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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442364

RESUMO

Nanoscale, low-phase-noise, tunable transmitter-receiver links are key for enabling the progress of wireless communication. We demonstrate that vortex-based spin-torque nano-oscillators, which are intrinsically low-noise devices because of their topologically protected magnetic structure, can achieve frequency tunability when submitted to local ion implantation. In the experiments presented here, the gyrotropic mode is excited with spin-polarized alternating currents and anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements yield discrete frequencies from a single device. Indeed, chromium-implanted regions of permalloy disks exhibit different saturation magnetization than neighboring, non-irradiated areas, and thus different resonance frequency, corresponding to the specific area where the core is gyrating. Our study proves that such devices can be fabricated without the need for further lithographical steps, suggesting ion irradiation can be a viable and cost-effective fabrication method for densely packed networks of oscillators.

3.
Langmuir ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011149

RESUMO

Synthetic nano- and micromotors interact with each other and their surroundings in a complex manner. Here, we report on the anisotropy of active-passive particle interaction in a soft matter system containing an immobile yet photochemical Ag/AgCl-based Janus particle embedded in a dense matrix of passive beads in pure water. The asymmetry in the chemical gradient around the Janus particle, triggered upon visible light illumination, distorts the isotropy of the surrounding electric potential and results in the repulsion of adjacent passive beads to a certain distance away from the Janus particle. This exclusion effect is found to be anisotropic with larger distances to passive beads in front of the Ag/AgCl cap of the Janus particle. We provide insight into this phenomenon by performing the angular analysis of the radii of exclusion and tracking their time evolution at the level of a single bead. Our study provides a novel fundamental insight into the collective behavior of a complex mixture of active and passive particles and is relevant for various application scenarios, e.g., particle transport at micro- and nanoscale and local chemical sensing.

4.
Small ; 15(52): e1904738, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709733

RESUMO

Nanoscale modifications of strain and magnetic anisotropy can open pathways to engineering magnetic domains for device applications. A periodic magnetic domain structure can be stabilized in sub-200 nm wide linear as well as curved magnets, embedded within a flat non-ferromagnetic thin film. The nanomagnets are produced within a non-ferromagnetic B2-ordered Fe60 Al40 thin film, where local irradiation by a focused ion beam causes the formation of disordered and strongly ferromagnetic regions of A2 Fe60 Al40 . An anisotropic lattice relaxation is observed, such that the in-plane lattice parameter is larger when measured parallel to the magnet short-axis as compared to its length. This in-plane structural anisotropy manifests a magnetic anisotropy contribution, generating an easy-axis parallel to the short axis. The competing effect of the strain and shape anisotropies stabilizes a periodic domain pattern in linear as well as spiral nanomagnets, providing a versatile and geometrically controllable path to engineering the strain and thereby the magnetic anisotropy at the nanoscale.

5.
Nano Lett ; 19(10): 6839-6844, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518136

RESUMO

Spintronic devices operating with pure spin currents represent a new paradigm in nanoelectronics, with a higher energy efficiency and lower dissipation as compared to charge currents. This technology, however, will be viable only if the amount of spin current diffusing in a nanochannel can be tuned on demand while guaranteeing electrical compatibility with other device elements, to which it should be integrated in high-density three-dimensional architectures. Here, we address these two crucial milestones and demonstrate that pure spin currents can effectively propagate in metallic nanochannels with a three-dimensional curved geometry. Remarkably, the geometric design of the nanochannels can be used to reach an independent tuning of spin transport and charge transport characteristics. These results laid the foundation for the design of efficient pure spin current-based electronics, which can be integrated in complex three-dimensional architectures.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4405, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562319

RESUMO

The emergence of smart electronics, human friendly robotics and supplemented or virtual reality demands electronic skins with both tactile and touchless perceptions for the manipulation of real and virtual objects. Here, we realize bifunctional electronic skins equipped with a compliant magnetic microelectromechanical system able to transduce both tactile-via mechanical pressure-and touchless-via magnetic fields-stimulations simultaneously. The magnetic microelectromechanical system separates electric signals from tactile and touchless interactions into two different regions, allowing the electronic skins to unambiguously distinguish the two modes in real time. Besides, its inherent magnetic specificity overcomes the interference from non-relevant objects and enables signal-programmable interactions. Ultimately, the magnetic microelectromechanical system enables complex interplay with physical objects enhanced with virtual content data in augmented reality, robotics, and medical applications.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Algoritmos , Eletricidade , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Eletrônica/métodos , Humanos , Magnetismo , Robótica , Transdutores
7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 077201, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491129

