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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750905

RESUMO

AIM: To estimate acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) in critically ill children and association of its severity with mortality. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, critically ill children (1 month-18 years) were enrolled. Gastrointestinal symptoms over the first week of admission were classified into AGI grades 1 through 4, using a paediatric adaptation of European Society of Intensive Care Medicine AGI definitions. Performance of AGI grades in predicting 28-day mortality was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 151 children enrolled, 71 (47%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 38.9-55.3%) developed AGI, with AGI grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 in 22.5%, 15.9%, 6.6% and 2%, respectively. The 28-day mortality progressively increased with AGI grade 0 (15%), 1 (35%), 2 (50%), 3 (70%), through 4 (100%), P < 0.001. Association of AGI grades with 28-day mortality was significant even after adjustment for disease severity, age and nutritional status (odds ratio (OR) = 2.152, 95% CI: 1.455, 3.184). Among AGI grades, and paediatric logistic organ dysfunction-2 score components, cardiovascular (OR = 1.525, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.037) and haematological (OR = 1.719, 95% CI: 1.067, 2.772) components of paediatric logistic organ dysfunction-2 score and AGI grades (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.001, 2.449) showed significant association with 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the critically ill children developed AGI. AGI grades were independently associated with increased mortality, and mortality progressively increased with AGI grade.

3.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(10): 823-829, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617932

RESUMO

Climate change has been described as the greatest public health threat of the 21st century. It has significant implications for digestive health. A multinational team with representation from all continents, excluding Antarctica and covering 18 countries, has formulated a commentary which outlines both the implications for digestive health and ways in which this challenge can be faced.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Gastroenterologia , Humanos
5.
JGH Open ; 5(10): 1190-1196, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622007

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Human Leukocyte Antigen DQ (HLA-DQ) genotypes play a permissive role in the genesis of celiac disease (CeD). In this case-control study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine HLA-DQA1 and ~DQB1 genotypes and haplotypes associated with CeD in Indian patients. Methods: HLA-DQA1 and ~DQB1 loci were amplified, using long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), from DNA of 259 patients with symptomatic CeD (160 typical and 99 atypical), 45 asymptomatic CeD, 96 potential CeD, and 300 healthy adults. Amplicons were fragmented and sequenced on the Illumina platform, and alleles and haplotypes were assigned by matching against the HLA-international ImMunoGeneTics (IMGT) database. Results: HLA-DQA1*05:01 (odds ratio [OR] 8.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.64-12.47) and HLA-DQB1*02:01 (OR 8.59, 95% CI 5.75-12.83) were the genotypes that showed a risk association with symptomatic CeD. Among the haplotypes, HLA-DQA1*05:01 ~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 (OR 8.56, 95% CI 5.67-13.19) showed a strong risk association with symptomatic CeD. When comparing symptomatic CeD with subclinical forms (asymptomatic and potential) CeD, HLA-DQA1*05:01 ~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.61-3.43) was significantly associated with risk of symptomatic disease. The strength of association between the HLA-DQA1*05:01 ~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 haplotype and the CeD phenotype showed a gradient in the order typical > atypical > asymptomatic > potential CeD. Genotypes consistent with expression of HLA DQ2 and/or 8 were noted in 128 (80%) typical, 73 atypical (74%), 27 (60%) asymptomatic, and 52 (54%) potential CeD participants. Conclusion: HLA-DQA1*05:01 ~ HLA-DQB1*02:01 (haplotype DQ2.5) showed a very strong risk association with symptomatic CeD in Indian patients. The strength of association showed a gradient of increase from potential to typical CeD, coinciding with a phenotypic change in the celiac iceberg.

6.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While celiac disease (CeD) is considered to affect primarily the small intestine, pathological changes in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are also known to occur. IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase-2 antibody (anti-TG2 Ab) deposits at the site of involvement is one of the methods to establish CeD-related tissue pathology. AIMS: To explore the utility of IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits in pan-gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies as evidence of CeD-related pathologies. METHODS: Forty-two treatment-naive patients with CeD and 45 patients with irritable bowel syndrome were included as cases and controls, respectively. Mucosal biopsies were collected from the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and rectosigmoid regions at baseline from cases and controls, and additionally after 6-months of gluten-free diet in cases. All biopsies were evaluated for histological changes and subjected to dual-color immunohistochemical staining for identifying IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits. RESULTS: Significantly higher number of patients with CeD had lymphocytic esophagitis (9.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.05), lymphocytic gastritis (35% vs. 8.8%, P < 0.01) and lymphocytic colitis (17.4% vs. 0%, P < 0.05) than that in controls. IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits were observed in significantly more numbers in esophagus (30.9% vs. 6%, P < 0.001), stomach (62.2% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.01), duodenum (88.5% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) and rectum (17.4% vs. 0%, P < 0.05) than that in controls. There was a decline, but not statistically significant, in severity of lymphocytosis and intensity of IgA anti-TG2 Ab deposits in follow-up biopsies. CONCLUSION: Significantly higher number of patients with CeD had evidence of lymphocytic infiltration and IgA anti-TG2 deposits along GIT suggesting that CeD affects other parts of GIT.

7.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1215-1227, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590904

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted this network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of targeted pharmacotherapies and fecal microbial transplantation (FMT). Patients & methods: Nineteen studies were included and there was only one head-to-head randomized controlled trial (adalimumab vs vedolizumab). Results: All interventions, including FMT, were superior to a placebo in inducing clinical remission (except adalimumab - odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI: 0.97-2.85), clinical response and endoscopic remission. FMT was comparable with other agents in achieving all efficacy outcomes. Infliximab was ranked highest in inducing clinical remission (surface under the cumulative ranking, 0.8). There was no difference in safety outcomes between FMT and other targeted therapies. Conclusion: FMT is as efficacious and as safe as other targeted therapies in inducing clinical remission, clinical response and endoscopic remission. Further studies to assess the long-term benefits are needed in order to reach a definitive conclusion.

8.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with celiac disease (CeD) can commonly present with symptoms of dyspepsia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the present literature to assess the prevalence of CeD in patients diagnosed with dyspepsia. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for the keywords: celiac disease, coeliac disease, anti-gliadin, tissue transglutaminase antibody, anti-endomysial antibody, dyspepsia and functional gastrointestinal disorder. All the studies published from January 1991 till May 2021 were included. Diagnosis of CeD was based on the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines. A random-effects model was used to pool the data. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies screening 10,275 patients with dyspepsia were included. The pooled seroprevalence of CeD based on a positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody and/or anti-endomysial antibody was 4.8% (95% CI [2.8, 6.7%], I2 = 87.7%). The pooled biopsy-confirmed CeD prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI [1.0, 1.9%]; I2 = 59.8%) in these patients. Both seroprevalence (Odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI [0.8, 4.0%]; I2 = 0%) and prevalence of biopsy-confirmed CeD (Odds ratio: 1.4; 95% CI [0.8, 2.4]; I2 = 0%) were not higher in patients with dyspepsia compared to controls. There was a moderate risk of selection bias and significant heterogeneity in the pooled results. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of CeD in patients with dyspepsia was 1.5% and it was not significantly higher than the general population. These results do not support screening of patients with dyspepsia for CeD.

9.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(4): 420-444, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219211

RESUMO

The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) felt the need to organize a consensus on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and to update the current management of H. pylori infection; hence, ISG constituted the ISG's Task Force on Helicobacter pylori. The Task Force on H. pylori undertook an exercise to produce consensus statements on H. pylori infection. Twenty-five experts from different parts of India, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, surgeons, epidemiologists, pediatricians, and microbiologists participated in the meeting. The participants were allocated to one of following sections for the meeting: Epidemiology of H. pylori infection in India and H. pylori associated conditions; diagnosis; treatment and retreatment; H. pylori and gastric cancer, and H. pylori prevention/public health. Each group reviewed all published literature on H. pylori infection with special reference to the Indian scenario and prepared appropriate statements on different aspects for voting and consensus development. This consensus, which was produced through a modified Delphi process including two rounds of face-to-face meetings, reflects our current understanding and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of H. pylori infection. These consensus should serve as a reference for not only guiding treatment of H. pylori infection but also to guide future research on the subject.

