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1.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 30: 101096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455107

RESUMO

Emergency departments are facing an unprecedented challenge in dealing with patients who have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The massive number of cases evolving to respiratory failure are leading to a rapid depletion of medical resources such as respiratory support equipment, which is more critical in low- and middle-income countries. In this context, any therapeutic and oxygenation support strategy that conserves medical resources should be welcomed. Prone positioning is a well-known ventilatory support strategy to improve oxygenation levels. Self-proning can be used in the management of selected patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we describe our experience with two COVID-19-positive patients who were admitted with respiratory failure. The patients were successfully managed with self-proning and noninvasive oxygenation without the need for intubation.

2.
Respir. med. case rep ; 30: 101096, May 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1097001

RESUMO

Emergency departments are facing an unprecedented challenge in dealing with patients who have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The massive number of cases evolving to respiratory failure are leading to a rapid depletion of medical resources such as respiratory support equipment, which is more critical in low- and middleincome countries. In this context, any therapeutic and oxygenation support strategy that conserves medical resources should be welcomed. Prone positioning is a well-known ventilatory support strategy to improve oxygenation levels. Self-proning can be used in the management of selected patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we describe our experience with two COVID-19-positive patients who were admitted with respiratory failure. The patients were successfully managed with self-proning and noninvasive oxygenation without the need for intubation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia , Infecções por Coronavirus
3.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e027207, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772079

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An ongoing outbreak of yellow fever (YF) has been reported in Brazil with 1261 confirmed cases and 409 deaths since July 2017. To date, there is no specific treatment available for YF. Recently published papers describing in vitro and animal models suggest a potential effect of antiviral drugs (approved for the treatment of hepatitis virus) against flaviviruses, including YF. The primary aim of this study is to analyse the effect of sofosbuvir on viral kinetics and clinical outcomes among patients presenting with YF. This is a multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation, stratified by severity and by recruiting centre. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Adults with suspected or confirmed YF infection and symptoms lasting up to 15 days are screened. Eligible and consenting patients are randomised to receive oral sofosbuvir 400 mg daily for 10 days or to receive standard clinical care. Viral kinetics are measured daily and the reduction in YF plasma viral load from the sample at inclusion to 72 hours after randomisation will be compared between active and control groups. Clinical outcomes include severity meeting criteria for intensive care support, liver transplantation, in-hospital mortality and mortality within 60 days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained at the participating sites and at the national research ethics committee (CAAE 82673018.6.1001.0068). The trial has been submitted for ethical approval at additional potential recruiting centres. Results of the study will be published in journals and presented at scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (RBR-93dp9n).


Assuntos
Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Febre Amarela/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): 027207, Nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1026370

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An ongoing outbreak of yellow fever (YF) has been reported in Brazil with 1261 confirmed cases and 409 deaths since July 2017. To date, there is no specific treatment available for YF. Recently published papers describing in vitro and animal models suggest a potential effect of antiviral drugs (approved for the treatment of hepatitis virus) against flaviviruses, including YF. The primary aim of this study is to analyse the effect of sofosbuvir on viral kinetics and clinical outcomes among patients presenting with YF. This is a multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation, stratified by severity and by recruiting centre. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Adults with suspected or confirmed YF infection and symptoms lasting up to 15 days are screened. Eligible and consenting patients are randomised to receive oral sofosbuvir 400 mg daily for 10 days or to receive standard clinical care. Viral kinetics are measured daily and the reduction in YF plasma viral load from the sample at inclusion to 72 hours after randomisation will be compared between active and control groups. Clinical outcomes include severity meeting criteria for intensive care support, liver transplantation, in-hospital mortality and mortality within 60 days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained at the participating sites and at the national research ethics committee (CAAE 82673018.6.1001.0068). The trial has been submitted for ethical approval at additional potential recruiting centres. Results of the study will be published in journals and presented at scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (RBR-93dp9n)


Assuntos
Humanos , Antivirais , Febre Amarela/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil , Sofosbuvir
5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621787
6.
Am. j. trop. med. hyg ; 101(3): 705-707, Sept. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1016226

RESUMO

A 43-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit and diagnosed with yellow fever. He presented with refractory bleeding, extreme hyperferritinemia, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, requiring renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and treatment with vasoactive drugs. Because the bleeding did not respond to fresh-frozen plasma administration, the patient received therapeutic plasma exchange, which was accompanied by a marked improvement of the clinical and biochemical parameters, including a significant decline in serum ferritin levels


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Febre Amarela
7.
Bernoche, Claudia; Timerman, Sergio; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi; Giannetti, Natali Schiavo; Siqueira, Adailson Wagner da Silva; Piscopo, Agnaldo; Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Reis, Amélia Gorete Afonso da Costa; Tanaka, Ana Cristina Sayuri; Thomaz, Ana Maria; Quilici, Ana Paula; Catarino, Andrei Hilário; Ribeiro, Anna Christina de Lima; Barreto, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Azevedo, Antonio Fernando Barros de Filho; Pazin, Antonio Filho; Timerman, Ari; Scarpa, Bruna Romanelli; Timerman, Bruno; Tavares, Caio de Assis Moura; Martins, Cantidio Soares Lemos; Serrano, Carlos Vicente Junior; Malaque, Ceila Maria Sant'Ana; Pisani, Cristiano Faria; Batista, Daniel Valente; Leandro, Daniela Luana Fernandes; Szpilman, David; Gonçalves, Diego Manoel; Paiva, Edison Ferreira de; Osawa, Eduardo Atsushi; Lima, Eduardo Gomes; Adam, Eduardo Leal; Peixoto, Elaine; Evaristo, Eli Faria; Azeka, Estela; Silva, Fabio Bruno da; Wen, Fan Hui; Ferreira, Fatima Gil; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Fernandes, Felipe Lourenço; Ganem, Fernando; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Feitosa, Gilson Soares Filho; Foronda, Gustavo; Guimarães, Helio Penna; Abud, Isabela Cristina Kirnew; Leite, Ivanhoé Stuart Lima; Linhares, Jaime Paula Pessoa Filho; Moraes, Junior João Batista de Moura Xavier; Falcão, João Luiz Alencar de Araripe; Ramires, Jose Antônio Franchini; Cavalini, José Fernando; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Abrão, Karen Cristine; Pinto, Lecio Figueira; Bianchi, Leonardo Luís Torres; Lopes, Leonardo Nícolau Geisler Daud; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares; Kopel, Liliane; Godoy, Lucas Colombo; Tobase, Lucia; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Dallan, Luís Augusto Palma; Caneo, Luiz Fernando; Cardoso, Luiz Francisco; Canesin, Manoel Fernandes; Park, Marcelo; Rabelo, Marcia Maria Noya; Malachias, Marcus Vinícius Bolívar; Gonçalves, Maria Aparecida Batistão; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco de; Souza, Maria Francilene Silva; Favarato, Maria Helena Sampaio; Carrion, Maria Julia Machline; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita; Bortolotto, Maria Rita de Figueiredo Lemos; Macatrão-Costa, Milena Frota; Shimoda, Mônica Satsuki; Oliveira-Junior, Mucio Tavares de; Ikari, Nana Miura; Dutra, Oscar Pereira; Berwanger, Otávio; Pinheiro, Patricia Ana Paiva Corrêa; Reis, Patrícia Feitosa Frota dos; Cellia, Pedro Henrique Moraes; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Gianotto-Oliveira, Renan; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Guinsburg, Ruth; Managini, Sandrigo; Lage, Silvia Helena Gelas; Yeu, So Pei; Franchi, Sonia Meiken; Shimoda-Sakano, Tania; Accorsi, Tarso Duenhas; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci; Guimarães, Vanessa; Sallai, Vanessa Santos; Ávila, Walkiria Samuel; Sako, Yara Kimiko.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 449-663, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1038561
8.
Am. j. trop. med. hyg ; 101(1): 180-188, July 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1016853

RESUMO

Faced with the reemergence of yellow fever (YF) in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, we developed a retrospective study to describe the cases of YF attended at the Institute of Infectology Emilio Ribas from January to March 2018 and analyze the factors associated with death, from the information obtained in the hospital epidemiological investigation. A total of 72 cases of sylvatic YF were confirmed, with 21 deaths (29.2% lethality rate). Cases were concentrated in males (80.6%) and in the age group of 30 to 59 years (56.9%). Two logistic regression models were performed, with continuous variables adjusted for the time between onset of symptoms and hospitalization. The first model indicated age (odds ratiosadjusted [ORadj]: 1.038; CI 95%: 1.008-1.212), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (ORadj: 1.038; CI 95%: 1.005-1.072), and creatinine (ORadj: 2.343; CI 95%: 1.205-4.553) were independent factors associated with mortality. The second model indicated age (ORadj: 1.136; CI 95%: 1.013-1.275), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (ORadj: 1.118; CI 95%: 1.018-1.228), and creatinine (ORadj: 2.835; CI 95%: 1.352-5,941). The risk of death in the model with continuous variables was calculated from the increase of 1 year (age), 1 mg/dL (creatinine), and 100 U/L for AST and ALT. Another logistic regression analysis with dichotomous variables indicated AST > 1,841 IU/L (ORadj: 12.92; CI 95%: 1.50-111.37) and creatinine > 1.2 mg/dL (ORadj: 81.47; CI 95%: 11.33-585.71) as independent factors associated with death. These results may contribute to the appropriate clinical management of patients with YF in health-care services and improve the response to outbreaks and public health emergencies


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia
9.
Clin. Toxicol. ; v. 57(n. 3): p. 213-216, 2019.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15925

RESUMO

Context: Bothrops snakes are the most frequent agents of snakebites in South and Central America. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of its complications and has multifactorial origin. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)-induced AKI in snakebites is uncommon and is not described in Bothrops envenomation. Case details: We report two cases of patients bitten by young Bothrops jararaca who developed AKI induced by TMA. Both patients evolved with mild envenomation and received the specific antivenom within 4 h after the snakebite. None of them had hypotension or shock, bleeding or secondary infection. Patient 1 (P1) was diabetic and using oral hypoglycemic drugs, and patient 2 (P2) was hypertensive without regular use of medication. On admission, both patients had levels of fibrinogen lower than 35 mg/dL, D-dimer higher than 10,000 ng/mL. They evolved with AKI, thrombocytopenia, normal coagulation assays, anemia, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) elevation, low haptoglobin levels, negative direct antiglobulin test, and presence of schizocytes in peripheral blood. Only P1 required renal replacement therapy, and plasmapheresis was not required. Both patients were discharged and did not require outpatient dialysis, and subsequently had normal creatinine levels. Discussion: TMA may occur in Bothrops jararaca envenomation, even in mild cases that received early specific antivenom.

