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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21242103


We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN(+) using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Íons/química , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Gases/análise , Humanos , Micro-Ondas
Int Immunol ; 14(10): 1215-23, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12356686


X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, resulting in fatal infectious mononucleosis, dysgammaglobulinemia and malignant lymphoma. Recently, mutations in the SH2D1A gene, which encodes SLAM-associated protein (SAP), have been found to cause XLP. Although the molecular events behind XLP are largely unknown, there is evidence that affected males exhibited some immunohematological abnormalities, such as hypogammaglobulinemia or lymphoma, even prior to EBV infection. Because of the poor prognosis in XLP, an early diagnosis to patients and families is clinically of great importance. A glutathione-S-transferase-SAP fusion protein was used to immunize rats and generate mAb against human SAP to investigate its pathogenic role in XLP and develop a flow cytometric assay for detection of XLP. By flow cytometric and Western immunoblot analyses using an established anti-SAP mAb, termed KST-3, we determined that SAP was expressed intensely in thymocytes, but at lower levels in peripheral T cells and NK cells. In contrast, expression of SAP was negligible in B cells, monocytes or granulocytes. We found that SAP expression in T cells increased upon in vivo as well as in vitro activation. In two XLP survivors with SH2D1A mutations, a flow cytometric evaluation of activated T cells using KST-3 could demonstrate SAP deficiency as a diagnostic indicator of XLP. Through this approach, we identified three novel XLP families with SH2D1A mutations in Japan. A flow cytometric assessment of SAP expressed in activated T cells would lead to easy detection of XLP patients.

Proteínas de Transporte/análise , Cromossomos Humanos X , Ligação Genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Ativação Linfocitária , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Linfócitos T/química , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Mutação , Proteína Associada à Molécula de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária