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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257917, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634039

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As part of the integration of refugees into Rwanda's national hepatitis C elimination agenda, a mass screening campaign for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) was conducted among Burundian refugees living in Mahama Camp, Eastern Rwanda. This cross-sectional survey used data from the screening campaign to report on the epidemiology of viral hepatitis in this setting. METHODS: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were used to screen for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) among people of ≥15years old. We calculated seroprevalence for HBsAg and anti-HCV by age and sex and also calculated age-and-sex adjusted risk ratios (ARR) for other possible risk factors. RESULTS: Of the 26,498 screened refugees, 1,006 (3.8%) and 297 (1.1%) tested positive for HBsAg and Anti-HCV, respectively. HBsAg was more prevalent among men than women and most common among people 25-54 years old. Anti-HCV prevalence increased with age group with no difference between sexes. After adjusting for age and sex, having a household contact with HBsAg was associated with 1.59 times higher risk of having HBsAg (95% CI: 1.27, 1.99) and having a household contact with anti-HCV was associated with 3.66 times higher risk of Anti-HCV (95% CI: 2.26, 5.93). Self-reporting having HBV, HCV, liver disease, or previously screened for HBV and HCV were significantly associated with both HBsAg and anti-HCV, but RDT-confirmed HBsAg and anti-HCV statuses were not associated with each other. Other risk factors for HBsAg included diabetes (ARR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.59) and family history of hepatitis B (ARR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.56) and for anti-HCV included heart disease (ARR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.80) and history of surgery (ARR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.32). CONCLUSION: Sero-prevalence and risks factors for hepatitis B and C among Burundian were comparable to that in the Rwandan general population. Contact tracing among household members of identified HBsAg and anti-HCV infected case may be an effective approach to targeted hepatitis screening given the high risk among self-reported cases. Expanded access to voluntary testing may be needed to improve access to hepatitis treatment and care in other refugee settings.

3.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1953250, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curative direct-acting antiviral treatment (DAA) has made it plausible to implement hepatitis C elimination interventions. However, poor hepatitis C knowledge among patients could impede the effectiveness of screening and treatment programs. OBJECTIVE: We assessed knowledge on hepatitis C among rural Rwandans initiating DAA treatment for hepatitis C in a prospective cohort. METHODS: We administered 15 true-false statements before treatment initiation and during one follow-up visit occurring either 1 or 2 months after treatment initiation. We assessed the average number of correct responses per patient, the proportion of correct responses to individual statements, pre-treatment predictors of knowledge, and whether post-initiation knowledge was associated with time since treatment initiation, quality of care, or adherence. RESULTS: Among 333 patients who answered knowledge questions before treatment initiation, 325 (97.6%) were re-assessed at a post-initiation visit. Pre-initiation, 72.1% knew hepatitis C was curable, 61.9% knew that hepatitis C could cause liver damage or cancer, and 42.3% knew that people with hepatitis C could look and feel fine. The average number of correct responses was 8.1 out of 15 (95% CI: 7.8-8.5), but was significantly lower among those with low educational attainment or with low literacy. Post-initiation, correct responses increased by an average of 2.0 statements (95% CI: 1.6, 2.4, p-value <0.001). Many patients still mistakenly believed that hepatitis C could be transmitted through kissing (66.5%), eating utensils (44.1%), handshakes (34.8%), and hugs (34.8%). Post-initiation knowledge is inversely associated with self-reported quality of care and unassociated with self-reported adherence. CONCLUSION: Although knowledge improved over time, key gaps persisted among patients. Accessible public education campaigns targeted to low-literacy populations emphasizing that hepatitis C can be asymptomatic, has severe consequences, and is curable could promote participation in mass screening campaigns and linkage to care. Visual tools could facilitate clinician-provided patient education.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ruanda
4.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21261872

RESUMO

IntroductionSeveral non-pharmaceutical interventions such as physical distancing, hand washing, self-isolation, and schools and business closures, were implemented in British Columbia (BC) following the first laboratory-confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on January 26, 2020, to minimize in-person contacts that could spread infections. The BC COVID-19 Population Mixing Patterns survey (BC-Mix) was established as a surveillance system to measure behaviour and contact patterns in BC over time to inform the timing of the easing/re-imposition of control measures. In this paper, we describe the BC-Mix survey design and the demographic characteristics of respondents. MethodsThe ongoing repeated online survey was launched in September 2020. Participants are mainly recruited through social media platforms (including Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, WhatsApp). A follow up survey is sent to participants two to four weeks after completing the baseline survey. Survey responses are weighted to BCs population by age, sex, geography, and ethnicity to obtain generalizable estimates. Additional indices such as the material and social deprivation index, residential instability, economic dependency, and others are generated using census and location data. ResultsAs of July 26, 2021, over 61,000 baseline survey responses were received of which 41,375 were eligible for analysis. Of the eligible participants, about 60% consented to follow up and about 27% provided their personal health numbers for linkage with healthcare databases. Approximately 50% of respondents were female, 39% were 55 years or older, 65% identified as white and 50% had at least a university degree. ConclusionThe pandemic response is best informed by surveillance systems capable of timely assessment of behaviour patterns. BC-Mix survey respondents represent a large cohort of British Columbians providing near real-time information on behavioural and contact patterns in BC. Data from the BC-Mix survey would inform provincial COVID-19-related control measures.

5.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) continue to increase. In Rwanda, STI management relies on syndromic management with limited empirical data characterising the burden of specific STIs among MSM/TGW. This study evaluated the prevalence of syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and associated factors among MSM/TGW in Kigali. METHODS: From March to August 2018, 737 MSM/TGW >18 years were enrolled using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Structured interviews and HIV/STI screening were conducted. Syphilis was screened with rapid plasma reagin confirmed by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. CT/NG were tested by Cepheid GeneXpert. RDS-adjusted multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance estimation were used to evaluate factors associated with any STI, and determinants of urethral and rectal STIs separately. RESULTS: Prevalence of any STI was 20% (RDS adjusted: 16.7% (95% CI: 13.2% to 20.2%)). Syphilis was 5.7% (RDS adjusted: 6.8% (95% CI: 4.3% to 9.4%)). CT was 9.1% (RDS adjusted: 6.1% (95% CI: 3.9% to 8.4%)) and NG was 8.8% (RDS adjusted: 7.1% (95% CI: 4.9% to 9.2%)). STIs were more common among older MSM and those with HIV (p<0.05). Of CT infections, 67% were urethral, 27% rectal and 6% were dual site. For NG infections, 52% were rectal, 29% urethral and 19% were dual site. Overall, 25.8% (23 of 89) of those with confirmed STI and returned for their results were symptomatic at time of testing.STI symptoms in the previous year (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.94 (95% CI: 1.26 to 2.98)) were positively associated with any STI. Being circumcised was negatively associated with any STI (aPR: 0.47 (95% CI: 0.31 to 0.73)). HIV was positively associated with rectal STIs (aPR: 3.50 (95% CI: 1.09 to 11.21)) but negatively associated with urethral STIs. CONCLUSION: MSM/TGW, especially those living with HIV, are at high risk of STIs in Rwanda with the vast majority being asymptomatic. These data suggest the potential utility of active STI surveillance strategies using highly sensitive laboratory methods among those at high risk given the anatomical distribution and limited symptomatology of STIs observed among Rwandan MSM/TGW.

6.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 632-638, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929873

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the first year results of Rwanda's Screen, Notify, See, and Treat cervical cancer screening program, including challenges encountered and revisions made to improve service delivery. METHODS: Through public radio broadcasts, meetings of local leaders, church networks, and local women's groups, public awareness of cervical cancer screening opportunities was increased and community health workers were enlisted to recruit and inform eligible women of the locations and dates on which services would be available. Screening was performed using human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing technology, followed by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), and cryotherapy, biopsy, and surgical treatment for those who tested HPV-positive. These services were provided by five district hospitals and 15 health centers to HIV-negative women of age 35-45 and HIV-positive women of age 30-50. Service utilization data were collected from the program's initiation in September 2013 to October 2014. RESULTS: Of 7,520 cervical samples tested, 874 (11.6%) screened HPV-positive, leading 780 (89%) patients to undergo VIA. Cervical lesions were found in 204 patients (26.2%) during VIA; of these, 151 were treated with cryoablation and 15 were referred for biopsies. Eight patients underwent complete hysterectomy to treat advanced cervical cancer. Challenges to service delivery included recruitment of eligible patients, patient loss to follow-up, maintaining HIV status confidentiality, and efficient use of consumable resources. CONCLUSION: Providing cervical cancer screening services through public health facilities is a feasible and valuable component of comprehensive women's health care in resource-limited settings. Special caution is warranted in ensuring proper adherence to follow-up and maintaining patient confidentiality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae , Ruanda , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 220, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To eliminate hepatitis C, Rwanda is conducting national mass screenings and providing to people with chronic hepatitis C free access to Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs). Until 2020, prescribers trained and authorized to initiate DAA treatment were based at district hospitals, and access to DAAs remains expensive and geographically difficult for rural patients. We implemented a mobile clinic to provide DAA treatment initiation at primary-level health facilities among people with chronic hepatitis C identified through mass screening campaigns in rural Kirehe and Kayonza districts. METHODS: The mobile clinic team was composed of one clinician authorized to manage hepatitis, one lab technician, and one driver. Eligible patients received same-day clinical consultations, counselling, laboratory tests and DAA initiation. Using clinical databases, registers, and program records, we compared the number of patients who initiated DAA treatment before and during the mobile clinic campaign. We assessed linkage to care during the mobile clinical campaign and assessed predictors of linkage to care. We also estimated the cost per patient of providing mobile services and the reduction in out-of-pocket costs associated with accessing DAA treatment through the mobile clinic rather than the standard of care. RESULTS: Prior to the mobile clinic, only 408 patients in Kirehe and Kayonza had been initiated on DAAs over a 25-month period. Between November 2019 and January 2020, out of 661 eligible patients with hepatitis C, 429 (64.9%) were linked to care through the mobile clinic. Having a telephone number and complete address recorded at screening were strongly associated with linkage to care. The cost per patient of the mobile clinic program was 29.36 USD, excluding government-provided DAAs. Providing patients with same-day laboratory tests and clinical consultation at primary-level health facilities reduced out-of-pocket expenses by 9.88 USD. CONCLUSION: The mobile clinic was a feasible strategy for providing rapid treatment initiation among people chronically infected by hepatitis C, identified through a mass screening campaign. Compared to the standard of care, mobile clinics reached more patients in a much shorter time. This low-cost strategy also reduced out-of-pocket expenditures among patients. However, long-term, sustainable care would require decentralization to the primary health-centre level.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/economia , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde da População Rural/economia , Ruanda/epidemiologia
8.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(1): 112-120, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858774

RESUMO

Around 71 million people are living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, with approximately 14% residing in sub-Saharan Africa. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies offer clear benefits for liver-related morbidity and mortality, and data from high-income settings suggest that DAA treatments also provide significant benefits in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQL). In this study, we assessed the effect of DAA treatment on HRQL for individuals treated for HCV in a clinical trial in Rwanda. We assessed the HRQL of participants using an 83-question composite survey at Day 0 ('baseline') and Week 24 ('endpoint'). Data were analysed in R. A total of 296 participants were included in this analysis. Their ages ranged from 19 to 90, and 184 (62.2%) were female. There were significant improvements from baseline to endpoint median scores for all physical and mental quality of life sub-scales. Additionally, a reduction-before and after treatment-in the proportion of those classified as depressed and needing social support was statistically significant (both P < .001). Economic productivity increased after treatment (P < .001), and households classified as food secure increased from baseline to endpoint (P < .001). These results demonstrate that Rwandans with chronic HCV infection experience both clinical and HRQL benefits, including household-level benefits like substantial gains in workforce stability, economic productivity, and poverty alleviation, from DAA treatment. A stronger demonstration of accurate and broader household-level benefits achieved through treatment of HCV with DAAs will help financing and investment for HCV in resource-constrained settings become an urgent priority.

