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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 10-13, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917781

RESUMO

Tailoring communicable disease preparedness and response strategies to unique population movement patterns between an outbreak area and neighboring countries can help limit the international spread of disease. Global recognition of the value of addressing community connectivity in preparedness and response, through field work and visualizing the identified movement patterns, is reflected in the World Health Organization's declaration on July 17, 2019, that the 10th Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (1). In March 2019, the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), Uganda, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MOH) Uganda and CDC, had previously identified areas at increased risk for Ebola importation by facilitating community engagement with participatory mapping to characterize cross-border population connectivity patterns. Multisectoral participants identified 31 locations and associated movement pathways with high levels of connectivity to the Ebola outbreak areas. They described a major shift in the movement pattern between Goma (DRC) and Kisoro (Uganda), mainly through Rwanda, when Rwanda closed the Cyanika ground crossing with Uganda. This closure led some travelers to use a potentially less secure route within DRC. District and national leadership used these results to bolster preparedness at identified points of entry and health care facilities and prioritized locations at high risk further into Uganda, especially markets and transportation hubs, for enhanced preparedness. Strategies to forecast, identify, and rapidly respond to the international spread of disease require adapting to complex, dynamic, multisectoral cross-border population movement, which can be influenced by border control and public health measures of neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação da Comunidade , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 14-19, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917783

RESUMO

On August 1, 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared its 10th Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in an area with a high volume of cross-border population movement to and from neighboring countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda as the highest priority countries for Ebola preparedness because of the high risk for cross-border spread from DRC (1). Countries might base their disease case definitions on global standards; however, historical context and perceived risk often affect why countries modify and adapt definitions over time, moving toward or away from regional harmonization. Discordance in case definitions among countries might reduce the effectiveness of cross-border initiatives during outbreaks with high risk for regional spread. CDC worked with the ministries of health (MOHs) in DRC, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda to collect MOH-approved Ebola case definitions used during the first 6 months of the outbreak to assess concordance (i.e., commonality in category case definitions) among countries. Changes in MOH-approved Ebola case definitions were analyzed, referencing the WHO standard case definition, and concordance among the four countries for Ebola case categories (i.e., community alert, suspected, probable, confirmed, and case contact) was assessed at three dates (2). The number of country-level revisions ranged from two to four, with all countries revising Ebola definitions by February 2019 after a December 2018 peak in incidence in DRC. Case definition complexity increased over time; all countries included more criteria per category than the WHO standard definition did, except for the "case contact" and "confirmed" categories. Low case definition concordance and lack of awareness of regional differences by national-level health officials could reduce effectiveness of cross-border communication and collaboration. Working toward regional harmonization or considering systematic approaches to addressing country-level differences might increase efficiency in cross-border information sharing.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16060, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690844

RESUMO

Network-based modelling of infectious diseases apply compartmental models on a contact network, which makes the epidemic process crucially dependent on the network structure. For highly contagious diseases such as Ebola virus disease (EVD), interpersonal contact plays the most vital role in human-to-human transmission. Therefore, for accurate representation of EVD spreading, the contact network needs to resemble the reality. Prior research has mainly focused on static networks (only permanent contacts) or activity-driven networks (only temporal contacts) for Ebola spreading. A comprehensive network for EVD spreading should include both these network structures, as there are always some permanent contacts together with temporal contacts. Therefore, we propose a two-layer temporal network for Uganda, which is at risk of an Ebola outbreak from the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) epidemic. The network has a permanent layer representing permanent contacts among individuals within the family level, and a data-driven temporal network for human movements motivated by cattle trade, fish trade, or general communications. We propose a Gillespie algorithm with the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) compartmental model to simulate the evolution of EVD spreading as well as to evaluate the risk throughout our network. As an example, we applied our method to a network consisting of 23 districts along different movement routes in Uganda starting from bordering districts of the DRC to Kampala. Simulation results show that some regions are at higher risk of infection, suggesting some focal points for Ebola preparedness and providing direction to inform interventions in the field. Simulation results also show that decreasing physical contact as well as increasing preventive measures result in a reduction of chances to develop an outbreak. Overall, the main contribution of this paper lies in the novel method for risk assessment, which can be more precise with an increasing volume of accurate data for creating the network model.

4.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1664103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526179

RESUMO

Background: Uganda is an ecological hot-spot with infectious disease transmission belts which exacerbates its vulnerability to epidemics. Its proximity to the Congo Basin, climate change pressure on eco-systems, increased international travel and globalization, and influx of refugees due to porous borders, has compounded the problem. Public Health Events are a major challenge in the region with significant impact on Global Health Security. Objective: The country developed a multi-hazard plan with the purpose of harmonizing processes and guiding stakeholders on strengthening emergency preparedness and response. Method: Comprehensive risk profiling, identification of preparedness gaps and capacities were developed using a preparedness logic model, which is a step by step process. A multidisciplinary team was constituted; the Strategic Tool for Analysis of Risks was used for risk profiling and identification of hazards; a desk review of relevant documents informed the process and finally, approval was sought from the National Task Force for public health emergencies. Results: Target users and key public health preparedness and response functions of the multi-hazard plan were identified. The key capabilities identified were: coordination; epidemiology and surveillance; laboratory; risk communication and social mobilization. In each of these capabilities, key players were identified. Risk profiling classified road traffic accident, cholera, malaria and typhoid as very high risk. Meningitis, VHF, drought, industrial accidents, terrorism, floods and landslides were high risk. Hepatitis E, avian influenza and measles were low risk and the only plague fell into the category of very low risk. Risk profiling using STAR yielded good results. All risk categories required additional preparedness activities, and very high and high-risk categories required improved operational response capacity and risk mitigation measures. Conclusion: Uganda successfully developed a national multi-hazard emergency preparedness and response plan using the preparedness logic model. The plan is now ready for implementation by the Uganda MoH and partners.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Emergências , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Medição de Risco/métodos , Uganda
5.
Health Secur ; 17(3): 174-180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206322

RESUMO

Uganda is currently implementing the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), aiming at accelerating compliance to the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). To assess progress toward compliance, a Joint External Evaluation (JEE) was conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Based on this evaluation, we present the process and lessons learned. Uganda's methodological approach to the JEE followed the WHO recommendations, including conducting a whole-of-government in-country self-assessment prior to the final assessment, using the same tool at both assessments, and generating consensus scores during the final assessment. The in-country self-assessment process began on March 24, 2017, with a multisectoral representation of 203 subject matter experts from 81 institutions. The final assessment was conducted between June 26 and 30, 2017, by 15 external evaluators. Discrepancies between the in-country and final scores occurred in 27 of 50 indicators. Prioritized gaps from the JEE formed the basis of the National Action Plan for Health Security. We learned 4 major lessons from this process: subject matter experts should be adequately oriented on the scoring requirements of the JEE tool; whole-of-government representation should be ensured during the entire JEE process; equitable multisectoral implementation of IHR activities must be ensured; and over-reliance on external support is a threat to sustainability of GHSA gains.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Pública/métodos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Saúde Pública/normas , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Uganda , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Health Secur ; 17(3): 169-173, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033346

RESUMO

One of the challenges of global biosecurity is to protect and control dangerous pathogens from unauthorized access and intentional release. A practical and feasible option to protect life science institutes against theft and sabotage, and secure their biological materials against misuse, is to establish a national electronic database with a comprehensive overview of the locations of all controlled dangerous pathogens in a country. This national database could be used as an instrument to secure and account for dangerous pathogens in a country, but it could also assist in establishing a biosecurity assessing and monitoring system for laboratories that work with these controlled biological agents. The Republic of Uganda is one of the first countries, prompted by the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Joint External Evaluation (JEE), to implement a national electronic database that assembles information collected from relevant Ugandan laboratories. This Ugandan Inventory of Dangerous Pathogens is different from an institute-specific pathogen inventory system, as it is intended to store the information collected from laboratories in the country working with dangerous pathogens in 1 centralized secure location. The Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST) has coordinated the implementation of the Ugandan national inventory. The inventory was recognized by the WHO JEE as contributing to Uganda's developed capacities regarding biosafety and biosecurity. This article describes the steps in implementing Uganda's National Inventory of Dangerous Pathogens. In addition, it presents a straightforward approach that can be adapted by other countries that aim to enhance their biosecurity capacities.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Laboratórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Uganda
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007257, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In October 2017, a blood sample from a resident of Kween District, Eastern Uganda, tested positive for Marburg virus. Within 24 hour of confirmation, a rapid outbreak response was initiated. Here, we present results of epidemiological and laboratory investigations. METHODS: A district task force was activated consisting of specialised teams to conduct case finding, case management and isolation, contact listing and follow up, sample collection and testing, and community engagement. An ecological investigation was also carried out to identify the potential source of infection. Virus isolation and Next Generation sequencing were performed to identify the strain of Marburg virus. RESULTS: Seventy individuals (34 MVD suspected cases and 36 close contacts of confirmed cases) were epidemiologically investigated, with blood samples tested for MVD. Only four cases met the MVD case definition; one was categorized as a probable case while the other three were confirmed cases. A total of 299 contacts were identified; during follow- up, two were confirmed as MVD. Of the four confirmed and probable MVD cases, three died, yielding a case fatality rate of 75%. All four cases belonged to a single family and 50% (2/4) of the MVD cases were female. All confirmed cases had clinical symptoms of fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and bleeding from body orifices. Viral sequences indicated that the Marburg virus strain responsible for this outbreak was closely related to virus strains previously shown to be circulating in Uganda. CONCLUSION: This outbreak of MVD occurred as a family cluster with no additional transmission outside of the four related cases. Rapid case detection, prompt laboratory testing at the Uganda National VHF Reference Laboratory and presence of pre-trained, well-prepared national and district rapid response teams facilitated the containment and control of this outbreak within one month, preventing nationwide and global transmission of the disease.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Surtos de Doenças , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/epidemiologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/patologia , Marburgvirus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Uganda/epidemiologia , Cultura de Vírus
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 117, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy was adopted as the framework for implementation of International Health Regulation (2005) in the African region of World Health Organisation (WHO AFRO). While earlier studies documented gains in performance of core IDSR functions, Uganda still faces challenges due to infectious diseases. IDSR revitalisation programme aimed to improve prevention, early detection, and prompt response to disease outbreaks. However, little is known about health worker's perception of the revitalised IDSR training. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions of health workers who were trained between 2015 and 2016. Discussions on benefits, challenges and possible solutions for improvement of IDSR training were recorded, transcribed, translated and coded using grounded theory. RESULTS: In total, 22/26 FGDs were conducted. Participants cited improved completeness and timeliness of reporting, case detection and data analysis and better response to disease outbreaks as key achievements after the training. Programme challenges included an inadequate number of trained staff, funding, irregular supervision, high turnover of trained health workers, and lack of key logistics. Suggestions to improve IDSR included pre-service and community training, mentorship, regular supervision and improving funding at the district level. CONCLUSION: Health workers perceived that scaling up revitalized IDSR training in Uganda improved public health surveillance. However, they acknowledge encountering challenges that hinder their performance after the training. Ministry of Health should have a mentorship plan, integrate IDSR training in pre-service curricula and advocate for funding IDSR activities to address some of the gaps highlighted in this study.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Prática Profissional , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Uganda/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 46, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda is a low income country that continues to experience disease outbreaks caused by emerging and re-emerging diseases such as cholera, meningococcal meningitis, typhoid and viral haemorrhagic fevers. The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy was adopted by WHO-AFRO in 1998 as a comprehensive strategy to improve disease surveillance and response in WHO Member States in Africa and was adopted in Uganda in 2000. To address persistent inconsistencies and inadequacies in the core and support functions of IDSR, Uganda initiated an IDSR revitalisation programme in 2012. The objective of this evaluation was to assess IDSR core and support functions after implementation of the revitalised IDSR programme. METHODS: The evaluation was a cross-sectional survey that employed mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. We assessed IDSR performance indicators, knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention and level of confidence in performing IDSR tasks among health workers who underwent IDSR training. Qualitative data was collected to guide the interpretation of quantitative findings and to establish a range of views related to IDSR implementation. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, there was an improvement in completeness of monthly reporting (69 to 100%) and weekly reporting (56 to 78%) and an improvement in timeliness of monthly reporting (59 to 93%) and weekly reporting (40 to 68%) at the national level. The annualised non-polio AFP rate increased from 2.8 in 2012 to 3.7 cases per 100,000 population < 15 years in 2016. The case fatality rate for cholera decreased from 3.2% in 2012 to 2.1% in 2016. All districts received IDSR feedback from the national level. Key IDSR programme challenges included inadequate numbers of trained staff, inadequate funding, irregular supervision and high turnover of trained staff. Recommendations to improve IDSR performance included: improving funding, incorporating IDSR training into pre-service curricula for health workers and strengthening support supervision. CONCLUSION: The revitalised IDSR programme in Uganda was associated with improvements in performance. However in 2016, the programme still faced significant challenges and some performance indicators were still below the target. It is important that the documented gains are consolidated and challenges are continuously identified and addressed as they emerge.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Cólera/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Países em Desenvolvimento , Surtos de Doenças , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(3): 659-671, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675833

RESUMO

In March 2016, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) was identified in Kabale district, southwestern Uganda. A comprehensive outbreak investigation was initiated, including human, livestock, and mosquito vector investigations. Overall, four cases of acute, nonfatal human disease were identified, three by RVF virus (RVFV) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and one by IgM and IgG serology. Investigations of cattle, sheep, and goat samples from homes and villages of confirmed and probable RVF cases and the Kabale central abattoir found that eight of 83 (10%) animals were positive for RVFV by IgG serology; one goat from the home of a confirmed case tested positive by RT-PCR. Whole genome sequencing from three clinical specimens was performed and phylogenetic analysis inferred the relatedness of 2016 RVFV with the 2006-2007 Kenya-2 clade, suggesting previous introduction of RVFV into southwestern Uganda. An entomological survey identified three of 298 pools (1%) of Aedes and Coquillettidia species that were RVFV positive by RT-PCR. This was the first identification of RVFV in Uganda in 48 years and the 10th independent viral hemorrhagic fever outbreak to be confirmed in Uganda since 2010.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Gado , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Culicidae/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 548, 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 28 March, 2016, the Ministry of Health received a report on three deaths from an unknown disease characterized by fever, jaundice, and hemorrhage which occurred within a one-month period in the same family in central Uganda. We started an investigation to determine its nature and scope, identify risk factors, and to recommend eventually control measures for future prevention. METHODS: We defined a probable case as onset of unexplained fever plus ≥1 of the following unexplained symptoms: jaundice, unexplained bleeding, or liver function abnormalities. A confirmed case was a probable case with IgM or PCR positivity for yellow fever. We reviewed medical records and conducted active community case-finding. In a case-control study, we compared risk factors between case-patients and asymptomatic control-persons, frequency-matched by age, sex, and village. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to evaluate risk factors. We also conducted entomological studies and environmental assessments. RESULTS: From February to May, we identified 42 case-persons (35 probable and seven confirmed), of whom 14 (33%) died. The attack rate (AR) was 2.6/100,000 for all affected districts, and highest in Masaka District (AR = 6.0/100,000). Men (AR = 4.0/100,000) were more affected than women (AR = 1.1/100,000) (p = 0.00016). Persons aged 30-39 years (AR = 14/100,000) were the most affected. Only 32 case-patients and 128 controls were used in the case control study. Twenty three case-persons (72%) and 32 control-persons (25%) farmed in swampy areas (ORadj = 7.5; 95%CI = 2.3-24); 20 case-patients (63%) and 32 control-persons (25%) who farmed reported presence of monkeys in agriculture fields (ORadj = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.1-8.6); and 20 case-patients (63%) and 35 control-persons (27%) farmed in forest areas (ORadj = 3.2; 95%CI = 0.93-11). No study participants reported yellow fever vaccination. Sylvatic monkeys and Aedes mosquitoes were identified in the nearby forest areas. CONCLUSION: This yellow fever outbreak was likely sylvatic and transmitted to a susceptible population probably by mosquito bites during farming in forest and swampy areas. A reactive vaccination campaign was conducted in the affected districts after the outbreak. We recommended introduction of yellow fever vaccine into the routine Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization and enhanced yellow fever surveillance.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Haplorrinos/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Uganda/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Health Secur ; 16(S1): S76-S86, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480504

RESUMO

Global health security depends on effective surveillance for infectious diseases. In Uganda, resources are inadequate to support collection and reporting of data necessary for an effective and responsive surveillance system. We used a cross-cutting approach to improve surveillance and laboratory capacity in Uganda by leveraging an existing pediatric inpatient malaria sentinel surveillance system to collect data on expanded causes of illness, facilitate development of real-time surveillance, and provide data on antimicrobial resistance. Capacity for blood culture collection was established, along with options for serologic testing for select zoonotic conditions, including arboviral infection, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. Detailed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for all admissions were captured through a web-based system accessible at participating hospitals, laboratories, and the Uganda Public Health Emergency Operations Center. Between July 2016 and December 2017, the expanded system was activated in pediatric wards of 6 regional government hospitals. During that time, patient data were collected from 30,500 pediatric admissions, half of whom were febrile but lacked evidence of malaria. More than 5,000 blood cultures were performed; 4% yielded bacterial pathogens, and another 4% yielded likely contaminants. Several WHO antimicrobial resistance priority pathogens were identified, some with multidrug-resistant phenotypes, including Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. Leptospirosis and arboviral infections (alphaviruses and flaviviruses) were documented. The lessons learned and early results from the development of this multisectoral surveillance system provide the knowledge, infrastructure, and workforce capacity to serve as a foundation to enhance the capacity to detect, report, and rapidly respond to wide-ranging public health concerns in Uganda.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Saúde Global , Laboratórios/normas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medidas de Segurança , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Hospitais , Humanos , Pediatria , Saúde Pública , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0198568, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of accurate data on trends and the burden of human rabies infection in developing countries, animal bite injuries provide useful information to bridge that gap. Rabies is one of the most deadly infectious diseases, with a case fatality rate approaching 100%. Despite availability of effective prevention and control strategies, rabies still kills 50,000 to 60,000 people worldwide annually, the majority of whom are in the developing world. We describe trends and geographical distribution of animal bite injuries (a proxy of potential exposure to rabies) and deaths due to suspected human rabies in Uganda from 2001 to 2015. METHODS: We used 2001-2015 surveillance data on suspected animal bite injuries, collected from health facilities in Uganda. To describe annual trends, line graphs were used and linear regression tested significance of observed trends at P<0.05. We used maps to describe geographical distribution of animal bites by district. RESULTS: A total of 208,720 cases of animal bite injuries were reported. Of these, 27% were in Central, 22% in Eastern, 27% in Northern and 23% in Western regions. Out of 48,720 animal bites between 2013 and 2015, 59% were suffered by males and 81% were persons aged above 5 years. Between 2001 and 2015, the overall incidence (per 100,000 population) of animal bites was 58 in Uganda, 76 in Northern, 58 in Central, 53 in Western and 50 in Eastern region. From 2001 to 2015, the annual incidence (per 100,000 population) increased from 21 to 47 (P = 0.02) in Central, 27 to 34 (P = 0.04) in Eastern, 23 to 70 (P = 0.01) in Northern and 16 to 46 (P = 0.001) in Western region. A total of 486 suspected human rabies deaths were reported, of which 29% were reported from Eastern, 28% from Central, 27% from Northern and 17% from Western region. CONCLUSION: Animal bite injuries, a potential exposure to rabies infection, and mortality attributed to rabies infection are public health challenges affecting all regions of Uganda. Eliminating rabies requires strengthening of rabies prevention and control strategies at all levels of the health sector. These strategies should utilize the "One Health" approach with strategic focus on strengthening rabies surveillance, controlling rabies in dogs and ensuring availability of post exposure prophylaxis at lower health facilities.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Raiva/mortalidade , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 879, 2018 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda adopted and has been implementing the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDSR) strategy since 2000. The goal was to build the country's capacity to detect, report promptly, and effectively respond to public health emergencies and priorities. The considerable investment into the program startup realised significant IDSR core performance. However, due to un-sustained funding from the mid-2000s onwards, these achievements were undermined. Following the adoption of the revised World Health Organization guidelines on IDSR, the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH) in collaboration with key partners decided to revitalise IDSR and operationalise the updated IDSR guidelines in 2012. METHODS: Through the review of both published and unpublished national guidelines, reports and other IDSR program records in addition to an interview of key informants, we describe the design and process of IDSR revitalisation in Uganda, 2013-2016. The program aimed to enhance the districts' capacity to promptly detect, assess and effectively respond to public health emergencies. RESULTS: Through a cascaded, targeted skill-development training model, 7785 participants were trained in IDSR between 2015 and 2016. Of these, 5489(71%) were facility-based multi-disciplinary health workers, 1107 (14%) comprised the district rapid response teams and 1188 (15%) constituted the district task forces. This training was complemented by other courses for regional teams in addition to the provision of logistics to support IDSR activities. Centrally, IDSR implementation was coordinated and monitored by the MoH's national task force (NTF) on epidemics and emergencies. The NTF and in close collaboration with the WHO Country Office, mobilised resources from various partners and development initiatives. At regional and district levels, the technical and political leadership were mobilised and engaged in monitoring and overseeing program implementation. CONCLUSION: The IDSR re-vitalization in Uganda highlights unique features that can be considered by other countries that would wish to strengthen their IDSR programs. Through a coordinated partner response, the program harnessed resources which primarily were not earmarked for IDSR to strengthen the program nation-wide. Engagement of the local district leadership helped promote ownership, foster accountability and sustainability of the program.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Proc ; 11(Suppl 1): 2, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813542

