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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807330

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) presents many challenges in the clinic and there are many areas for improvement in diagnostics and patient management. The five-year survival rate is around 7.2% as the majority of patients present with advanced disease at diagnosis that is treatment resistant. Approximately 10-15% of PDAC cases have a hereditary basis or Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC). Here we demonstrate the use of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma as a prognostic biomarker in PDAC. The levels of cfDNA correlated with disease status, disease stage, and overall survival. Furthermore, we show for the first time via BEAMing that the majority of hereditary or familial PDAC cases (around 84%) are negative for a KRAS somatic mutation. In addition, KRAS mutation negative cases harbor somatic mutations in potentially druggable genes such as KIT, PDGFR, MET, BRAF, and PIK3CA that could be exploited in the clinic. Finally, familial or hereditary cases have a longer overall survival compared to sporadic cases (10.2 vs. 21.7 months, respectively). Currently, all patients are treated the same in the clinic with cytotoxic agents, although here we demonstrate that there are different subtypes of tumors at the genetic level that could pave the way to personalized treatment.

2.
World J Urol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association of patients' sex with recurrence and disease progression in patients treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for T1G3/HG urinary bladder cancer (UBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data of 2635 patients treated with adjuvant intravesical BCG for T1 UBC between 1984 and 2019. We accounted for missing data using multiple imputations and adjusted for covariate imbalance between males and females using inverse probability weighting (IPW). Crude and IPW-adjusted Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of patients' sex with HG-recurrence and disease progression. RESULTS: A total of 2170 (82%) males and 465 (18%) females were available for analysis. Overall, 1090 (50%) males and 244 (52%) females experienced recurrence, and 391 (18%) males and 104 (22%) females experienced disease progression. On IPW-adjusted Cox regression analyses, female sex was associated with disease progression (HR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.56, p = 0.04) but not with recurrence (HR 1.06, 95%CI 0.92-1.22, p = 0.41). A total of 1056 patients were treated with adequate BCG. In these patients, on IPW-adjusted Cox regression analyses, patients' sex was not associated with recurrence (HR 0.99, 95%CI 0.80-1.24, p = 0.96), HG-recurrence (HR 1.00, 95%CI 0.78-1.29, p = 0.99) or disease progression (HR 1.12, 95%CI 0.78-1.60, p = 0.55). CONCLUSION: Our analysis generates the hypothesis of a differential response to BCG between males and females if not adequately treated. Further studies should focus on sex-based differences in innate and adaptive immune system and their association with BCG response.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 148(8): 2048-2058, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411965

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis, mainly due to late diagnosis at advanced tumor stages. In this study, we aimed to identify plasma protein biomarkers for early detection of PDAC. Totally, 135 PDAC patients (early PDAC, Stage I/II, n = 71; advanced PDAC, Stage III/IV, n = 64), 13 benign lesions/chronic pancreatitis patients and 72 healthy individuals, with corresponding plasma samples from a case-control study in Sweden were included. A proximity extension assay was used to detect 92 cancer-related proteins, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was used to detect CA19-9. Predictive features were selected from these 93 candidate proteins and three covariates in the Swedish participants, and then validated in Spanish participants, including 37 early PDAC patients, 38 advanced PDAC patients, 19 chronic pancreatitis patients and 36 healthy controls. A panel of eight proteins discriminating early PDAC from healthy individuals was identified, and the cross-validated area under the curves (AUCs) were 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 0.78-0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.92) in the Swedish and Spanish participants, respectively. Another eight-protein panel was predictive for classifying advanced PDAC from healthy controls in two populations, with cross-validated AUCs of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83-0.95) and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.83-0.98), respectively. In conclusion, eight protein biomarkers were identified and externally validated, potentially allowing early detection of PDAC patients if validated in additional prospective studies.