RESUMO

The main origin of the chiral symmetry breaking and, thus, for the magnetochiral effects in magnetic materials is associated with an antisymmetric exchange interaction, the intrinsic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Recently, numerous inspiring theoretical works predict that the bending of a thin film to a curved surface is often sufficient to induce similar chiral effects. However, these originate from the exchange or magnetostatic interactions and can stabilize noncollinear magnetic structures or influence spin-wave propagation. Here, we demonstrate that curvature-induced chiral effects are experimentally observable rather than theoretical abstraction and are present even in conventional soft ferromagnetic materials. We show that, by measuring the depinning field of domain walls in the simplest possible curve, a flat parabolic stripe, the effective exchange-driven DMI interaction constant can be quantified. Remarkably, its value can be as high as the interfacial DMI constant for thin films and can be tuned by the parabola's curvature.

8.
Nano Lett ; 19(3): 1682-1687, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702895

RESUMO

Antiferromagnets have recently emerged as attractive platforms for spintronics applications, offering fundamentally new functionalities compared with their ferromagnetic counterparts. Whereas nanoscale thin-film materials are key to the development of future antiferromagnetic spintronic technologies, existing experimental tools tend to suffer from low resolution or expensive and complex equipment requirements. We offer a simple, high-resolution alternative by addressing the ubiquitous surface magnetization of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets in a granular thin-film sample on the nanoscale using single-spin magnetometry in combination with spin-sensitive transport experiments. Specifically, we quantitatively image the evolution of individual nanoscale antiferromagnetic domains in 200 nm thin films of Cr2O3 in real space and across the paramagnet-to-antiferromagnet phase transition, finding an average domain size of 230 nm, several times larger than the average grain size in the film. These experiments allow us to discern key properties of the Cr2O3 thin film, including the boundary magnetic moment density, the variation of critical temperature throughout the film, the mechanism of domain formation, and the strength of exchange coupling between individual grains comprising the film. Our work offers novel insights into the magnetic ordering mechanism of Cr2O3 and firmly establishes single-spin magnetometry as a versatile and widely applicable tool for addressing antiferromagnetic thin films on the nanoscale.

9.
Small ; 14(48): e1803613, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369029

RESUMO

Visible light-driven nano/micromotors are promising candidates for biomedical and environmental applications. This study demonstrates blue light-driven Ag/AgCl-based spherical Janus micromotors, which couple plasmonic light absorption with the photochemical decomposition of AgCl. These micromotors reveal high motility in pure water, i.e., mean squared displacements (MSD) reaching 800 µm2 within 8 s, which is 100× higher compared to previous visible light-driven Janus micromotors and 7× higher than reported ultraviolet (UV) light-driven AgCl micromotors. In addition to providing design rules to realize efficient Janus micromotors, the complex dynamics revealed by individual and assemblies of Janus motors is investigated experimentally and in simulations. The effect of suppressed rotational diffusion is focused on, compared to UV light-driven AgCl micromotors, as a reason for this remarkable increase of the MSD. Moreover, this study demonstrates the potential of using visible light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgCl-based Janus micromotors in human saliva, phosphate-buffered saline solution, the most common isotonic buffer that mimics the environment of human body fluids, and Rhodamine B solution, which is a typical polluted dye for demonstrations of photocatalytic environmental remediation. This new knowledge is useful for designing visible light driven nano/micromotors based on the surface plasmon resonance effect and their applications in assays relevant for biomedical and ecological sciences.

10.
Small ; 14(44): e1802537, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238700

RESUMO

Insight is provided into the collective behavior of visible-light photochemically driven plasmonic Ag/AgCl Janus particles surrounded by passive polystyrene (PS) beads. The active diffusion of single Janus particles and their clusters (small: consisting of two or three Janus particles and large: consisting of more than ten Janus particles), and their interaction with passive PS beads, are analyzed experimentally and in simulations. The diffusivity of active Janus particles, and thus the exclusive effect to passive PS beads, can be regulated by the number of single Janus particles in the cluster. On the simulation side, the Langevin equations of motion for self-propelled Janus particles and diffusing passive PS beads are numerically solved using Molecular-Dynamics simulations. The complex interactions of both subsystems, including elastic core-to-core interactions, short-range attraction, and effective repulsion due to light-induced chemical reactions are considered. This complex mixed system not only provides insight to the interactive effect between active visible light-driven self-propelled micromotors and passive beads, but also offers promise for implications in light-controlled propulsion transport and chemical sensing.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(6): 067201, 2018 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481278

