We evaluated the impact of deprescribing interventions by health care professionals on clinical outcomes among the older residents in nursing homes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception until September 2017; manual searches of reference lists of systematic reviews identified in the electronic search; and online trial registries for unpublished, ongoing, or planned trials. (PROSPERO CRD42016050028). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled trials in a nursing home setting that included participants of at least 60 years of age. MEASURES: Falls, all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and potentially inappropriate medication were assessed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 41 randomized clinical studies (18,408 residents) that examined deprescribing (defined as either medication discontinuation, substitution, or reduction) in nursing were identified. Deprescribing interventions significantly reduced the number of residents with potentially inappropriate medications by 59% (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.89). In subgroup analysis, medication review-directed deprescribing interventions reduced all-cause mortality by 26% (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.84), as well as the number of fallers by 24% (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other deprescribing interventions, medication review-directed deprescribing had significant benefits on older residents in nursing homes. Further research is required to elicit other clinical benefits of medication review-directed deprescribing practice.


Assuntos
Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Casas de Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
World J Pediatr ; 14(6): 528-540, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, many legislative and regulatory initiatives were taken globally to improve drug use in children. However, children are still found to be prescribed with off-label drugs. This study was conducted to provide an overview of the worldwide trend in off-label prescribing in children from the year 1996 to 2016. DATA SOURCES: The articles published in PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched using text words: off-label, unlicensed, paediatric and children. Additional articles were identified by reviewing the bibliography of the retrieved articles. Full-text articles published in English which reported on the prevalence of off-label prescribing in children between January 1996 and December 2016 were included. RESULTS: A total of 101 studies met the inclusion criteria. Off-label prescribing definition included four main categories: age, indication, dose and route of administration. The three most common reference sources used in the studies were summary of product characteristics, national formularies and package inserts. Overall, the off-label prescribing rates in children ranged from 1.2 to 99.7%. The most common category of off-label prescribing in children was dose and age. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlighted that off-label prescribing in children was found to be highly prevalent throughout the past two decades, persistently in the neonatal intensive care units. This suggests that besides legislative and regulatory initiatives, behavioural, knowledge aspects and efforts to integrate evidence into practice related to off-label prescribing also need to be evaluated and consolidated as part of the concerted efforts to narrow the gaps in prescribing for children.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Atenção Primária à Saúde
15.
BJPsych Bull ; 42(1): 30-36, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388526

RESUMO

Aims and method This study used data collected to describe the activity, case-load characteristics and outcome measures for all patients seen during a 6-year period. RESULTS: The service reviewed 2153 patients over 6 years with referral rates and case-load characteristics comparable to those described in a previous study period. The team saw 82% of patients on the day they were referred. Data and outcome measures collected showed significant complexity in the cases seen and statistically significant improvement in Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) scores following service input. Clinical implications The outcome measures used were limited, but the study supports the need for specialist liaison psychiatry for older adults (LPOA) services in the general hospital. The Framework of Outcome Measures - Liaison Psychiatry has now been introduced, but it remains unclear how valid this is in LPOA. It is of note that cost-effectiveness secondary to service input and training activities are not adequately monitored. Declaration of interest None.

16.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 39(6): 1166-1170, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052115

RESUMO

Background Studies have highlighted the benefits of having community pharmacists to deliver cardiovascular screening to patients. However, only few of such trainings are provided in Malaysia. Objective To describe the implementation and evaluation of a cardiovascular train-the-trainer program for community pharmacists. Method Community pharmacists' attended a 5 h train-the-trainer program. A pre and post-training survey was administered to participants who attended the workshop to determine their requirements for education and effectiveness of the training provided. Results Forty community pharmacists participated and were trained with 35 of them completing both the pre and post training assessment. Participants self-reported confidence, knowledge and ability to conduct a workshop on cardiovascular health increased between 0.22 and 0.75 points post-training (p < 0.05). The program was rated as very good or excellent by 55% of participants. Eight participants implemented the program at 6 months follow-up within their own pharmacy organisations to further train another 114 participants on cardiovascular health. Conclusion Participation in a train-the-trainer program significantly increases community pharmacists' perceived ability and confidence in conducting a cardiovascular health workshop.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Papel Profissional , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 15(3): 971, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Private general practitioners in Malaysia largely operates as solo practices - prescribing and supplying medications to patients directly from their clinics, thus posing risk of medication-related problems to consumers. A pharmacy practice reform that integrates pharmacists into primary healthcare clinics can be a potential initiative to promote quality use of medication. This model of care is a novel approach in Malaysia and research in the local context is required, especially from the perspectives of pharmacists. OBJECTIVE: To explore pharmacists' views in integrating pharmacists into private GP clinics in Malaysia. METHODS: A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit community and hospital pharmacists from urban areas in Malaysia to participate either in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. A total of 2 focus groups and 4 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using NVivo 10. RESULTS: Four major themes were identified: (1) Limited potential to expand pharmacists' roles, (2) Concerns about non-pharmacists dispensing medicines in private GP clinics, (3) Lack of trust from consumers and private GPs, (4) Cost implications. Participants felt that there was a limited role for pharmacists in private GP clinics. This was because the medication supply role is currently undertaken in private GP clinics without the need of pharmacists. The perceived lack of trust from consumers and private GPs towards pharmacists arises from the belief that healthcare is the GPs' responsibility. This suggests that there is a need for increased public and GP awareness towards the capabilities of pharmacists' in medication management. Participants were concerned about an increase in cost to private GP visits if pharmacists were to be integrated. Nevertheless, some participants perceived the integration as a means to reduce medical costs through improved quality use of medicines. CONCLUSION: Findings from the study provided a better understanding to help ascertain pharmacists' views on their readiness and acceptance in a potential new model of practice.

