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1.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977517

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Infusion of large volumes of saline causes hyperchloremic metabolic acidosisA recent Cochrane review based on 18 small trials reported that major morbidity and mortality were comparable with perioperative saline or lactated Ringer's use WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In a large single-center alternating cohort trial of patients having elective colorectal or orthopedic surgery, there was no clinically meaningful difference in the risk of a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications including renal, respiratory, infectious, and hemorrhagic complications BACKGROUND:: Both saline and lactated Ringer's solutions are commonly given to surgical patients. However, hyperchloremic acidosis consequent to saline administration may provoke complications. The authors therefore tested the primary hypothesis that a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications is less common in patients given lactated Ringer's solution than normal saline. METHODS: The authors conducted an alternating cohort controlled trial in which adults having colorectal and orthopedic surgery were given either lactated Ringer's solution or normal saline in 2-week blocks between September 2015 and August 2018. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative renal, respiratory, infectious, and hemorrhagic complications. The secondary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury. RESULTS: Among 8,616 qualifying patients, 4,187 (49%) were assigned to lactated Ringer's solution, and 4,429 (51%) were assigned to saline. Each group received a median 1.9 l of fluid. The primary composite of major complications was observed in 5.8% of lactated Ringer's versus 6.1% of normal saline patients, with estimated average relative risk across the components of the composite of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.52; P = 0.261). The secondary outcome, postoperative acute kidney injury, Acute Kidney Injury Network stage I-III versus 0, occurred in 6.6% of lactated Ringer's patients versus 6.2% of normal saline patients, with an estimated relative risk of 1.18 (99.3% CI, 0.99 to 1.41; P = 0.009, significance criterion of 0.007). Absolute differences between the treatment groups for each outcome were less than 0.5%, an amount that is not clinically meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: In elective orthopedic and colorectal surgery patients, there was no clinically meaningful difference in postoperative complications with lactated Ringer's or saline volume replacement. Clinicians can reasonably use either solution intraoperatively.

2.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929326

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Perioperative acute kidney injury is commonIt is unclear whether this merely represents a transient increase in creatinine or has prognostic value WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Patients with mild postoperative kidney injury (stage I) after noncardiac surgery had an estimated 2.4 times higher odds of having long-term renal dysfunction compared with patients without postoperative kidney injuryA quarter of patients who had stage I acute kidney injury postoperatively still had stage I kidney injury 1 to 2 yr later, and an additional 11% had even worse renal function BACKGROUND:: Perioperative acute kidney injury is common. However, it is unclear whether this merely represents a transient increase in creatinine or has prognostic value. Therefore, the long-term clinical importance of mild postoperative acute kidney injury remains unclear. This study assessed whether adults who do and do not experience mild kidney injury after noncardiac surgery are at similar risk for long-term renal injury. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of adults having noncardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic who had preoperative, postoperative, and long-term (1 to 2 yr after surgery) plasma creatinine measurements. The exposure (postoperative kidney injury) and outcome (long-term renal injury) were defined and staged according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) initiative criteria. The primary analysis was for lack of association between postoperative kidney injury (stage I vs. no injury) and long-term renal injury. RESULTS: Among 15,621 patients analyzed, 3% had postoperative stage I kidney injury. Long-term renal outcomes were not similar in patients with and without postoperative stage I injury. Specifically, about 26% of patients with stage I postoperative kidney injury still had mild injury 1 to 2 yr later, and 11% had even more severe injury. A full third (37%) of patients with stage I kidney injury therefore had renal injury 1 to 2 yr after surgery. Patients with postoperative stage I injury had an estimated 2.4 times higher odds of having long-term renal dysfunction (KDIGO stage I, II, or III) compared with patients without postoperative kidney injury (odds ratio [95% CI] of 2.4 [2.0 to 3.0]) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: In adults recovering from noncardiac surgery, even small postoperative increases in plasma creatinine, corresponding to stage I kidney injury, are associated with renal dysfunction 1 to 2 yr after surgery. Even mild postoperative renal injury should therefore be considered a clinically important perioperative outcome.

3.