10.
Plos Neglect. Trop. Dis. ; 11(11): e0006024, 2017.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15726

RESUMO

Snakebites have been recognized as a neglected public health problem in several tropical and subtropical countries. Bothrops snakebites frequently complicate with acute kidney injury (AKI) with relevant morbidity and mortality. To date, the only treatment available for Bothrops envenomation is the intravenous administration of antivenom despite its several limitations. Therefore, the study of novel therapies in Bothrops envenomation is compelling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Allopurinol (Allo) in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BJ)-associated AKI. Five groups of Wistar rats were studied: Sham, Allo, BJ, BJ+Allo, BJ+ipAllo. BJ (0.25 mg/kg) was intravenously injected during 40'. Saline at same dose and infusion rate was administered to Sham and Allo groups. Allo and BJ+Allo groups received Allo (300 mg/L) in the drinking water 7 days prior to Saline or BJ infusion respectively. BJ+ipAllo rats received intraperitoneal Allo (25 mg/Kg) 40' after BJ infusion. BJ rats showed markedly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance) associated with intense renal vasoconstriction, hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, reduced glutathione and increased systemic and renal markers of nitro-oxidative stress (Nitrotyrosine). Allo ameliorated GFR, renal blood flow (RBF), renal vascular resistance and arterial lactate levels. In addition, Allo was associated with increased serum glutathione as well as reduced levels of plasma and renal Nitrotyrosine. Our data show that Allo attenuated BJ-associated AKI, reduced oxidative stress, improved renal hemodynamics and organ perfusion. It might represent a novel adjuvant approach for Bothrops envenomation, a new use for an old and widely available drug.

12.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 3(1): 28, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26392398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe scorpion envenomation can evolve to lung injury and, in some cases, death. The lung injury could be attributed to acute left ventricular failure and increased pulmonary vascular permeability secondary to the release of inflammatory mediators. In clinical practice, corticosteroids have been administered to reduce the early side effects of the anti-venom. We propose to study the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom and dexamethasone on pulmonary expression of sodium and water transporters, as well as on the inflammatory response. METHODS: Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (control group), dexamethasone, and saline (2.0 mg/kg body weight-60 min before saline injection; dexamethasone + saline group), venom (T. serrulatus venom-3.8 mg/kg body weight), or dexamethasone and venom (2.0 mg/kg body weight-60 min before venom injection; dexamethasone + venom group). At 60 min after venom/saline injection, experiments were performed in ventilated and non-ventilated animals. We analyzed sodium transporters, water transporters, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by Western blotting, macrophage infiltration by immunohistochemistry, and serum interleukin (IL) by cytokine assay. RESULTS: In the lung tissue of non-ventilated envenomed animals, protein expression of the epithelial sodium channel alpha subunit (α-ENaC) and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) were markedly downregulated whereas that of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) and TLR4 was elevated although expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit was unaffected. Dexamethasone protected protein expression of α-ENaC, NKCC1, and TLR4 but not that of AQP5. We found that IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in the venom and dexamethasone + venom groups although CD68 expression in lung tissue was elevated only in the venom group. Among the ventilated animals, both envenomed groups presented hypotension at 50 min after injection, and the arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio was lower at 60 min than at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that T. serrulatus venom and dexamethasone both regulate sodium transport in the lung and that T serrulatus venom regulates sodium transport via the TLR4 pathway.

13.
São Paulo, Brazil; Instituto Butantan; 2013. 27 p. il.
Monografia | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib300
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012. [108] p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-657372

RESUMO

Acidentes escorpiônicos podem evoluir com edema pulmonar de origem cardiogênica e não cardiogênica. O clearance de edema pulmonar está relacionado principalmente ao transporte ativo de sódio do espaço alveolar para o interstício. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do veneno de Tityus serrulatus e da dexametasona sobre a expressão dos transportadores de sódio e água e do TLR4 em pulmão de ratos. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, divididos em três grupos: controle (salina); grupo Vn, que recebeu o veneno de T. serrulatus (3.8 mg/kg) por via intraperitoneal (ip), e o grupo Dx+Vn, que recebeu dexametasona (2.0 mg/kg) por via ip, uma hora antes da injeção do veneno. Os experimentos foram realizados uma hora após a injeção do veneno. Foram realizadas análise bioquímica e dosagens de citocinas no plasma. Nos pulmões foram estudados a expressão de -ENaC, Na+-K+- ATPase, NKCC1, AQP-5 e TRL4 através de western blotting, e a expressão do NF-kB e infiltração de células CD68+ (monócitos/macrófagos) e neutrófilos, através de imunoistoquímica. O veneno de T. serrulatus diminuiu a expressão pulmonar de -ENaC e AQP-5, enquanto aumentou a expressão do NKCC1. A dexametasona preveniu os efeitos do veneno sobre a expressão da -ENaC e NKCC1, mas não da AQP5. Não foi observada alteração da expressão da 1- Na+-K+-ATPase . A expressão do TLR4 foi maior nos animais envenenados que nos grupos Cont e Dx+Vn. O níveis plasmáticos de IL-6, IL-10 e TNF- estavam aumentados nos grupo Vn e Dx+Vn em relação ao controle. O infiltrado de células CD68+ foi maior no grupo Vn. A expressão de NF-kB e o infiltrado ne neutrófilos no tecido pulmonar foi semelhantes nos três grupos avaliados. Os resultados encontrados sugerem que o veneno de T. serrulatus tem efeito sobre as proteínas transportadoras de sódio em células do epitélio alveolar e também sobre a expressão do TLR4 em pulmão; a dexametasona pode regular essas ações...