5.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003489, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers, with around 9% of patients surviving >5 years. Asymptomatic in its initial stages, PDAC is mostly diagnosed late, when already a locally advanced or metastatic disease, as there are no useful biomarkers for detection in its early stages, when surgery can be curative. We have previously described a promising biomarker panel (LYVE1, REG1A, and TFF1) for earlier detection of PDAC in urine. Here, we aimed to establish the accuracy of an improved panel, including REG1B instead of REG1A, and an algorithm for data interpretation, the PancRISK score, in additional retrospectively collected urine specimens. We also assessed the complementarity of this panel with CA19-9 and explored the daily variation and stability of the biomarkers and their performance in common urinary tract cancers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clinical specimens were obtained from multiple centres: Barts Pancreas Tissue Bank, University College London, University of Liverpool, Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Cambridge University Hospital, and University of Belgrade. The biomarker panel was assayed on 590 urine specimens: 183 control samples, 208 benign hepatobiliary disease samples (of which 119 were chronic pancreatitis), and 199 PDAC samples (102 stage I-II and 97 stage III-IV); 50.7% were from female individuals. PDAC samples were collected from patients before treatment. The samples were assayed using commercially available ELISAs. Statistical analyses were performed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests adjusted for multiple comparisons, and multiple logistic regression. Training and validation datasets for controls and PDAC samples were obtained after random division of the whole available dataset in a 1:1 ratio. The substitution of REG1A with REG1B enhanced the performance of the panel to detect resectable PDAC. In a comparison of controls and PDAC stage I-II samples, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) increased from 0.900 (95% CI 0.843-0.957) and 0.926 (95% CI 0.843-1.000) in the training (50% of the dataset) and validation sets, respectively, to 0.936 in both the training (95% CI 0.903-0.969) and the validation (95% CI 0.888-0.984) datasets for the new panel including REG1B. This improved panel showed both sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) to be >85%. Plasma CA19-9 enhanced the performance of this panel in discriminating PDAC I-II patients from controls, with AUC = 0.992 (95% CI 0.983-1.000), SN = 0.963 (95% CI 0.913-1.000), and SP = 0.967 (95% CI 0.924-1.000). We demonstrate that the biomarkers do not show significant daily variation, and that they are stable for up to 5 days at room temperature. The main limitation of our study is the low number of stage I-IIA PDAC samples (n = 27) and lack of samples from individuals with hereditary predisposition to PDAC, for which specimens collected from control individuals were used as a proxy. CONCLUSIONS: We have successfully validated our urinary biomarker panel, which was improved by substituting REG1A with REG1B. At a pre-selected cutoff of >80% SN and SP for the affiliated PancRISK score, we demonstrate a clinically applicable risk stratification tool with a binary output for risk of developing PDAC ('elevated' or 'normal'). PancRISK provides a step towards precision surveillance for PDAC patients, which we will test in a prospective clinical study, UroPanc.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352812

RESUMO

(1) Background: We investigated the incidence and survival trends for pancreatic cancer (PC) over the last 25 years in the Girona region, Catalonia, Spain; (2) Methods: Data were extracted from the population-based Girona Cancer Registry. Incident PC cases during 1994-2015 were classified using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology Third Edition (ICD-O-3). Incidence rates age-adjusted to the European standard population (ASRE) and world standard population (ASRW) were obtained. Trends were assessed using the estimated annual percentage of change (EAPC) of the ASRE13. Observed and relative survivals (RS) were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier and Pohar Perme methods, respectively; (3) Results: We identified 1602 PC incident cases. According to histology, 44.4% of cases were exocrine PC, 4.1% neuroendocrine, and 51.1% malignant-non-specified. The crude incidence rate (CR) for PC was 11.43 cases-per-100,000 inhabitants/year. A significant increase of incidence with age and over the study period was observed. PC overall 5-year RS was 7.05% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.63; 8.84). Longer overall survival was observed in patients with neuroendocrine tumours (5-year RS 61.45%; 95% CI 47.47; 79.55). Trends in 5-year RS for the whole cohort rose from 3.27% (95% CI 1.69-6.35) in 1994-1998 to 13.1% (95% CI 9.98; 17.2) in 2010-2015; (4) Conclusions: Incidence rates of PC in Girona have increased in the last two decades. There is a moderate but encouraging increase in survival thorough the study period. These results can be used as baseline for future research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
7.
ESMO Open ; 5(6)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188052

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal tumours, and it is the fourth cause of cancer death in Europe. Despite its important public health impact, no effective treatments exist, nor are there high-visibility research efforts to improve care. This alarming situation is emblematic of a larger group of cancer diseases, known as neglected cancers. To address the impact of these diseases, the European Commission-supported Innovative Partnership for Action Against Cancer launched a multi-stakeholder initiative to determine key steps that healthcare systems can rapidly implement to improve their response. A working group comprising 20 representatives from European medical societies, patient associations, cancer plan organisations and other relevant European healthcare stakeholders was organised. A consensus process based on the results of different studies, discussion of research outcomes, and development and endorsement of draft statements resulted in 22 consensus recommendations (the Bratislava Statement). The statement argues that substantial improvements can be achieved in patient outcomes by centralising pancreatic cancer care around state-of-the-art reference centres, staffed by expert multidisciplinary teams capable of providing high-quality care. This organisational model requires a specific care framework encompassing primary, palliative and survivorship care, and a policy environment prioritising the use of quality criteria and performance assessments as well as research investments dedicated to prevention, risk prediction, early detection and diagnosis. In order to address the challenges posed by neglected cancers in general and pancreatic cancer in particular, a specific control strategy tailored to this reality is required.