9.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e036711, 2020 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes the burden of the hepatitis B, C and HIV co-infections and assesses associated risk factors. SETTING: This analysis used data from a viral hepatitis screening campaign conducted in six districts in Rwanda from April to May 2019. Ten health centres per district were selected according to population size and distance. PARTICIPANTS: The campaign collected information from 156 499 participants (51 496 males and 104 953 females) on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics. People who were not Rwandan by nationality or under 15 years old were excluded. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The outcomes of interest included chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HIV infection, co-infection HIV/HBV, co-infection HIV/HCV, co-infection HBV/HCV and co-infection HCV/HBV/HIV. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess factors associated with HBV, HCV and HIV, mono and co-infections. RESULTS: Of 156 499 individuals screened, 3465 (2.2%) were hepatitis B surface antigen positive and 83% (2872/3465) of them had detectable HBV desoxy-nucleic acid (HBV DNA). A total of 4382 (2.8%) individuals were positive for antibody-HCV (anti-HCV) and 3163 (72.2%) had detectable HCV ribo-nucleic acid (RNA). Overall, 36 (0.02%) had HBV/HCV co-infection, 153 (0.1%) HBV/HIV co-infection, 238 (0.15%) HCV/HIV co-infection and 3 (0.002%) had triple infection. Scarification or receiving an operation from traditional healer was associated with all infections. Healthcare risk factors-history of surgery or transfusion-were associated with higher likelihood of HIV infection with OR 1.42 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.66) and OR 1.48 (1.29 to 1.70), respectively, while history of physical traumatic assault was associated with a higher likelihood of HIV and HBV/HIV co-infections with OR 1.69 (95% CI 1.51 to 1.88) and OR 1.82 (1.08 to 3.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, mono-infections were common and there were differences in significant risk factors associated with various infections. These findings highlight the magnitude of co-infections and differences in underlying risk factors that are important for designing prevention and care programmes.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Sindemia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 688, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are not well known; however, this information is crucial to shaping the country's public health approach to hepatitis C control. METHODS: A HCV screening campaign was conducted in the general population in 24 districts previously identified to have a high HCV disease burden. At the time of sample collection, sociodemographic information and self-reported risk factors were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to assess risk factors independently associated with hepatitis C antibodies (HCVAb) seroprevalence. RESULTS: Out of a total of 326,263 individuals screened for HCVAb, 22,183 (6.8%) were positive. In multivariate analysis, risk factors identified as statistically associated with HCVAb Seroprevalence include history of traditional operation or scarification (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.14), presence of viral hepatitis in the family (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15-1.40), widowed or separated/divorced (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.26-1.47), Southern province (OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.88-2.08) and aged 65 years and older (OR = 4.86, 95% CI: 4.62-5.11). Ubudehe category 3 (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-1.01) and participants using RAMA (Health insurances for employees of public and private sectors) insurance (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.70-0.85) had lower odds of HCV seroprevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important information for Rwanda's strategy on prevention and case-finding. Future prevention interventions should aim to reduce transmission through targeted messaging around traditional healing practices and case-finding targeting individuals with a history of exposure or advanced age.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029743, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We analysed data collected during programmatic screening activities conducted in 2017 to describe hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence in the general population and identify associated factors. DESIGN: We analysed data collected between June and September 2017. For both seroprevalence and viraemia, variations across demographic and geographic factors were assessed and multivariate regression models were fit to identify factors independently associated with each marker. Geospatial data were examined for visualisation. SETTING: HCV screening was organised within each of the 30 districts in Rwanda. One designated location in each district was selected as the screening site and screening took place for 1 week at each site. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 124 223 male and female volunteers. Anti-HCV-positive individuals were followed up with HCV RNA viral load (VL) testing for infection confirmation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two markers were examined: the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV RNA VL. RESULTS: Among 124 223 individuals screened, 11 003 (8.86%, 95% CIs: 8.70% to 9.02%) were positive for anti-HCV. Anti-HCV prevalence varied by age with the oldest age group (>55 year olds) having a prevalence of 16.46% (95% CIs: 16.14% to 16.80%) and the youngest age group (<25 year olds) having a prevalence of 2.20% (95% CIs: 1.93% to 2.50%) (crude OR=8.78). After adjustment for covariates, an association remained between anti-HCV prevalence and age (p<0.001), province (p<0.001) and socioeconomic status (p<0.001). Of the 3771 anti-HCV-positive individuals who had an available HCV RNA VL result, 2099 (55.66%, 95% CI: 54.06% to 57.25%) had a detectable HCV RNA VL. Age was also associated with HCV viraemia (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Results suggest that over 55% of individuals who screened positive for HCV-antibodies were chronically infected. Targeted screening for HCV among older individuals is recommended, given the association between age and infection. Further geographical hotspots of HCV infection can also inform targeted screening as Rwanda moves towards HCV elimination.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carga Viral
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 381, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the general population in Rwanda is not well known. This study examined the prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and associated risk factors among people aged 25 years and over in an organized national screening campaign. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using data from a nationwide HBV screening campaign organized by the Rwanda Biomedical Centre from March to October 2018. This campaign targeted individuals aged > 25 years old from 24 of 30 districts of Rwanda. Sensitization was done through multimedia announcements, community health workers and local church leaders. During the campaign, a structured interview was administered by trained healthcare workers to collect information on socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of participants; HBV screening was performed with HBsAg using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess factors associated with HBsAg positivity in the screened participants. RESULTS: A total of 327,360 individuals were screened during the campaign. Overall 12,865(3.9%) were HBsAg positive. The highest prevalence (4.2%) was found in the 35-44-year-old group, but the difference from other groups was not significant (Odds Ratio [OR = 1.057, 95% Confidence Interval(CI) (0.904-1.235)]. Being male [OR = 1.348, 95% CI (1.30,1.40)]; being single [OR = 1.092, 95% CI (1.10-1.16)] compared to married; a previous positive TB screening test [OR = 2.352, 95% CI (1.63-3.39)]; history of surgical operation [OR = 1.082, 95% CI (1.00,1.17)]; exposure to traditional operational practices and scarification [OR = 1.187, 95% CI (1.13, 1.24)]; and having a person in the family with viral hepatitis [OR = 1.367, 95% CI (1.21, 1.53)] were significantly associated with HBV infection. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide the first national estimate of the prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity and its associated factors in Rwanda. The study identified people with the highest risk of HBV infection who should be the priority of future prevention efforts in Rwanda and in similar settings.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite C/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
13.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 41(2): e203-e208, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been an evolution in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) due to highly effective direct-acting antivirals, however, restriction of treatment to medical specialists hinders escalation of HCV treatment. This is particularly true in resource-limited settings (RLS), which disproportionately represent the burden of HCV worldwide. The ASCEND study in Washington, DC, demonstrated that complete task-shifting can safely and effectively overcome a low provider-to-patient ratio and expand HCV treatment. However, this model has not been applied internationally to RLS. METHOD: The validated ASCEND model was translated to an international clinical program in Kigali, Rwanda, aimed at training general medicine providers on HCV management and obtaining HCV prevalence data. RESULTS: The didactic training program administered to 11 new HCV providers in Rwanda increased provider's knowledge about HCV management. Through the training program, 26% of patients seen during the follow-up period were screened for HCV and a prevalence estimate of 2% was ascertained. Of these patients, 30% were co-infected with hepatitis B. CONCLUSION: The ASCEND paradigm can be successfully implemented in RLS to escalate HCV care, in a self-sustaining fashion that educates more providers about HCV management, while increasing the public's awareness of HCV and access to treatment.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Educação/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Organizacionais , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Ruanda
14.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(1): 51-58, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403100

RESUMO

With the introduction of direct-acting antiviral drugs, treatment of hepatitis C is both highly effective and tolerable. Access to treatment for patients, however, remains limited in low- and middle-income countries due to the lack of supportive health infrastructure and the high cost of treatment. Poorer countries are being encouraged by international bodies to organize public health responses that would facilitate the roll-out of care and treatment on a national scale. Yet few countries have documented formal plans and policies. Here, we outline the approach taken in Rwanda to a public health framework for hepatitis C control and care within the World Health Organization hepatitis health sector strategy. This includes the development and implementation of policies and programmes, prevention efforts, screening capacity, treatment services and strategic information systems. We highlight key successes by the national programme for the control and management of hepatitis C: establishment of national governance and planning; development of diagnostic capacity; approval and introduction of direct-acting antiviral treatments; training of key personnel; generation of political will and leadership; and fostering of key strategic partnerships. Existing challenges and next steps for the programme include developing a detailed monitoring and evaluation framework and tools for monitoring of viral hepatitis. The government needs to further decentralize care and integrate hepatitis C management into routine clinical services to provide better access to diagnosis and treatment for patients. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests to public health-care facilities would help to increase case-finding. Increased public and private financing is essential to support care and treatment services.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ruanda , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 37(2): 109-115, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27922344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enormous burden of critical illness in resource-limited settings has led to a growing interest in paediatric critical care in these regions. However, published data on the practice of critical care and patient outcomes in these settings are scant. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify risk factors associated with mortality in the newly established Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH) in Rwanda and test the predictive ability of a newly devised mortality risk score, the modified PRISM (MP) score. METHODS: All admissions to the PICU at KUTH from October 2012 to October 2014 were included. Demographic and physiological data on each patient were gathered and each was assigned a MP score. This prospective cross-sectional study examined the association between the characteristics and physiological status of these patients and mortality. Using logistic regression, factors associated with mortality in the PICU were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 213 children were admitted to the PICU during the study period. Three patients were excluded because of missing data. Of this total, 59% were male, 25% were neonates and nearly 60% were moderately to severely malnourished. The overall mortality rate was 50%. On bivariate analysis, factors associated with increased mortality were male sex, use of vasoactive medications, a MP score ≥ 5, a discharge diagnosis of septic shock, and malnutrition on admission. On multivariate analysis, only the use of vasoactive drugs [odds ratio (OR) 12.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.4-35.4, p < 0.001] and MP score ≥ 5 (OR 16.1, CI 6.3-40.8, p < 0.001) were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: The observed mortality rate was in the range reported in other resource-limited settings. The initial attempt to create and implement a risk of mortality tool for this setting determined a score that could identify those patients at higher risk of mortality. In PICUs in resource-limited settings, the gathering of data and use of severity of illness tools could improve care in a number of ways.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 22: 26, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26664527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010 to June 2013. Women aged 30 to 50 years screened for cervical cancer by trained doctors, nurses and midwives. Prevalence of pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions was determined. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess risk factors associated with cervical cancer. RESULTS: The prevalence of pre-cancer and invasive cervical cancer was 5.9% (95% CI 4.5, 7.5) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.9, 2.5), respectively. Risk factors associated with cervical cancer in multivariate analysis included initiation of sexual activity at less than 20 years (OR=1.75; 95% CI=(1.01, 3.03); being unmarried (single, divorced and widowed) (OR=3.29; 95% CI=( 1.26, 8.60)); Older age of participants (OR= 0.52; 95% CI= (0.28, 0.97)), older age at the first pregnancy (OR=2.10; 95% CI=(1.20, 3.67) and higher number of children born (OR=0.42; 95%CI =(0.23, 0.76)) were protective. CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer continues to be a public health problem in Rwanda, but screening using VIA is practical and feasible even in rural settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia
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