10.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(4): 402-409, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the small intestine is the main site of disease, many other organs are affected by celiac disease (CeD). Dental enamel defects (DED) are common in patients with CeD, and these are one of the indicators of CeD, even when no other symptom of CeD is present. Data on dental and oral cavity manifestations in Asian patients with CeD are scanty. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate dental and oral manifestations in Asian patients with CeD. METHODS: We recruited 118 patients with biopsy-confirmed CeD (36 treatment naïve and 82 on follow-up for at least 1 year on gluten-free diet [GFD]) and 40 controls. Diagnosis was made as per the standard criteria. Oral and dental manifestations were evaluated by a dental surgeon. The DED were evaluated according to Aine's criteria. RESULTS: Overall higher number of patients with CeD (66.9%), both treatment naïve (69.4%) and those on GFD (65.8%) had DED in comparison to controls (20%) (odds ratio, 8.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4-19.2; p<0.001). Specific/bilaterally symmetrical DED were significantly higher in patients with CeD than controls. Recurrent aphthous ulcers were also significantly higher in patients with CeD. Approximately 80.6% and 63.4% treatment-naïve patients and those on GFD, respectively reported dry mouth sensation, which was significantly higher than the controls. CONCLUSION: Almost two-third of patients with CeD had DED. Physicians and dietitians caring for patients with CeD should be trained in identification of DED and other oral manifestations of CeD.

11.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(11): 3141-3155, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on recent research reports, dysbiosis and improper concentrations of microbial metabolites in the gut may result into the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. Recent advancement also highlights the involvement of bacteria and their secreted metabolites in the cancer causation. Gut microbial metabolites are functional output of the host-microbiota interactions and produced by anaerobic fermentation of food components in the diet. They contribute to influence variety of biological mechanisms including inflammation, cell signaling, cell-cycle disruption which are majorly disrupted in carcinogenic activities. PURPOSE: In this review, we intend to discuss recent updates and possible molecular mechanisms to provide the role of bacterial metabolites, gut bacteria and diet in the colorectal carcinogenesis. Recent evidences have proposed the role of bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleaturm, Streptococcus bovis, Helicobacter pylori, Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium septicum, in the carcinogenesis of CRC. Metagenomic study confirmed that these bacteria are in increased abundance in CRC patient as compared to healthy individuals and can cause inflammation and DNA damage which can lead to development of cancer. These bacteria produce metabolites, such as secondary bile salts from primary bile salts, hydrogen sulfide, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which are likely to promote inflammation and subsequently cancer development. CONCLUSION: Recent studies suggest that gut microbiota-derived metabolites have a role in CRC progression and causation and hence, could be implicated in CRC diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Humanos , Metagenômica
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(Supplement): S8-S31, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135135

RESUMO

The Indian Association of Pathologists and Microbiologists (IAPM) and Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) decided to make a joint consensus recommendation for handling, processing, and interpretation of SI biopsies for the diagnosis and management of celiac disease (CD) recognizing the inhomogeneous practice of biopsy sampling, orientation, processing, and interpretation. A modified Delphi process was used to develop this consensus document containing a total of 42 statements and recommendations, which were generated by sharing the document draft, incorporating expert's opinion, followed by three cycles of electronic voting as well as a full-day face-to-face virtual ZOOM meeting and review of supporting literature. Of the 42 statements, 7 statements are on small intestinal (SI) biopsy in suspected patients of CD, site and the number of biopsies; 7 on handling, fixative, orientation, processing, and sectioning in pathology laboratories; 2 on histological orientation; 13 statements on histological interpretation and histological grading; 3 on the assessment of follow-up biopsies; 2 statements on gluten-free diet (GFD)-nonresponsive CD; 4 on challenges in the diagnosis of CD; 2 statements each on pathology reporting protocol and training and infrastructure in this area. The goal of this guideline document is to formulate a uniform protocol agreed upon both by the experienced pathologists and gastroenterologists to standardize the practice, improve the yield of small bowel biopsy interpretation, patients' compliance, overall management in CD, and generate unified data for patient care and research in the related field.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Consenso , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Patologistas/educação , Patologistas/organização & administração , Patologia Clínica/educação , Biópsia , Feminino , Gastroenterologia/educação , Gastroenterologia/métodos , Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Patologia Clínica/métodos
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11704, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083575

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is often complicated by strictures and associated with increased risk for surgery. Inflammatory strictures respond to medical therapy, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is often used after the failure of steroids. However, data on efficacy of anti-TNF therapy in stricturing CD is limited. We retrospectively analysed the records of patients with stricturing CD who were treated with anti-TNF therapy and were prospectively followed from January 2005 to July 2020. Treatment success was defined as continuation of anti-TNF without the requirement for steroids or parenteral nutrition, switch to other anti-TNF, endoscopic dilation, surgery and severe adverse events leading to the withdrawal of anti-TNF. Fifty-nine patients were included [50-infliximab, 9-adalimumab; mean age-30.1 ± 15 years; males-69.5%; median disease duration-124 (range 30-396) months; median follow-up duration-42 (range 8-180) months]. Ileum was the most common site of stricture (69.5%), 20.3% of patients had colonic strictures, and 64.4% had multiple strictures. 55.9% of patients were steroid dependent and 37.3% were steroid refractory. The median duration of anti-TNF therapy was 14 (range 2-96) months, and 54.2% (n = 32) patients received concomitant immunomodulators. 88% improved with induction (11.8% primary non-response), secondary loss of response was seen in 52.2%, and the cumulative probability of treatment success at 1, 2 and 5 years was 69%, 51%, and 28% respectively. Anaemia at presentation predicted poor response. Only 30% of patients retained biologics on long-term (lack of response, cost, adverse events). 16.9% had adverse events, the commonest being reactivation of tuberculosis (5.1%). Anti-TNF therapy is associated with good short-term treatment success with modest long-term response in stricturing CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/patologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Constrição Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Constrição Patológica/patologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 27(3): 337-346, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967028

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CeD) is a systemic, immune-mediated enteropathy, which is triggered by gluten protein in genetically susceptible individuals. CeD, once thought to be an uncommon disease, is now recognized to affect approximately 40-60 million people globally. While CeD is now well reported from a few Asian countries such as India, China, Pakistan, and Middle Eastern countries; it is still believed to be uncommon in the rest of Asia. Gluten-related diseases other than CeD, like non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are also emerging globally. CeD and NCGS may present with either intestinal or extra-intestinal symptoms, and a proportion of them have overlapping symptoms with irritable bowel syndrome. Hence, many of them are misdiagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome in clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the emergence of CeD and other gluten-related disorders, both globally and in Asia, the overlapping manifestations between gluten-related disorders and irritable bowel syndrome, and the challenges associated with diagnosis and management of CeD in Asia.