8.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(5): 408-415, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies. AIM: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) increases the survival of patients with organ-confined urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). In retrospective studies, patients with basal/squamous (BASQ)-like tumors present with more advanced disease and have worse prognosis. Transcriptomics-defined tumor subtypes are associated with response to NAC. AIM: To investigate whether immunohistochemical (IHC) subtyping predicts NAC response. METHODS: Patients with muscle-invasive UBC having received platinum-based NAC were identified. Tissue microarrays were used to type tumors for KRT5/6, KRT14, GATA3, and FOXA1. OUTCOMES: progression-free survival and disease-specific survival; univariable and multivariate Cox regression models were applied. RESULTS: We found a very high concordance between mRNA and protein expression. Using IHC-based hierarchical clustering, we classified 126 tumors in three subgroups: BASQ-like (FOXA1/GATA3 low; KRT5/6/14 high), Luminal-like (FOXA1/GATA3 high; KRT5/6/14 low), and mixed-cluster (FOXA1/GATA3 high; KRT5/6 high; KRT14 low). Applying multivariable analyses, patients with BASQ-like tumors were more likely to achieve a pathological response to NAC (OR 3.96; p = 0.017). The clinical benefit appeared reflected in the lack of significant survival differences between patients with BASQ-like and luminal tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with BASQ-like tumors-identified through simple and robust IHC-have a higher likelihood of undergoing a pathological complete response to NAC. Prospective validation is required.

10.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

11.
Eur Urol ; 78(5): 682-687, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682615

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is an actionable target in bladder cancer (BC). FGFR3 mutations are common in noninvasive BC and associated with favorable BC prognosis. Overexpression was reported in up to 40% of FGFR3 wild-type muscle-invasive BC. We analyzed FGFR3 mutations, FGFR3, and p53 protein expression and assessed their prognostic value in a cohort of 1000 chemotherapy-naive radical cystectomy specimens. FGFR3 mutations were found in 11%, FGFR3 overexpression was found in 28%, and p53 overexpression was found in 69% of tumors. Among FGFR3 mutant tumors, 73% had FGFR3 overexpression versus 22% among FGFR3 wild-type tumors. FGFR3 mutations were significantly associated with lower pT stage, tumor grade, absence of carcinoma in situ, pN0, low-level p53, and longer disease-specific survival (DSS). FGFR3 overexpression was associated only with lower pT stage and tumor grade. Moreover, FGFR3 overexpression was not associated with DSS in patients with FGFR3 wild-type tumors. In conclusion, FGFR3 mutations identified patients with favorable BC at cystectomy. Our results suggest that FGFR3 mutations have a driver role and are functionally distinct from FGFR3 overexpression. Hence, patients with FGFR3 mutations would be more likely to benefit from anti-FGFR3 therapy. Ideally, further research is needed to test this hypothesis. PATIENT SUMMARY: Oncogenic fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations are very common in bladder cancer. In this report, we found that these FGFR3 mutations were associated with favorable features and prognosis of bladder cancer compared with patients with FGFR3 overexpressed tumors only. As a consequence, patients with FGFR3 mutant tumors would be more likely to benefit from anti-FGFR3 therapy than patients with FGFR3 protein overexpression only.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.

13.
Gut ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subtypes (new-onset T2DM (NODM) or long-standing T2DM (LSDM)) and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk, to explore the direction of causation through Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis and to assess the mediation role of body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Information about T2DM and related factors was collected from 2018 PC cases and 1540 controls from the PanGenEU (European Study into Digestive Illnesses and Genetics) study. A subset of PC cases and controls had glycated haemoglobin, C-peptide and genotype data. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to derive ORs and 95% CIs. T2DM and PC-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were used as instrumental variables (IVs) in bidirectional MR analysis to test for two-way causal associations between PC, NODM and LSDM. Indirect and direct effects of the BMI-T2DM-PC association were further explored using mediation analysis. RESULTS: T2DM was associated with an increased PC risk when compared with non-T2DM (OR=2.50; 95% CI: 2.05 to 3.05), the risk being greater for NODM (OR=6.39; 95% CI: 4.18 to 9.78) and insulin users (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 2.80 to 4.86). The causal association between T2DM (57-SNP IV) and PC was not statistically significant (ORLSDM=1.08, 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.29, ORNODM=1.06, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.17). In contrast, there was a causal association between PC (40-SNP IV) and NODM (OR=2.85; 95% CI: 2.04 to 3.98), although genetic pleiotropy was present (MR-Egger: p value=0.03). Potential mediating effects of BMI (125-SNPs as IV), particularly in terms of weight loss, were evidenced on the NODM-PC association (indirect effect for BMI in previous years=0.55). CONCLUSION: Findings of this study do not support a causal effect of LSDM on PC, but suggest that PC causes NODM. The interplay between obesity, PC and T2DM is complex.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1577-1585, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is projected to become the second most common cause of cancer-related death over the next 5 years. Because inflammation is thought to be a common trajectory for disease initiation, we sought to prospectively characterize immune profiles using DNA methylation markers and examine DNA methylation levels previously linked to inflammation biomarkers to evaluate whether these immune markers play a key role in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: In a nested case-control study pooling three U.S. prospective cohort studies, DNA methylation was measured in prediagnostic leukocytes of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls using the Illumina MethylationEPIC array. Differentially methylated regions were used to predict immune cell types, and CpGs previously associated with inflammatory biomarkers were selected for the analysis. DNA methylation data from a retrospective case-control study conducted in Spain (PanGenEU) was used for independent replication. RESULTS: Immune cell proportions and ratio of cell proportions were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the nested case-control study. Methylation extent of CpGs residing in or near gene MNDA was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the nested case-control study and replicated in PanGenEU. Methylation level of a promoter CpG of gene PIM-1 was associated with survival in both studies. CONCLUSIONS: Using a targeted approach, we identified several CpGs that may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis in two large, independent studies with distinct study designs. IMPACT: These findings could provide insight into critical pathways that may help identify new markers of early disease and survival.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.