RESUMO

Typically, the chiral magnetic Skyrmion is a single-state excitation. Here we propose a system, where multiplet of Skyrmion states appears and one of these states can be the ground one. We show that the presence of a localized curvilinear defect drastically changes the magnetic properties of a thin perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnetic film. For a large enough defect amplitude a discrete set of equilibrium magnetization states appears forming a ladder of energy levels. Each equilibrium state has either a zero or a unit topological charge; i.e., topologically trivial and Skyrmion multiplets generally appear. Transitions between the levels with the same topological charge are allowed and can be utilized to encode and switch a bit of information. There is a wide range of geometrical and material parameters, where the Skyrmion level has the lowest energy. Thus, periodically arranged curvilinear defects can result in a Skyrmion lattice as the ground state.

12.
Sci Adv ; 4(1): eaao2623, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376121

RESUMO

Electronic skins equipped with artificial receptors are able to extend our perception beyond the modalities that have naturally evolved. These synthetic receptors offer complimentary information on our surroundings and endow us with novel means of manipulating physical or even virtual objects. We realize highly compliant magnetosensitive skins with directional perception that enable magnetic cognition, body position tracking, and touchless object manipulation. Transfer printing of eight high-performance spin valve sensors arranged into two Wheatstone bridges onto 1.7-µm-thick polyimide foils ensures mechanical imperceptibility. This resembles a new class of interactive devices extracting information from the surroundings through magnetic tags. We demonstrate this concept in augmented reality systems with virtual knob-turning functions and the operation of virtual dialing pads, based on the interaction with magnetic fields. This technology will enable a cornucopia of applications from navigation, motion tracking in robotics, regenerative medicine, and sports and gaming to interaction in supplemented reality.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Pele , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Robótica
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 866, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339741

RESUMO

Crystals with broken inversion symmetry can host fundamentally appealing and technologically relevant periodical or localized chiral magnetic textures. The type of the texture as well as its magnetochiral properties are determined by the intrinsic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), which is a material property and can hardly be changed. Here we put forth a method to create new artificial chiral nanoscale objects with tunable magnetochiral properties from standard magnetic materials by using geometrical manipulations. We introduce a mesoscale Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction that combines the intrinsic spin-orbit and extrinsic curvature-driven DMI terms and depends both on the material and geometrical parameters. The vector of the mesoscale DMI determines magnetochiral properties of any curved magnetic system with broken inversion symmetry. The strength and orientation of this vector can be changed by properly choosing the geometry. For a specific example of nanosized magnetic helix, the same material system with different geometrical parameters can acquire one of three zero-temperature magnetic phases, namely, phase with a quasitangential magnetization state, phase with a periodical state and one intermediate phase with a periodical domain wall state. Our approach paves the way towards the realization of a new class of nanoscale spintronic and spinorbitronic devices with the geometrically tunable magnetochirality.

14.
ACS Sens ; 2(12): 1839-1846, 2017 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183119

RESUMO

Droplet-based high throughput biomolecular screening and combinatorial synthesis entail a viable indexing strategy to be developed for the identification of each microreactor. Here, we propose a novel indexing scheme based on the generation of droplet sequences on demand to form unique encoding droplet chains in fluidic networks. These codes are represented by multiunit and multilevel droplets packages, with each code unit possessing several distinct signal levels, potentially allowing large encoding capacity. For proof of concept, we use magnetic nanoparticles as the encoding material and a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor-based active sorting system supplemented with an optical detector to generate and decode the sequence of one exemplar sample droplet reactor and a 4-unit quaternary magnetic code. The indexing capacity offered by 4-unit multilevel codes with this indexing strategy is estimated to exceed 104, which holds great promise for large-scale droplet-based screening and synthesis.