Scorpion envenomation can cause cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema clearance is largely related to active Na+ transport out of the alveoli, rather than to reversal of Starling forces. Our objective was determine the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom and dexamethasone on the pulmonary expression of sodium and water transporters, and Toll-like receptor 4. Wistar rats were divided into groups and injected intraperitoneally: control (saline only); venom (T. serrulatus venom3.8 mg/kg body weight); and dexamethasone+venom (dexamethasone2.0 mg/kg body weight60 min before venom inoculation). At 60 min after venom inoculation, interleukin-6 and -10, together with tumor necrosis factor alpha, were analyzed in plasma. In lungs, we determined expression of the epithelial sodium channel alpha subunit; Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit; Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, NKCC1; aquaporin 5; Toll-like receptor 4 (by Western blotting); and nuclear factor-kappa B. We determined CD68 and neutrophil counts by immunohistochemistry. In venom group lungs, the epithelial sodium channel alpha subunit and aquaporin 5 were markedly downregulated, whereas NKCC1 was elevated, although the Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit was unaffected. Dexamethasone protected the epithelial sodium channel alpha subunit, NKCC1, and Toll-like receptor 4 but not aquaporin 5. Serum interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in both groups, as was CD68 expression. Neutrophil counts and nuclear factor-kappa B expression were comparable across groups. Our data show that T. serrulatus venom alters sodium transport in alveolar epithelial cells and increases Toll-like receptor 4 expression. Dexamethasone appears to partially protect against those effects...


Assuntos
Ratos , Citocinas , Alvéolos Pulmonares , Edema Pulmonar , Venenos de Escorpião
19.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 102(11): 1115-9, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18561967

RESUMO

The presence of human heterophilic antibodies against horse immunoglobulins (HHA-HI) was determined by ELISA in sera from healthy volunteers and from patients who received equine antivenom for therapy of snake bite envenoming. These patients were selected from two independent clinical studies: one in Colombia in which patients received antivenom constituted by whole IgG (n=25); and the other in Brazil where an antivenom constituted by F(ab')(2) fragments was administered (n=31). Results show that healthy volunteers have antibodies, mainly of the IgG class, able to react with whole equine IgG. Additionally, patients have IgG antibodies that react both with whole equine IgG and F(ab')(2) fragments. In both clinical studies, no significant differences were observed in the HHA-HI titres between the patients who presented early adverse (anaphylactoid) reactions and those who did not develop them. In addition, no variation in titre was observed in samples collected before and after antivenom administration. These results do not support the hypothesis that the incidence of early adverse reactions to antivenom administration correlates with the titre of HHA-HI in the serum of patients. Nevertheless, participation of these antibodies as part of a multifactorial pathogenic mechanism associated with these reactions cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/imunologia , Anticorpos Heterófilos/imunologia , Antivenenos/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/imunologia , Venenos de Serpentes/imunologia , Animais , Antivenenos/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Colômbia , Costa Rica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cavalos/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Estatística como Assunto
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