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2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(5): 1160-1167, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever, caused by S. enterica ser. Typhi, continues to be a substantial health burden in developing countries. Little is known of the genotypic diversity of S. enterica ser. Typhi in Zimbabwe, but this is key for understanding the emergence and spread of this pathogen and devising interventions for its control. OBJECTIVES: To report the molecular epidemiology of S. enterica ser. Typhi outbreak strains circulating from 2012 to 2019 in Zimbabwe, using comparative genomics. METHODS: A review of typhoid cases records from 2012 to 2019 in Zimbabwe was performed. The phylogenetic relationship of outbreak isolates from 2012 to 2019 and emergence of antibiotic resistance was investigated by whole-genome sequence analysis. RESULTS: A total 22 479 suspected typhoid cases, 760 confirmed cases were reported from 2012 to 2019 and 29 isolates were sequenced. The majority of the sequenced isolates were predicted to confer resistance to aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, phenicols, sulphonamides, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones (including qnrS detection). The qnrS1 gene was associated with an IncN (subtype PST3) plasmid in 79% of the isolates. Whole-genome SNP analysis, SNP-based haplotyping and resistance determinant analysis showed that 93% of the isolates belonged to a single clade represented by multidrug-resistant H58 lineage I (4.3.1.1), with a maximum pair-wise distance of 22 SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: This study has provided detailed genotypic characterization of the outbreak strain, identified as S. Typhi 4.3.1.1 (H58). The strain has reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin due to qnrS carried by an IncN (subtype PST3) plasmid resulting from ongoing evolution to full resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella typhi , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Células Clonais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Salmonella typhi/genética , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 893-900, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The isoniazid-resistant TB poses a threat to TB control efforts. Zimbabwe, one of the high TB burden countries, has not explored the burden of isoniazid resistant TB. Hence among all bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients diagnosed in Bulawayo City during March 2017 and December 2018, we aimed to assess the proportion with isoniazid resistant TB and associated factors. Also, we aimed to describe the TB treatment outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A cohort study involving routinely collected data by the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTBRL) in Bulawayo City and National TB programme of Zimbabwe. The percentage with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to express the proportion with isoniazid-resistant TB. The modified Poisson regression was used to assess the association of demographic and clinical characteristics with isoniazid mono-resistant TB. RESULTS: Of 2160 bacteriologically-confirmed TB patients, 1612 (74.6%) had their sputum received at the NTBRL and 743 (46.1%) had culture growth. Among those with culture growth, 34 (4.6%, 95% CI: 3.5-6.7) had isoniazid mono-resistant TB, 25 (3.3%, 95% CI: 2.2-4.9) had MDR-TB. Thus, 59 (7.9%, 95% CI: 6.1-10.1) had isoniazid-resistant TB. Children < 15 years had a higher prevalence of isoniazid mono-resistant TB (aPR= 3.93; 95% CI: 1.24-12.45). Among those with rifampicin sensitive TB, patients with isoniazid-sensitive TB had higher favourable treatment outcomes compared to those with isoniazid-resistant TB (86.3% versus 75.5%, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of isoniazid-resistant TB was low compared to neighbouring countries with high burden of TB-HIV. However, Zimbabwe should consider reviewing treatment guidelines for isoniazid mono-resistant TB due to the observed poor treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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