16.
Intest Res ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934587

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) is difficult to diagnose due to poor sensitivity of definitive diagnostic tests. ITB may be associated with concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) which may remain undetected on chest X-ray. We assessed the role of contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) chest in detecting the prevalence of active PTB, and increasing the diagnostic yield in patients with suspected ITB. Methods: Consecutive treatment naïve patients with suspected ITB (n=200) who underwent CECT chest (n=88) and had follow-up duration>1 year were recruited in this retrospective study (February 2016 to October 2018). ITB was diagnosed in the presence of caseating granuloma, positive acid fast stain or culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on biopsy, presence of necrotic lymph nodes (LNs) on CT enterography or positive response to anti-tubercular therapy. Evidence of active tuberculosis on CECT-chest was defined as presence of centrilobular nodules with or without consolidation/miliary nodules/thick-walled cavity/enlarged necrotic mediastinal LNs. Results: Sixty-five of eighty-eight patients (mean age, 33.8±12.8 years; 47.7% of females) were finally diagnosed as ITB (4-caseating granuloma on biopsy, 12-necrotic LNs on CT enterography, 1-both, and 48-response to anti-tubercular therapy) and 23 were diagnosed as Crohn's disease. Findings of active TB on CECT chest with or without necrotic abdominal LNs were demonstrated in 5 and 20 patients, respectively. No patient with Crohn's disease had necrotic abdominal LNs or active PTB. Addition of CECT chest in the diagnostic algorithm improved the sensitivity of ITB diagnosis from 26.2% to 56.9%. Conclusions: Addition of CECT chest significantly improves the sensitivity for definite diagnosis in a patient with suspected ITB.

17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 183: 113207, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866136

RESUMO

Rapid detection of DNA/RNA pathogenic sequences or variants through point-of-care diagnostics is valuable for accelerated clinical prognosis, as witnessed during the recent COVID-19 outbreak. Traditional methods relying on qPCR or sequencing are tough to implement with limited resources, necessitating the development of accurate and robust alternative strategies. Here, we report FnCas9 Editor Linked Uniform Detection Assay (FELUDA) that utilizes a direct Cas9 based enzymatic readout for detecting nucleobase and nucleotide sequences without trans-cleavage of reporter molecules. We also demonstrate that FELUDA is 100% accurate in detecting single nucleotide variants (SNVs), including heterozygous carriers, and present a simple web-tool JATAYU to aid end-users. FELUDA is semi-quantitative, can adapt to multiple signal detection platforms, and deploy for versatile applications such as molecular diagnosis during infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19. Employing a lateral flow readout, FELUDA shows 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity across all ranges of viral loads in clinical samples within 1hr. In combination with RT-RPA and a smartphone application True Outcome Predicted via Strip Evaluation (TOPSE), we present a prototype for FELUDA for CoV-2 detection closer to home.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
JGH Open ; 5(4): 420-427, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860091

RESUMO

Background: Unlike perianal fistula, long-term outcomes of nonperianal fistulae (NPF) in Crohn's disease (CD) are not clear. We aimed to compare the outcomes of medical and surgical therapies in patients with NPF. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients of CD with NPF who were prospectively followed from January 2005 to December 2018. Results: Of the 53 patients with NPF [mean age at presentation:29 ± 14 years; 54.7% male; median duration of follow-up: 47 months (interquartile range [IQR]:26-76 months)], enteroenteric fistula (37.8%) was the most common presentation. Of 22 patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy, complete response was achieved in 40.9% (n = 9). Overall probability of maintaining response was similar between the anti-TNF and surgical groups (95.2% vs 82.4%; 71% vs 76%; and 63% vs 69%% [P = 0.8] at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively), with only 13.6% of patients treated with biologicals requiring surgery over 56 months. Twenty-one patients required upfront surgery (small bowel or ileocolonic resection with/without diversion; 28.5% emergent), with 47.6% postoperative recurrence over 36 months, of which nine patients required biologicals (77.7% response to anti-TNF therapy). Long-term outcome was comparable between medically and surgically treated patients; 6.4% developed tuberculosis on anti-TNF therapy. Two patients (3.7%) developed malignancy (one - enteroenteric, one - colovesical). Conclusion: Anti-TNF therapy appears to be as effective as surgery in this retrospective analysis of patients with NPFCD, and it may be indicated in the absence of abscess and other complications. These patients are at higher risk of fistula-associated malignancy, which requires a lower threshold for suspicion, especially over the long term in the presence of nonresponse to medical therapy.

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