Assuntos
Emulsões , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Microscopia , Tamanho da Partícula
15.
Lab Chip ; 17(11): 1884-1912, 2017 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28485417

RESUMO

Detection and quantification of a variety of micro- and nanoscale entities, e.g. molecules, cells, and particles, are crucial components of modern biomedical research, in which biosensing platform technologies play a vital role. Confronted with the drastic global demographic changes, future biomedical research entails continuous development of new-generation biosensing platforms targeting even lower costs, more compactness, and higher throughput, sensitivity and selectivity. Among a wide choice of fundamental biosensing principles, magnetic sensing technologies enabled by magnetic field sensors and magnetic particles offer attractive advantages. The key features of a magnetic sensing format include the use of commercially available magnetic field sensing elements, e.g. magnetoresistive sensors which bear huge potential for compact integration, a magnetic field sensing mechanism which is free from interference by complex biomedical samples, and an additional degree of freedom for the on-chip handling of biochemical species rendered by magnetic labels. In this review, we highlight the historical basis, routes, recent advances and applications of magnetic biosensing platform technologies based on magnetoresistive sensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Magnetismo , Imãs , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Análise em Microsséries
16.
Nat Commun ; 8: 13985, 2017 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045029

RESUMO

Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

17.
Small ; 12(42): 5882-5890, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27628242

RESUMO

Self-propelled Janus particles, acting as microscopic vehicles, have the potential to perform complex tasks on a microscopic scale, suitable, e.g., for environmental applications, on-chip chemical information processing, or in vivo drug delivery. Development of these smart nanodevices requires a better understanding of how synthetic swimmers move in crowded and confined environments that mimic actual biosystems, e.g., network of blood vessels. Here, the dynamics of self-propelled Janus particles interacting with catalytically passive silica beads in a narrow channel is studied both experimentally and through numerical simulations. Upon varying the area density of the silica beads and the width of the channel, active transport reveals a number of intriguing properties, which range from distinct bulk and boundary-free diffusivity at low densities, to directional "locking" and channel "unclogging" at higher densities, whereby a Janus swimmer is capable of transporting large clusters of passive particles.

18.
ACS Nano ; 10(9): 8491-8, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27529182

RESUMO

We realized a deterministic transport system for superparamagnetic microbeads through micrometer-sized tubes acting as channels. Beads are moved stepwise in a paternoster-like manner through the tube and back on top of it by weak magnetic field pulses without changing the field pulse polarity and taking advantage of the magnetic stray field emerging from the tubular structures. The microtubes are engineered by rolling up exchange bias layer systems, magnetically patterned into parallel stripe magnetic domains. In this way, the tubes possess distinct azimuthally aligned magnetic domain patterns. This transport mechanism features high step velocities and remote control of not only the direction and trajectory but also the velocity of the transport without the need of fuel or catalytic material. Therefore, this approach has the potential to impact several fields of 3D applications in biotechnology, including particle transport related phenomena in lab-on-a-chip and lab-in-a-tube devices.

19.
Small ; 12(33): 4553-62, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27426124

RESUMO

Information tagging and processing are vital in information-intensive applications, e.g., telecommunication and high-throughput drug screening. Magnetic suspension array technology may offer intrinsic advantages to screening applications by enabling high distinguishability, the ease of code generation, and the feasibility of fast code readout, though the practical applicability of magnetic suspension array technology remains hampered by the lack of quality administration of encoded microcarriers. Here, a logic-controlled microfluidic system enabling controlled synthesis of magnetic suspension arrays in multiphase flow networks is realized. The smart and compact system offers a practical solution for the quality administration and screening of encoded magnetic microcarriers and addresses the universal need of process control for synthesis in microfluidic networks, i.e., on-demand creation of droplet templates for high information capacity. The demonstration of magnetic suspension array technology enabled by magnetic in-flow cytometry opens the avenue toward point-of-care multiplexed bead-based assays, clinical diagnostics, and drug discovery.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Microfluídica/métodos , Suspensões/química , Alginatos/química , Citometria de Fluxo , Ácido Glucurônico/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 23316, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008975

RESUMO

Manipulation of the domain wall propagation in magnetic wires is a key practical task for a number of devices including racetrack memory and magnetic logic. Recently, curvilinear effects emerged as an efficient mean to impact substantially the statics and dynamics of magnetic textures. Here, we demonstrate that the curvilinear form of the exchange interaction of a magnetic helix results in an effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with a complete set of Lifshitz invariants for a one-dimensional system. In contrast to their planar counterparts, the geometrically induced modifications of the static magnetic texture of the domain walls in magnetic helices offer unconventional means to control the wall dynamics relying on spin-orbit Rashba torque. The chiral symmetry breaking due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction leads to the opposite directions of the domain wall motion in left- or right-handed helices. Furthermore, for the magnetic helices, the emergent effective anisotropy term and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can be attributed to the clear geometrical parameters like curvature and torsion offering intuitive understanding of the complex curvilinear effects in magnetism.

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