16.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies. AIM: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.

17.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102675, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 5-year survival rate of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is around 5% due to the fact that the majority of patients present with advanced disease that is treatment resistant. Familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) is a rare disorder that is defined as a family with at least two affected first degree relatives, with an estimated incidence of 4%-10%. The genetic basis is unknown in the majority of families although around 10%-13% of families carry germline mutations in known genes associated with hereditary cancer and pancreatitis syndromes. METHODS: Panel sequencing was performed of 35 genes associated with hereditary cancer in 43 PDAC cases from families with an apparent hereditary pancreatic cancer syndrome. FINDINGS: Pathogenic variants were identified in 19% (5/26) of PDAC cases from pure FPC families in the genes MLH1, CDKN2A, POLQ and FANCM. Low frequency potentially pathogenic VUS were also identified in 35% (9/26) of PDAC cases from FPC families in the genes FANCC, MLH1, PMS2, CFTR, APC and MUTYH. Furthermore, an important proportion of PDAC cases harboured more than one pathogenic, likely pathogenic or potentially pathogenic VUS, highlighting the multigene phenotype of FPC. INTERPRETATION: The genetic basis of familial or hereditary pancreatic cancer can be explained in 21% of families by previously described hereditary cancer genes. Low frequency variants in other DNA repair genes are also present in 35% of families which may contribute to the risk of pancreatic cancer development. FUNDING: This study was funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Plan Estatal de I + D + i 2013-2016): ISCIII (PI09/02221, PI12/01635, PI15/02101 and PI18/1034) and co-financed by the European Development Regional Fund ''A way to achieve Europe'' (ERDF), the Biomedical Research Network in Cancer: CIBERONC (CB16/12/00446), Red Temática de investigación cooperativa en cáncer: RTICC (RD12/0036/0073) and La Asociación Española contra el Cáncer: AECC (Grupos Coordinados Estables 2016).

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1009-1018, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite smoking being a well-established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, there is a need to further characterize pancreatic cancer risk according to lifespan smoking patterns and other smoking features, such as tobacco type. Our aim was to deeply investigate them within a large European case-control study. METHODS: Tobacco smoking habits and other relevant information were obtained from 2,009 cases and 1,532 controls recruited in the PanGenEU study using standardized tools. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk by smoking characteristics and interactions with other pancreatic cancer risk factors. Fractional polynomials and restricted cubic splines were used to test for nonlinearity of the dose-response relationships and to analyze their shape. RESULTS: Relative to never-smokers, current smokers [OR = 1.72; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.39-2.12], those inhaling into the throat (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.11-1.99) or chest (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.12-1.58), and those using nonfiltered cigarettes (OR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.10-2.61), were all at an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Pancreatic cancer risk was highest in current black tobacco smokers (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.31-3.41), followed by blond tobacco smokers (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.01-2.04). Childhood exposure to tobacco smoke relative to parental smoking was also associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.49). Dose-response relationships for smoking duration, intensity, cumulative dose, and smoking cessation were nonlinear and showed different shapes by tobacco type. Effect modification by family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes was likely. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals differences in pancreatic cancer risk by tobacco type and other habit characteristics, as well as nonlinear risk associations. IMPACT: This characterization of smoking-related pancreatic cancer risk profiles may help in defining pancreatic cancer high-risk populations.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1003-1012, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

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