Anesthesiology ; 132(1): 82-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes, but it remains unclear which measure of frailty is best. This study compared two approaches: the Modified Frailty Index, which is a deficit accumulation model (number of accumulated deficits), and the Hopkins Frailty Score, which is a phenotype model (consisting of shrinking, weakness, exhaustion, slowness, and low physical activity). The primary aim was to compare the ability of each frailty score to predict prolonged hospitalization. Secondarily, the ability of each score to predict 30-day readmission and/or postoperative complications was compared. METHODS: This study prospectively enrolled adults presenting for preanesthesia evaluation before elective noncardiac surgery. The Hopkins Frailty Score and Modified Frailty Index were both determined. The ability of each frailty score to predict the primary outcome (prolonged hospitalization) was compared using a ratio of root-mean-square prediction errors from linear regression models. The ability of each score to predict the secondary outcome (readmission and complications) was compared using ratio of root-mean-square prediction errors from logistic regression models. RESULTS: The study included 1,042 patients. The frailty rates were 23% (Modified Frailty Index of 4 or higher) and 18% (Hopkins Frailty Score of 3 or higher). In total, 12.9% patients were readmitted or had postoperative complications. The error of the Modified Frailty Index and Hopkins Frailty Score in predicting the primary outcome was 2.5 (95% CI, 2.2, 2.9) and 2.6 (95% CI, 2.2, 3.0) days, respectively, and their ratio was 1.0 (95% CI, 1.0, 1.0), indicating similarly poor prediction. Similarly, the error of respective frailty scores in predicting the probability of secondary outcome was high, specifically 0.3 (95% CI, 0.3, 0.4) and 0.3 (95% CI, 0.3, 0.4), and their ratio was 1.00 (95% CI, 1.0, 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The Modified Frailty Index and Hopkins Frailty Score were similarly poor predictors of perioperative risk. Further studies, with different frailty screening tools, are needed to identify the best method to measure perioperative frailty.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1468-1473, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after cardiac surgery is largely treated with opioids, but their poor safety profile makes nonopioid medications attractive as part of multimodal pathways. Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce acute postoperative pain, but the role of steroids in reducing acute poststernotomy pain is unclear. We evaluated the association between the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone and postoperative analgesia, defined as a composite of pain scores and opioid consumption, during the initial 24 hours after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc retrospective analysis of a large clinical trial in which adults having cardiac surgery were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 intraoperative doses of 250 mg IV methylprednisolone or placebo. Pain scores and opioid consumption were collected during the initial 24 hours after surgery. Methylprednisolone was considered to be associated with better pain control than placebo if proven noninferior (not worse) on both pain scores (defined a priori with delta of 1 point) and opioid consumption (delta of 20%) and superior to placebo in at least 1 of the 2 outcomes. This test was repeated in the opposite direction (testing whether placebo is better than methylprednisolone on postoperative pain management). RESULTS: Of 251 eligible patients, 127 received methylprednisolone and 124 received placebo. Methylprednisolone was noninferior to placebo on pain with difference in mean (CI) pain scores of -0.25 (-0.71 to 0.21); P < .001. However, methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on opioid consumption (ratio of geometric means [CI]: 1.11 [0.64-1.91]; P = .37). Because methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on both outcomes, we did not proceed to superiority testing based on the a priori stopping rules. Similar results were found when testing the opposite direction. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, we could not identify a beneficial analgesic effect after cardiac surgery associated with methylprednisolone administration. There are currently no data to suggest that methylprednisolone has significant analgesic benefit in adults having cardiac surgery.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device implantation increases postoperative morbidity and mortality. Whether intraoperative echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements predict right ventricular failure is unclear. Speckle-tracking-derived tricuspid annulus displacement may provide a useful, effective, and straightforward predictor of severe right ventricular failure in patients having left ventricular device implantation. The aim of this study was to determine if intraoperative tricuspid annulus displacement is a stronger discriminator compared with the global longitudinal strain and modified tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, the Michigan risk score, and pulmonary artery pulsatility index. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: A tertiary-care referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients scheduled for left ventricular assist device implantation from January 2010 to December 2017. INTERVENTIONS: None MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors examined 86 patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation with adequate intraoperative echocardiographic images. The analyses did not demonstrate an association between tricuspid annulus displacement and severe right ventricular failure (univariate C-statistics <0.60 for all 4 echocardiographic measures). The discrimination ability was not significantly better than strain (DeLong test p = 0.44) and modified tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (p = 0.89). The discrimination ability of tricuspid annulus displacement measurements was not better than the Michigan risk score (p = 0.65) and pulmonary artery pulsatility index (p = 0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative echocardiographic parameters, including tricuspid annulus displacement, modified tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and strain, are poor discriminators of severe right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device implantation. The preoperative Michigan risk-scoring system and intraoperative pulmonary artery pulsatility index are equally unreliable.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 129(3): 896-904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotension is associated with acute kidney injury, but vasopressors used to treat hypotension may also compromise renal function. We therefore tested the hypothesis that vasopressor infusion during complex spine surgery is not associated with impaired renal function. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort analysis, we considered adults who had complex spine surgery between January 2005 and September 2014 at the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus. Our primary outcome was postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate. Secondarily, we evaluated renal function using Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. We obtained data for 1814 surgeries, including 689 patients (38%) who were given intraoperative vasopressors infusion for ≥30 minutes and 1125 patients (62%) who were not. Five hundred forty patients with and 540 patients without vasopressor infusions were well matched across 32 potential confounding variables. RESULTS: In matched patients, vasopressor infusions lasted an average of 173 ± 100 minutes (SD) and were given a median dose (1st quintile, 3rd quintile) of 3.4-mg (1.5, 6.7 mg) phenylephrine equivalents. Mean arterial pressure and the amounts of hypotension were similar in each matched group. The postoperative difference in mean estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with and without vasopressor infusions was only 0.8 mL/min/1.73 m (95% CI, -0.6 to 2.2 mL/min/1.73 m) (P = .28). Intraoperative vasopressor infusion was also not associated with increased odds of augmented acute kidney injury stage. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should not avoid typical perioperative doses of vasopressors for fear of promoting kidney injury. Tolerating hypotension to avoid vasopressor use would probably be a poor strategy.

