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Cytokine ; 88: 184-192, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649507


While the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been investigated in murine models of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the interaction between TLRs and Leishmania sp. has not been investigated in human cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of TLR4 in cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by L. braziliensis, and whether the parasite alters the expression of TLR4 on monocytes/macrophages. Amastigote forms were obtained from mice lesions and PBMCs were isolated from healthy donors. PBMCs were cultured in absence or presence of IFNγ, TLR4 neutralizing antibodies, natural antagonist of TLR4 (Bartonella LPS), TLR4 agonist (E. coli LPS), and amastigote forms. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were assayed by ELISA and TLR4 expression by flow cytometry. Amastigotes forms of L. braziliensis induced TNFα and IL-10 production only in IFNγ-primed PBMCs. The TNFα and IL-10 production was inhibited by TLR4 neutralization, both with anti-TLR4 antibodies and Bartonella LPS. Interestingly, addition of E. coli LPS further increased TNFα but not IL-10 production induced by L. braziliensis amastigotes. Amastigotes of L. braziliensis strongly reduced membrane TLR4 expression on monocytes/macrophages, apparently by internalization after the infection. The present study reveals that TLR4 drives the production of TNFα and IL-10 induced by L. braziliensis amastigotes and that the parasites decrease TLR4 expression on monocyte surface.

Interleucina-10/imunologia , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
BMC Infect Dis ; 14: 249, 2014 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24884781


BACKGROUND: The interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by immune and non-immune cells. It can be induced during bacterial and viral infections, but its production was never investigated in protozoan infections. American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) is caused by Leishmania protozoan leading to cutaneous, nasal or oral lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of IL-32 in cutaneous and mucosal lesions as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. METHODS: IL-32, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-10 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in cutaneous, mucosal lesions and compared to healthy specimens. The isoforms of IL-32α, ß, δ, γ mRNA, TNF mRNA and IL-10 mRNA were assessed by qPCR in tissue biopsies of lesions and healthy skin and mucosa. In addition, PBMC from healthy donors were cultured with amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. In lesions, the parasite subgenus was identified by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: We showed that the mRNA expression of IL-32, in particular IL-32γ was similarly up-regulated in lesions of cutaneous (CL) or mucosal (ML) leishmaniasis patients. IL-32 protein was produced by epithelial, endothelial, mononuclear cells and giant cells. The IL-32 protein expression was associated with TNF in ML but not in CL. IL-32 was not associated with IL-10 in both CL and ML. Expression of TNF mRNA was higher in ML than in CL lesions, however levels of IL-10 mRNA were similar in both clinical forms. In all lesions in which the parasite was detected, L. (Viannia) subgenus was identified. Interestingly, L. (V.) braziliensis induced only IL-32γ mRNA expression in PBMC from healthy individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that IL-32 plays a major role in the inflammatory process caused by L. (Viannia) sp or that IL-32 is crucial for controlling the L. (Viannia) sp infection.

Interleucina-10/biossíntese , Interleucinas/biossíntese , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem