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Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 399, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409374


BACKGROUND: Sampling methodologies for mosquitoes that are capable of transmitting vector-borne infectious diseases provide critical information on entomological endpoints. Reliable and meaningful field data is vital to the understanding of basic vector biology as well as disease transmission. Various traps take advantage of different vector behaviors and are inevitably subject to sampling biases. This study represents the first comparison of kelambu traps (KT) to barrier screens (BS), barrier screens with eaves (BSE) and indoor and outdoor human landing catches (HLCs). METHODS: Two trap comparison studies were undertaken. In the first study, mosquitoes were collected in Karama over 26 trapping nights to evaluate the kelambu trap relative to indoor and outdoor HLCs. In the second study, mosquitoes were collected in Karama over 12 trapping nights to compare the kelambu trap, barrier screen, barrier screen with eaves and outdoor HLCs. The kelambu trap, barrier screen and barrier screen with eaves obstruct the flight of mosquitos. HLCs target host-seeking behaviors. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor HLCs for overall Anopheles mosquito abundance. All five of the molecularly identified Anopheles species collected by HLCs, An. aconitus, An. barbirostris, An. peditaeniatus, An. vagus and An. tessellatus, are reported as vectors of malaria in Indonesia. The kelambu trap (n = 2736) collected significantly more Anopheles mosquitoes than indoor HLCs (n = 1286; Z = 3.193, P = 0.004), but not the outdoor HLCs (n = 1580; Z = 2.325, P = 0.053). All traps collected statistically similar abundances for the primary species, An. barbirostris. However, both comparison studies found significantly higher abundances for the kelambu trap for several secondary species compared to all other traps: An. nigerriumus, An. parangensis, An. tessellatus and An. vagus. The kelambu trap retained the highest species richness and Gini-Simpson's diversity index for both comparison studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the kelambu trap collects overall Anopheles abundance and species-specific abundances at statistically similar or higher rates than HLCs in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Therefore, the kelambu trap should be considered as an exposure-free alternative to HLCs for research questions regarding Anopheles species in this malaria endemic region.

Anopheles , Comportamento Alimentar , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Entomologia/instrumentação , Entomologia/métodos , Indonésia , Especificidade da Espécie
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 606, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482239


BACKGROUND: Decisions on when vector control can be withdrawn after malaria is eliminated depend on the receptivity or potential of an area to support vector populations. To guide malaria control and elimination programmes, the potential of biting rates, sporozoite rates, entomological inoculation rates and parity rates to estimate malaria receptivity and transmission were compared within and among geographically localised villages of active transmission in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. RESULTS: Malaria transmission and transmission potential was heterogeneous in both time and space both among and within villages as defined by anopheline species composition and biting densities. Biting rates during the peak biting period (from 18:00 to 00:00 h) of the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, ranged from less than 0.3 bites per person per half night in low receptivity villages to 26 bites per person in highly receptive villages. Within villages, sites with high anopheline biting rates were significantly clustered. Sporozoite rates provided evidence for continued transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale by An. farauti and for incriminating An. hinesorum, as a minor vector, but were unreliable as indicators of transmission intensity. CONCLUSIONS: In the low transmission area studied, sporozoite, entomological inoculation and parity rates could not be measured with the precision required to provide guidance to malaria programmes. Receptivity and potential transmission risk may be most reliably estimated by the vector biting rate. These results support the meaningful design of operational research programmes to ensure that resources are focused on providing information that can be utilised by malaria control programmes to best understand both transmission, transmission risk and receptivity across different areas.

Anopheles/fisiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação
Malar J ; 16(1): 230, 2017 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28569159


BACKGROUND: Molecular tools for detecting malaria-infected mosquitoes with improved practicality, sensitivity and specificity, and high-throughput are required. A common PCR technique used to detect mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium spp. is a nested PCR assay based on the 18s-rRNA gene. However, this technique has several technical limitations, is laborious and time consuming. METHODS: In this study, a PCR-based on the Plasmodium cytochrome oxidase I (COX-I) gene was compared with the 18s-rRNA nested PCR using serial dilutions (330-0.0012 pg) of DNA from Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi and with DNA from 48 positive and negative Kenyan mosquitoes (previously detected by using both ELISA and PCR). This assay for Plasmodium spp. DNA detection using the fast COX-I PCR assay was then performed individually on 2122 field collected mosquitoes (from the Solomon Islands) in which DNA was extracted from head and thorax. RESULTS: The fast COX-I PCR assay took 1 h to run and consistently detected as low as to 0.043 pg of parasite DNA (equivalent to two parasites) in a single PCR, while analyses with the 18s-rRNA nested PCR required 4 h to complete with a consistent detection threshold of 1.5 pg of DNA. Both assays produced concordant results when applied to the 48 Kenyan control samples with known Plasmodium spp. infection status. The fast COX-I PCR identified 23/2122 Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes from the Solomon Islands. CONCLUSIONS: This new COX-I PCR adapted for a single PCR reaction is a faster, simpler, cheaper, more sensitive technique amenable to high-throughput analyses for Plasmodium DNA detection in mosquitoes and is comparable to the 18s-rRNA nested PCR. The improved sensitivity seen with the fast COX-I PCR will improve the accuracy of mosquito infection rate determination.

Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium knowlesi/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Feminino , Melanesia , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/enzimologia , Plasmodium vivax/enzimologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Esporozoítos/enzimologia , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação
Malar J ; 15: 128, 2016 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928594


BACKGROUND: Nested PCRs based on the Plasmodium 18s-rRNA gene have been extensively used for human malaria diagnosis. However, they are not practical when large quantities of samples need to be processed, further there have been challenges in the performance and when interpreting results, especially when submicroscopic infections are analysed. Here the use of "direct PCR" was investigated with the aim of improving diagnosis in the malaria elimination era. METHODS: The performance of the Plasmodium cytochrome oxidase III gene (COX-III) based novel malaria detection strategies (direct nested PCR and direct single PCR) were compared using a 18s-rRNA direct nested PCR as a reference tool. Evaluations were based on sensitivity, specificity and the ability to detect mixed infections using control blood spot samples and field collected blood samples with final species diagnosis confirmation by sequencing. RESULTS: The COX-III direct PCR (limit of detection: 0.6-2 parasites/µL) was more sensitive than the 18s-rRNA direct nested PCR (limit of detection: 2-10 parasites/µL). The COX-III direct PCR identified all 21 positive controls (no mixed infections detected) while the 18s-rRNA direct nested PCR identified 18/21 (including four mixed infections). Different concentrations of simulated mixed infections (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) suggest that the COX-III direct PCR detects only the predominant species. When the 18s-rRNA direct nested PCR was used to detect Plasmodium in field collected bloods spots (n = 3833), there was discrepancy in the results from the genus PCR (16 % positive) and the species-specific PCR (5 % positive). Further, a large portion of a subset of these positive samples (93 % for genus and 60 % for P. vivax), did not align with Plasmodium sequences. In contrast, the COX-III direct PCR clearly identified (single bands confirmed with sequencing) 2 % positive Plasmodium samples including P. vivax, P. falciparum, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri. CONCLUSIONS: The COX-III single direct PCR is an alternative method for accurate detection of Plasmodium microscopic and submicroscopic infections in humans, especially when a large number of samples require screening. This PCR does not require DNA isolation, is sensitive, quick, produces confident/clear results, identifies all the Plasmodium species infecting humans, and is cost-effective.

Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Malária/diagnóstico , Plasmodium/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Malária/parasitologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alinhamento de Sequência