18.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 15(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165683

RESUMO

Background: Private general practitioners in Malaysia largely operates as solo practices - prescribing and supplying medications to patients directly from their clinics, thus posing risk of medication-related problems to consumers. A pharmacy practice reform that integrates pharmacists into primary healthcare clinics can be a potential initiative to promote quality use of medication. This model of care is a novel approach in Malaysia and research in the local context is required, especially from the perspectives of pharmacists. Objective: To explore pharmacists’ views in integrating pharmacists into private GP clinics in Malaysia. Methods: A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit community and hospital pharmacists from urban areas in Malaysia to participate either in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. A total of 2 focus groups and 4 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using NVivo 10. Results: Four major themes were identified: (1) Limited potential to expand pharmacists’ roles, (2) Concerns about non-pharmacists dispensing medicines in private GP clinics, (3) Lack of trust from consumers and private GPs, (4) Cost implications. Participants felt that there was a limited role for pharmacists in private GP clinics. This was because the medication supply role is currently undertaken in private GP clinics without the need of pharmacists. The perceived lack of trust from consumers and private GPs towards pharmacists arises from the belief that healthcare is the GPs’ responsibility. This suggests that there is a need for increased public and GP awareness towards the capabilities of pharmacists’ in medication management. Participants were concerned about an increase in cost to private GP visits if pharmacists were to be integrated. Nevertheless, some participants perceived the integration as a means to reduce medical costs through improved quality use of medicines. Conclusion: Findings from the study provided a better understanding to help ascertain pharmacists’ views on their readiness and acceptance in a potential new model of practice (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Prática Privada/organização & administração , Prática Privada/normas , Relações Interprofissionais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Farmacêuticos , Análise de Dados/métodos , Malásia/epidemiologia
19.
BMJ Open ; 7(5): e015293, 2017 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An ageing population has become an urgent concern for Asia in recent times. In nursing homes, polypharmacy has also become a compounding issue. Deprescribing practice is an evidence-based strategy to provide a better outcome in this group of patients; however, its implementation in nursing homes is often challenging, and prospective outcome data on deprescribing practice in the elderly is lacking. Our study assesses the implementation of team-care deprescribing to understand the benefits of this practice in geriatric setting and to explore the factors affecting deprescribing practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This multicentre prospective study consists of a prestudy interview questionnaire, and a preintervention and postintervention study to be conducted in the nursing home setting on residents at least 65 years old and on five or more medications. We will employ a cluster randomised stepped-wedge interventional design, based on a five-step (reviewing, checking, discussion, communication and documentation) team-care deprescribing practice coupled with the use of a deprescribing guide (consisting of Beers and STOPP criteria, as well as drug interaction checking), to assess the health and pharmacoeconomic outcome in nursing homes' practice. Primary outcome measures of the intervention will consist of fall risks using a fall risk assessment tool. Other outcomes assessed include fall rates, pill burden including number of pills per day, number of doses per day and number of medications prescribed. Cost-related measures will include the use of cost-benefit analysis, which is calculated from the medication cost savings from deprescribing. For the prestudy interview questionnaire, findings will be analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is approved by the Domain Specific Review Board of National Healthcare Group, Singapore (2016/00422) and Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (2016-1430-7791). The study findings shall be disseminated in international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02863341), Pre-results.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desprescrições , Polimedicação , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 24(4): 302-5, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26777986

RESUMO

This article serves as an update to the work by Shafie et al. (2012) which previously reviewed the benefits of policies separating prescribing and dispensing in various countries to advocate its implementation in Malaysia. This article seeks to strengthen the argument by highlighting not only the weaknesses of the Malaysian health care system from the historical, professional and economic viewpoints but also the shortcomings of both medical and pharmacy professions in the absence of separation of dispensing. It also provides a detailed insight into the ongoing initiatives taken to consolidate the role of pharmacists in the health care system in the advent of separation of dispensing. Under the two tier system in Malaysia at present, the separation of prescribing and dispensing is implemented only in government hospitals. The absence of this separation in the private practices has led to possible profit-oriented medical and pharmacy practices which hinder safe and cost-effective delivery of health services. The call for separation of dispensing has gained traction over the years despite various hurdles ranging from the formidable resistance from the medical fraternity to the public's scepticism towards the new policy. With historical testament and present evidence pointing towards the merits of a system in which doctors prescribe and pharmacists dispense, the implementation of this health care model is justified.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Médicos/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Atenção à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Malásia , Assistência Farmacêutica/economia , Assistência Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Farmacêuticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Papel do Médico , Médicos/economia , Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Padrões de Prática Médica , Papel Profissional
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