RESUMO

The fifth annual meeting of the African cholera surveillance network (Africhol) took place on 10-11 June 2015 in Lomé, Togo. Together with international partners, representatives from the 11 member countries -Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe- and an invited country (Malawi) shared their experience. The meeting featured three sessions: i) cholera surveillance, prevention and control in participating countries, ii) cholera surveillance methodology, such as cholera mapping, cost-effectiveness studies and the issue of overlapping epidemics from different diseases, iii) cholera laboratory diagnostics tools and capacity building. The meeting has greatly benefitted from the input of technical expertise from participating institutions and the observations emerging from the meeting should enable national teams to make recommendations to their respective governments on the most appropriate and effective measures to be taken for the prevention and control of cholera. Recommendations for future activities included collecting precise burden estimates in surveillance sites; modeling cholera burden for Africa; setting up cross-border collaborations; strengthening laboratory capacity for the confirmation of suspected cholera cases and for vaccine impact assessment in settings where oral cholera vaccine would be used; adapting cholera surveillance to concurrent issues (e.g., Ebola); and developing national cholera control plans including rationale vaccination strategies together with other preventive and control measures such as improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH).

17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(6): 1490-1496, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719274

RESUMO

AbstractPodoconiosis, a noninfectious elephantiasis, is a disabling neglected tropical disease. In August 2015, an elephantiasis case-cluster was reported in Kamwenge District, western Uganda. We investigated to identify the disease's nature and risk factors. We defined a suspected podoconiosis case as onset in a Kamwenge resident of bilateral asymmetrical lower limb swelling lasting ≥ 1 month, plus ≥ 1 of the following associated symptoms: skin itching, burning sensation, plantar edema, lymph ooze, prominent skin markings, rigid toes, or mossy papillomata. A probable case was a suspected case with negative microfilaria antigen immunochromatographic card test (ruling out filarial elephantiasis). We conducted active case-finding. In a case-control investigation, we tested the hypothesis that the disease was caused by prolonged foot skin exposure to irritant soils, using 40 probable case-persons and 80 asymptomatic village control-persons, individually matched by age and sex. We collected soil samples to characterize irritants. We identified 52 suspected (including 40 probable) cases with onset from 1980 to 2015. Prevalence rates increased with age; annual incidence (by reported onset of disease) was stable over time at 2.9/100,000. We found that 93% (37/40) of cases and 68% (54/80) of controls never wore shoes at work (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [ORMH] = 7.7; 95% [confidence interval] CI = 2.0-30); 80% (32/40) of cases and 49% (39/80) of controls never wore shoes at home (ORMH = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.8-15); and 70% (27/39) of cases and 44% (35/79) of controls washed feet at day end (versus immediately after work) (OR = 11; 95% CI = 2.1-56). Soil samples were characterized as rich black-red volcanic clays. In conclusion, this reported elephantiasis is podoconiosis associated with prolonged foot exposure to volcanic soil. We recommended foot hygiene and universal use of protective shoes.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Elefantíase/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Elefantíase/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Sapatos , Solo/parasitologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(6): 1001-1004, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28518032

RESUMO

In September 2014, a single fatal case of Marburg virus was identified in a healthcare worker in Kampala, Uganda. The source of infection was not identified, and no secondary cases were identified. We describe the rapid identification, laboratory diagnosis, and case investigation of the third Marburg virus outbreak in Uganda.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/epidemiologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/prevenção & controle , Marburgvirus/genética , Filogenia , Adulto , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Marburgvirus/classificação , Marburgvirus/isolamento & purificação , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(3): e0005407, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The communities in fishing villages in the Great Lakes Region of Africa and particularly in Uganda experience recurrent cholera outbreaks that lead to considerable mortality and morbidity. We evaluated cholera epidemiology and population characteristics in the fishing villages of Uganda to better target prevention and control interventions of cholera and contribute to its elimination from those communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective study between 2011-15 in fishing villages in Uganda. We collected, reviewed and documented epidemiological and socioeconomic data for 10 cholera outbreaks that occurred in fishing communities located along the African Great Lakes and River Nile in Uganda. These outbreaks caused 1,827 suspected cholera cases and 43 deaths, with a Case-Fatality Ratio (CFR) of 2.4%. Though the communities in the fishing villages make up only 5-10% of the Ugandan population, they bear the biggest burden of cholera contributing 58% and 55% of all reported cases and deaths in Uganda during the study period. The CFR was significantly higher among males than females (3.2% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.02). The outbreaks were seasonal with most cases occurring during the months of April-May. Male children under age of 5 years, and 5-9 years had increased risk. Cholera was endemic in some villages with well-defined "hotspots". Practices predisposing communities to cholera outbreaks included: the use of contaminated lake water, poor sanitation and hygiene. Additional factors were: ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cholera outbreaks were a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the fishing communities in Uganda. In addition to improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene, oral cholera vaccines could play an important role in the prevention and control of these outbreaks, particularly when targeted to high-risk areas and populations. Promotion and facilitation of access to social services including education and reduction in poverty should contribute to cholera prevention, control and elimination in these communities.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(377)2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202777

RESUMO

Nodding syndrome is an epileptic disorder of unknown etiology that occurs in children in East Africa. There is an epidemiological association with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes onchocerciasis (river blindness), but there is limited evidence that the parasite itself is neuroinvasive. We hypothesized that nodding syndrome may be an autoimmune-mediated disease. Using protein chip methodology, we detected autoantibodies to leiomodin-1 more abundantly in patients with nodding syndrome compared to unaffected controls from the same village. Leiomodin-1 autoantibodies were found in both the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with nodding syndrome. Leiomodin-1 was found to be expressed in mature and developing human neurons in vitro and was localized in mouse brain to the CA3 region of the hippocampus, Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, and cortical neurons, structures that also appear to be affected in patients with nodding syndrome. Antibodies targeting leiomodin-1 were neurotoxic in vitro, and leiomodin-1 antibodies purified from patients with nodding syndrome were cross-reactive with O. volvulus antigens. This study provides initial evidence supporting the hypothesis that nodding syndrome is an autoimmune epileptic disorder caused by molecular mimicry with O. volvulus antigens and suggests that patients may benefit from immunomodulatory therapies.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/parasitologia , Síndrome do Cabeceio/imunologia , Síndrome do Cabeceio/parasitologia , Onchocerca volvulus/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Autoantígenos/química , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/química , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/imunologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome do Cabeceio/sangue , Síndrome do Cabeceio/líquido cefalorraquidiano
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