7.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after cardiac surgery is largely treated with opioids, but their poor safety profile makes nonopioid medications attractive as part of multimodal pathways. Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce acute postoperative pain, but the role of steroids in reducing acute poststernotomy pain is unclear. We evaluated the association between the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone and postoperative analgesia, defined as a composite of pain scores and opioid consumption, during the initial 24 hours after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc retrospective analysis of a large clinical trial in which adults having cardiac surgery were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 intraoperative doses of 250 mg IV methylprednisolone or placebo. Pain scores and opioid consumption were collected during the initial 24 hours after surgery. Methylprednisolone was considered to be associated with better pain control than placebo if proven noninferior (not worse) on both pain scores (defined a priori with delta of 1 point) and opioid consumption (delta of 20%) and superior to placebo in at least 1 of the 2 outcomes. This test was repeated in the opposite direction (testing whether placebo is better than methylprednisolone on postoperative pain management). RESULTS: Of 251 eligible patients, 127 received methylprednisolone and 124 received placebo. Methylprednisolone was noninferior to placebo on pain with difference in mean (CI) pain scores of -0.25 (-0.71 to 0.21); P < .001. However, methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on opioid consumption (ratio of geometric means [CI]: 1.11 [0.64-1.91]; P = .37). Because methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on both outcomes, we did not proceed to superiority testing based on the a priori stopping rules. Similar results were found when testing the opposite direction. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, we could not identify a beneficial analgesic effect after cardiac surgery associated with methylprednisolone administration. There are currently no data to suggest that methylprednisolone has significant analgesic benefit in adults having cardiac surgery.

9.
J Clin Anesth ; 53: 56-63, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326379

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Intravenous patient-controlled opioid analgesia (IVPCA), epidural analgesia and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltrations are frequently used postoperative pain management modalities. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the use of epidural, IVPCA, and TAP infiltrations with liposomal bupivacaine for analgesia in the first 72 h postoperatively in patients undergoing major lower abdominal surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cost effectiveness analysis. SETTING: Operating room. PATIENTS: We obtained data on major lower-abdominal surgeries performed under general anesthesia on adult patients between January 2012 and July 2014. INTERVENTIONS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was comparing the use of epidural, IVPCA, and TAP infiltrations with liposomal bupivacaine for analgesia in the first 72 h postoperatively. MEASUREMENTS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate the health outcomes for patients undergoing major lower abdominal surgery. The primary outcome was time-weighted pain from 0 to 72 h after surgery, as measured by numerical rating scale pain scores. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the hospital as the party responsible for most costs related to surgery. MAIN RESULTS: From the base case analysis, IVPCA was the optimal strategy regarding cost and effect. TAP with LB, however, was only narrowly dominated, while epidural was clearly dominated. From the sensitivity analysis at willingness-to-pay (WTP) of $150, IV PCA and TAP infiltration were each the optimal strategy for approximately 50% of the iterations. At WTP of $10,000, epidural was only the optimal strategy in 10% of the iterations. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in the literature to compare the cost-effectiveness of epidural, IVPCA, and TAP infiltrations with LB. Within reasonable WTP values, there is little differentiation in cost-effectiveness between IVPCA and TAP infiltration with LB. Epidural does not become a cost-effective strategy even at much higher WTP values.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/economia , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/economia , Analgésicos Opioides/economia , Bupivacaína/economia , Bloqueio Nervoso/economia , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Adulto , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/economia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
11.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(4): 993-1000, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheter-related complications can be reduced by following strict guidelines during their introduction, maintenance, and removal. The authors therefore aimed to determine whether simulation-based learning would improve senior anesthesiology residents' patient care performance during the insertion and management of these catheters compared to interactive problem-based learning (PBL) using the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills global rating scale (ANTS). DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial. SETTING: Vascular or hybrid operating rooms in a large academic tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS: Senior anesthesia (categorical anesthesia-3) residents rotating through the vascular rotation at the Cleveland Clinic main campus in the period between December 2014 and June 2017. INTERVENTION: Simulation-based learning versus PBL. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was the composite score (ANTS global rating scale) achieved by participating residents as evaluated by their supervising anesthesiologists. Out of 28 residents who completed the study, N = 13 were randomized to simulation-based learning and N = 15 residents to the PBL approach. The median (first quartile, third quartile) composite score was 16 (14, 16) and 16 (13, 16) for the simulation-based learning and PBL groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in staff evaluation of the 2 study groups (p = 0.48) with an estimated odds (95% confidence interval) of getting a better staff evaluation score of 1.9 (0.3-10.6) times higher comparing simulation versus traditional training groups. CONCLUSION: Compared to interactive PBL, simulation-based learning does not result in a statistically significant improvement in anesthesia resident performance during insertion and management of cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheters.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/métodos , Anestesiologia/métodos , Cateterismo/métodos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Anestesiologia/educação , Anestesiologia/normas , Cateterismo/normas , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/prevenção & controle , Competência Clínica/normas , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Masculino , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Treinamento por Simulação/normas
12.
Anesth Analg ; 127(5): 1129-1136, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotension compromises local tissue perfusion, thereby reducing tissue oxygenation. Hypotension might thus be expected to promote infection. Hypotension on surgical wards, while usually less severe than intraoperative hypotension, is common and often prolonged. In this retrospective cohort study, we tested the hypotheses that there is an association between surgical site infections and low postoperative time-weighted average mean arterial pressure and/or postoperative minimum mean arterial pressure. METHODS: We considered patients who had colorectal surgery lasting ≥1 hour at the Cleveland Clinic between 2009 and 2013. We defined blood pressure exposures as time-weighted average (primary) and minimum mean arterial pressure (secondary) within 72 hours after surgery. We assessed associations between continuous blood pressure exposures with a composite of deep and superficial surgical site infection using separate severity-weighted average relative effect generalized estimating equations models, each using an unstructured correlation structure and adjusting for potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 5896 patients were eligible for analysis. Time-weighted mean arterial pressure and surgical site infection were not significantly associated, with an estimated odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.03 (0.99-1.08) for a 5-mm Hg decrease (P = .16). However, there was a significant inverse association between minimum postoperative mean arterial pressure and infection, with an estimated odds ratio of 1.08 (1.03-1.12) per 5-mm Hg decrease (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative time-weighted mean arterial pressure was not associated with surgical site infection, but lowest postoperative mean arterial pressure was. Whether the relationship is causal remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Reto/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Anesth Analg ; 127(2): 424-431, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypotension is associated with postoperative mortality. Early detection of hypotension by continuous hemodynamic monitoring might prompt timely therapy, thereby reducing intraoperative hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitoring reduces intraoperative hypotension. METHODS: Patients ≥45 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III or IV having moderate-to-high-risk noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia were included. All participating patients had continuous noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring using a finger cuff (ClearSight, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) and a standard oscillometric cuff. In half the patients, randomly assigned, clinicians were blinded to the continuous values, whereas the others (unblinded) had access to continuous blood pressure readings. Continuous pressures in both groups were used for analysis. Time-weighted average for mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg was compared using 2-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and Hodges Lehmann estimation of location shift with corresponding asymptotic 95% CI. RESULTS: Among 320 randomized patients, 316 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. With 158 patients in each group, those assigned to continuous blood pressure monitoring had significantly lower time-weighted average mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg, 0.05 [0.00, 0.22] mm Hg, versus intermittent blood pressure monitoring, 0.11 [0.00, 0.54] mm Hg (P = .039, significance criteria P < .048). CONCLUSIONS: Continuous noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring nearly halved the amount of intraoperative hypotension. Hypotension reduction with continuous monitoring, while statistically significant, is currently of uncertain clinical importance.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestesiologia/métodos , Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oscilometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Anesth Analg ; 126(4): 1190-1195, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Esophageal Cooling Device circulates warm or cool water through an esophageal heat exchanger, but warming and cooling efficacy in patients remains unknown. We therefore determined heat exchange rates during warming and cooling. METHODS: Nineteen patients completed the trial. All had general endotracheal anesthesia for nonthoracic surgery. Intraoperative heat transfer was measured during cooling (exchanger fluid at 7°C) and warming (fluid at 42°C). Each was evaluated for 30 minutes, with the initial condition determined randomly, starting at least 40 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Heat transfer rate was estimated from fluid flow through the esophageal heat exchanger and inflow and outflow temperatures. Core temperature was estimated from a zero-heat-flux thermometer positioned on the forehead. RESULTS: Mean heat transfer rate during warming was 18 (95% confidence interval, 16-20) W, which increased core temperature at a rate of 0.5°C/h ± 0.6°C/h (mean ± standard deviation). During cooling, mean heat transfer rate was -53 (-59 to -48) W, which decreased core temperature at a rate of 0.9°C/h ± 0.9°C/h. CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal warming transferred 18 W which is considerably less than the 80 W reported with lower or upper body forced-air covers. However, esophageal warming can be used to supplement surface warming or provide warming in cases not amenable to surface warming. Esophageal cooling transferred more than twice as much heat as warming, consequent to the much larger difference between core and circulating fluid temperature with cooling (29°C) than warming (6°C). Esophageal cooling extracts less heat than endovascular catheters but can be used to supplement catheter-based cooling or possibly replace them in appropriate patients.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Hipertermia Induzida/instrumentação , Hipotermia Induzida/instrumentação , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Transferência de Energia , Desenho de Equipamento , Esôfago , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Termômetros , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Ochsner J ; 17(3): 224-232, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29026353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the deleterious effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on the kidneys are exacerbated in the obese population remains unknown. We hypothesized that increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing noncardiac laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, we analyzed data on 8,543 adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores of I-IV who had inpatient noncardiac laparoscopic surgery from 2005-2014. Because the exposure (current BMI) is a chronic condition, we a priori assumed that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might mediate the effect of obesity on outcome. Our primary analysis was a proportional odds logistic regression model with current BMI as a predictor and AKI as an ordinal outcome. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding variables, the odds of developing a more serious level of AKI was 7% (95% CI 0%, 15%) greater with a 5-unit increase in BMI (P=0.05). When the analysis was adjusted for the a priori mediators in an attempt to estimate the pure effect of BMI on AKI, the result was no longer significant (Wald test P=0.35), with the residual effect of BMI of 3% (95% CI -4%, 11%). CONCLUSION: We found a marginal association between BMI and an increased risk of developing AKI in adult patients after having noncardiac laparoscopic surgery. The BMI effect became insignificant when potential mediator variables were considered. The association of BMI and AKI after noncardiac laparoscopic surgery is likely mediated through components of the metabolic syndrome.

16.
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 21(4): 330-340, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is increasingly used in children undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. We compared the percentage of surgical time with hemodynamic instability and the incidence of postoperative agitation between pediatric cardiac catheterization patients who received dexmedetomidine infusion and those who did not and the incidence of postoperative agitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We matched 653 pediatric patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization. Two separate multivariable linear mixed models were used to assess the association between dexmedetomidine use and intraoperative blood pressure and heart rate instability. A multivariate logistic regression was used for relationship between dexmedetomidine and postoperative agitation. RESULTS: No difference between the study groups was found in the duration of MAP ( P = .867) or heart rate (HR) instabilities ( P = .224). The relationship between dexmedetomidine use and the duration of negative hemodynamic effects does not depend on any of the considered CHD types (all P > .001) or intervention ( P = .453 for MAP and P = .023 for HR). No difference in postoperative agitation was found between the study groups ( P = .590). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated no benefit in using dexmedetomidine infusion compared with other general anesthesia techniques to maintain hemodynamic stability or decrease agitation in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Delírio do Despertar/induzido quimicamente , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Pediatria/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Anesthesiology ; 126(6): 1065-1076, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brachial arterial catheters better estimate aortic pressure than radial arterial catheters but are used infrequently because complications in a major artery without collateral flow are potentially serious. However, the extent to which brachial artery cannulation promotes complications remains unknown. The authors thus evaluated a large cohort of cardiac surgical patients to estimate the incidence of related serious complications. METHODS: The institutional Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database and Perioperative Health Documentation System Registry of the Cleveland Clinic were used to identify patients who had brachial artery cannulation between 2007 and 2015. Complications within 6 months after surgery were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic and procedural codes, Current Procedural Terminology procedure codes, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons variables. The authors reviewed electronic medical records to confirm that putative complications were related plausibly to brachial arterial catheterization. Complications were categorized as (1) vascular, (2) peripheral nerve injury, or (3) infection. The authors evaluated associations between brachial arterial complications and patient comorbidities and between complications and in-hospital mortality and duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 21,597 qualifying patients, 777 had vascular or nerve injuries or local infections, but only 41 (incidence 0.19% [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.26%]) were potentially consequent to brachial arterial cannulation. Vascular complications occurred in 33 patients (0.15% [0.10 to 0.23%]). Definitely or possibly related infection occurred in 8 (0.04% [0.02 to 0.08%]) patients. There were no plausibly related neurologic complications. Peripheral arterial disease was associated with increased risk of complications. Brachial catheter complications were associated with prolonged hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Brachial artery cannulation for hemodynamic monitoring during cardiac surgery rarely causes complications.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Artéria Braquial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória/efeitos adversos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/instrumentação
18.
J Clin Anesth ; 34: 661-7, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27687467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent health care policy changes promote objective measurements of patient satisfaction with care provided during hospitalization. Acute postsurgical pain is a significant medical problem and strongly impacts patient experience and patient satisfaction. Multimodal analgesic pathways are used for acute pain management, but opioid medications remain a mainstay of treatment. Opioid use is increasing in the outpatient setting, but opioid use trends in the inpatient postsurgical setting are not well known. We hypothesized that use of opioid medications has increased over time along with decrease in postoperative pain scores and increase in pain-related patient satisfaction. METHODS: In this single-center study, we studied the trends and correlation in the average daily pain scores, opioid consumption, and patient satisfaction scores as measured by pain-related patient satisfaction questions in the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System survey. Pain scores and opioid use data were obtained from electronic health records, vital signs monitoring, and medication databases. Adult patients who had nonemergent colorectal surgeries between January 2009 and December 2012 were included. RESULTS: We found no significant trend in opioid use or pain-related patient satisfaction scores. There was an average annual increase of 0.3 (98.3% confidence interval, 0.2-0.4; P< .001) in average daily pain score from 2.8 ± 1.5 to 3.8 ± 1.5. The univariable associations between time-weighted pain score, average daily opioid dose, and pain-related patient satisfaction score were all highly significant. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort study, opioid use and pain-related patient satisfaction scores were stable over time. Pain-related patient satisfaction scores were negatively associated with both pain score and opioid dose. The associations we report should not be considered evidence of a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Colo/cirurgia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo da Dor/tendências , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Satisfação do Paciente , Reto/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Anesth Analg ; 123(6): 1471-1479, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27607476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioids can contribute to postoperative desaturation. Short-acting opioids, titrated to need, may cause less desaturation than longer-acting opioids. We thus tested the primary hypothesis that long-acting patient-controlled intravenous opioids are associated with more hypoxemia (defined as an integrated area under a postoperative oxyhemoglobin saturation of 95%) than short-acting opioids. METHODS: This analysis was a substudy of VISION, a prospective cohort study focused on perioperative cardiovascular events (NCT00512109). After excluding for predefined criteria, 191 patients were included in our final analysis, with 75 (39%) patients being given fentanyl (short-acting opioid group) and 116 (61%) patients being given morphine and/or hydromorphone (long-acting opioid group). The difference in the median areas under a postoperative oxyhemoglobin saturation of 95% between short-acting and long-acting opioids was compared using multivariable median quantile regression. RESULTS: The short-acting opioid median area under a postoperative oxyhemoglobin saturation of 95% per hour was 1.08 (q1, q3: 0.62, 2.26) %-h, whereas the long-acting opioid median was 1.28 (0.50, 2.23) %-h. No significant association was detected between long-acting and short-acting opioids and median area under a postoperative oxyhemoglobin saturation of 95% per hour (P = .66) with estimated change in the medians of -0.14 (95% CI, -0.75, 0.47) %-h for the patients given long-acting versus short-acting IV patient-controlled analgesia opioids. CONCLUSIONS: Long-acting patient-controlled opioids were not associated with the increased hypoxemia during the first 2 postoperative days.


Assuntos
Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia/induzido quimicamente , Oxigênio/sangue , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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