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1.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499279

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The impact of direct mail order sales of positive airway pressure (PAP) devices, accentuated by the COVID pandemic, on PAP adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. In this study we compared the impact of different modes of CPAP delivery on adherence and daytime symptoms. We hypothesized that adherence would not be affected by remote PAP setup, aided by telehealth technology. METHODS: Three groups were studied: 1) standard group PAP set up (3-4 people), 2) direct home shipment of PAP, followed by telehealth interactions, 3) direct home shipment of PAP, during the COVID-19 pandemic where delivery choice was removed. Demographics, sleepiness, PAP data and insurance information were also compared. RESULTS: A total of 666 patients were studied in 3 groups. 1) Standard group PAP set up had 225 pts and adherence with PAP (% of nights used more than 4 hours) was 65.3 ± 2.1%. 2) direct home shipment of PAP group had 231 pts and adherence was 54.2 ± 2.4%. 3) direct mailed PAP units during the COVD pandemic group had 210 pts and adherence was 55.9 ± 2.5%. Adherence was lower in both groups receiving home shipments compared to those in groups in-center (ANOVA, Tukey, p = 0.002). Discontinuation of PAP was less in the in-center group set up patients. (Chi Square X2 = 10.938 p = <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving direct home PAP shipments had lower adherence and were more likely to discontinue PAP compared to standard in-person set up.

2.
Obes Surg ; 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538187

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with obesity and elevated serum bicarbonate suggesting obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) undergoing bariatric surgery may represent a unique subgroup. Information regarding surgical outcomes in this population remains limited. We sought to test the hypothesis that an elevated bicarbonate would be an important predictor of perioperative complications (i.e., length of hospital stay) and postsurgical outcomes (i.e., weight loss at 1 year). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery between January 2015 and December 2018 were included. Patients with a preoperative serum bicarbonate ≥ 27 mEq/L were classified as suspected OHS. RESULTS: Of 297 patients, the prevalence of suspected OHS based on an elevated bicarbonate was 19.5% (95% CI: 15.3 to 24.6%). Length of hospital stay was similar in the suspected OHS and non-OHS control group (1.50 vs 1.49 days, P = 0.98). The achieved weight loss from peak preoperative weight to 1 year post-surgery was less in the suspected OHS vs the control group (4.2% [95% CI 1.6 to 6.8]; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Patients with serum bicarbonate ≥ 27 mEq/L as a surrogate marker for OHS experienced weight loss that was significantly less than their normal serum bicarbonate counterparts, but still achieved weight loss deemed clinically important by current guidelines. We observed no significant difference in length of hospital stay at time of surgery.

3.
Chronobiol Int ; : 1-13, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509113

RESUMO

Sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and sleep timing have been shown to have potential effects on metabolic functions relevant to circadian rhythms. It is not clear if the impact of sleep patterns on metabolic risk factors is through sociocultural and environmental factors or circadian misalignment. We investigated the associations of sleep patterns, chronotype, and social jet lag with metabolic syndrome among non-shift worker Hispanic/Latino adults. We used cross-sectional data from the Sueño Ancillary Study of The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Data from a subsample of 2189 participants aged 18-64 years were used in the analysis. Mean nightly sleep duration, mean sleep onset time, mean sleep offset time, mean sleep midpoint time, sleep efficiency, sleep variability (standard deviation (SD) of sleep duration, and SD of sleep midpoint), and time spent above light exposure threshold (1000 lux) in a day were assessed by wrist actigraphy (Acti-watch Spectrum). Chronotype was determined by the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Medical conditions including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were determined from a fasting blood specimen and physical exam at the baseline visit. To determine whether sleep patterns, light levels, chronotype, and social jetlag are associated with metabolic syndrome, multivariable logistic regression models were fitted, including variables with P < .15 in the univariate analysis. The results of the multivariable analysis demonstrated that in participants older than 40 years, intermediate chronotype (vs early) was significantly associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio (95%CI): 1.33 (1.04,1.7)), while later chronotype (vs. early) in participants younger than 40 years was significantly associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio (95%CI): 0.37 (0.14, 0.96)). Also, higher sleep efficiency was significantly associated with decreased odds of metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio (95%CI): 0.98 (0.96, 0.99)). Nightly sleep duration was not significantly different between two groups of participants with and without metabolic syndrome in multivariable analyses. There was no significant association between social jet lag and metabolic syndrome in multivariable analysis (p = .286). Moreover, there was no significant association between chronotype and social jet lag in multivariable analysis. The association between metabolic syndrome and chronotype is age-dependent. While early chronotype is associated with metabolic syndrome in younger individuals, it tended to be associated with lower odds for metabolic syndrome in older individuals.

4.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 14: 635-644, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444480

RESUMO

Purpose: Differentiation between obstructive and central apneas and hypopneas requires quantitative measurement of respiratory effort (RE) using esophageal pressure (PES), which is rarely implemented. This study investigated whether the sleep mandibular movements (MM) signal recorded with a tri-axial gyroscopic chin sensor (Sunrise, Namur, Belgium) is a reliable surrogate of PES in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Patients and Methods: In-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) with PES and concurrent MM monitoring was performed. PSGs were scored manually using AASM 2012 rules. Data blocks (n=8042) were randomly sampled during normal breathing (NB), obstructive or central apnea/hypopnea (OA/OH/CA/CH), respiratory effort-related arousal (RERA), and mixed apnea (MxA). Analyses were evaluation of the similarity and linear correlation between PES and MM using the longest common subsequence (LCSS) algorithm and Pearson's coefficient; description of signal amplitudes; estimation of the marginal effect for crossing from NB to a respiratory disturbance for a given change in MM signal using a mixed linear-regression. Results: Participants (n=38) had mild to severe OSA (median AH index 28.9/h; median arousal index 23.2/h). MM showed a high level of synchronization with concurrent PES signals. Distribution of MM amplitude differed significantly between event types: median (95% confidence interval) values of 0.60 (0.16-2.43) for CA, 0.83 (0.23-4.71) for CH, 1.93 (0.46-12.43) for MxA, 3.23 (0.72-18.09) for OH, and 6.42 (0.88-26.81) for OA. Mixed regression indicated that crossing from NB to central events would decrease MM signal amplitude by -1.23 (CH) and -2.04 (CA) units, while obstructive events would increase MM amplitude by +3.27 (OH) and +6.79 (OA) units (all p<10-6). Conclusion: In OSA patients, MM signals facilitated the measurement of specific levels of RE associated with obstructive, central or mixed apneas and/or hypopneas. A high degree of similarity was observed with the PES gold-standard signal.

5.
J Sleep Res ; : e13587, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388552

RESUMO

Circadian alignment of rest-activity rhythms is an essential biological process that may be vulnerable to misalignment in critically ill patients. We evaluated circadian rest-activity rhythms in critically ill patients and their association with baseline (e.g. age) and clinical (e.g. mechanical ventilation status) variables, along with intensive care unit light-dark cycles. Using wrist actigraphy, we collected 48-hr activity and light exposure data from critically ill patients in a tertiary care medical intensive care unit. We evaluated circadian rest-activity rhythms using COSINOR and non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis models, and stratified these data across baseline and clinical variables. We used linear regression to evaluate the association of circadian rest-activity and light-dark exposure rhythms. In COSINOR and non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis analyses, the 34 medical intensive care unit patients completing 48-hr actigraphy recordings exhibited mean MESOR (mean activity levels of a fitted curve) and amplitudes of 0.50 ± 0.32 and 0.20 ± 0.19 movements per 30-s epoch, with high interdaily variability. Patients who were older, mechanically ventilated, sedated, restrained and with higher organ failure scores tended to exhibit greater circadian rest-activity misalignment, with three of 34 (9%) patients exhibiting no circadian rhythmicity. Circadian light-dark exposure misalignment was observed as well and was associated with rest-activity misalignment (p = 0.03). Critically ill patients in our MICU experienced profound circadian rest-activity misalignment, with mostly weak or absent rhythms, along with circadian light-dark exposure misalignment. Potentially modifiable factors contributing to rest-activity misalignment (i.e. mechanical ventilation, restraints, low daytime light levels) highlight possible targets for future improvement efforts.

6.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383569

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Many people living with HIV (PLWH) have undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which may contribute to commonly reported fatigue and the high cardiovascular disease burden in this population. Our objective was to assess the utility of traditional OSA screening tools (STOP-BANG, Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)) for detecting OSA in PLWH. METHODS: Adult PLWH were recruited from sleep/HIV clinics and the community into a larger clinical trial which included completion of these questionnaires before in-laboratory polysomnography. Discriminatory performance of these screening tools was assessed using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). The reference standard for the primary analysis was OSA based on an AHI≥5/h using recommended "1A"-criteria (hypopnea with 3%-desaturation and/or arousal). Secondary analyses explored acceptable "1B"-criteria (hypopnea with 4%-desaturation) and/or higher AHI cut-offs (≥15/h). RESULTS: 120 PLWH were included (mean-age: 50±11 years; body mass index: 27±4 kg/m2, 84% male) and OSA was diagnosed in 75% using 1A-criteria. In the primary analysis, the discriminatory performance of the three screening tools was low (AUCs 0.58 to 0.70) and similar across the tools (P≥0.14). In secondary analyses, STOP-BANG showed moderate-high discriminatory ability (AUCs 0.77-0.80) and performed significantly better (P≤0.008) than the BQ or ESS (AUCs 0.53-0.62). CONCLUSIONS: OSA was highly prevalent in our cohort of PLWH. Although STOP-BANG could reasonably identify moderate-severe OSA, the tools were not reliable for mild disease. Specifically, the questionnaires perform poorly for PLWH with mild OSA manifesting with arousals, yet such people may be at risk of fatigue/sleepiness and impaired memory consolidation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Title: Obstructive Sleep Apnea Endotypes and Impact on Phenotypes of People Living With HIV (PLWH/OSA); Identifier: NCT03575143; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03575143.

7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 47: 101409, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475258

RESUMO

Background: In COVACTA, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), tocilizumab did not improve 28-day mortality, but shortened hospital and intensive care unit stay. Longer-term effects of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 are unknown. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 beyond day 28 and its impact on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance and antibody response in COVACTA were investigated. Methods: Adults in Europe and North America hospitalised with COVID-19 (N = 452) between April 3, 2020 and May 28, 2020 were randomly assigned (2:1) to double-blind intravenous tocilizumab or placebo and assessed for efficacy and safety through day 60. Assessments included mortality, time to hospital discharge, SARS-CoV-2 viral load in nasopharyngeal swab and serum samples, and neutralising anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT04320615. Findings: By day 60, 24·5% (72/294) of patients in the tocilizumab arm and 25·0% (36/144) in the placebo arm died (weighted difference -0·5% [95% CI -9·1 to 8·0]), and 67·0% (197/294) in the tocilizumab arm and 63·9% (92/144) in the placebo arm were discharged from the hospital. Serious infections occurred in 24·1% (71/295) of patients in the tocilizumab arm and 29·4% (42/143) in the placebo arm. Median time to negative reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction result in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal samples was 15·0 days (95% CI 14·0 to 21·0) in the tocilizumab arm and 21·0 days (95% CI 14·0 to 28·0) in the placebo arm. All tested patients had positive test results for neutralising anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at day 60. Interpretation: There was no mortality benefit with tocilizumab through day 60. Tocilizumab did not impair viral clearance or host immune response, and no new safety signals were observed. Future investigations may explore potential biomarkers to optimize patient selection for tocilizumab treatment and combination therapy with other treatments. Funding: F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and the US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, under OT number HHSO100201800036C.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436176

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The co-occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, termed overlap syndrome, has a poor prognosis. However, data on PAP treatments and their impact on outcomes and costs are lacking. OBJECTIVES: This retrospective observational study investigated the effects of positive airway pressure on health outcomes, resource utilization and costs in overlap syndrome patients. METHODS: De-identified adjudicated US claims data for patients with overlap syndrome were linked to objectively measured positive airway pressure user data. Patients were considered adherent to positive airway pressure therapy if they met Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services criteria for eight 90-day timeframes from device setup through 2-year follow-up. Propensity score matching was used to create comparable groups of adherent and non-adherent patients. Healthcare resource utilization was based on the number of doctor visits, all-cause emergency room visits, all-cause hospitalizations and positive airway pressure equipment/supplies, and proxy costs were obtained. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 6,810 patients were included (mean age 60.8 years, 56% female); 2,328 were non-adherent. Compared with the year before therapy, there were significant reductions in the number of emergency room visits, hospitalizations and severe acute exacerbations during two years of positive airway pressure therapy in patients who were versus were not adherent (all p<0.001). This improvement in health status was paralleled by a significant reduction in the associated health care costs. CONCLUSIONS: Positive airway pressure usage by patients with overlap syndrome was associated with reduced all-cause hospitalizations and emergency room visits, severe acute exacerbations and health care costs. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 150: 257-263, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405410

RESUMO

Sleep disturbances are a key feature of bipolar disorder (BD), and poor sleep has been linked to mood symptoms. Recent use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has allowed for nuanced exploration of the sleep-mood link; though, the scale and directionality of this relationship is still unclear. Using EMA, actigraphy, and self-reported sleep measures, this study examines the concurrent and predictive relationships between sleep and mood. Participants with BD (n = 56) wore actigraphy devices for up to 14 days and completed validated scales and daily EMA surveys about mood and sleep quality. Linear mixed models were used to examine overall and time-lagged relationships between sleep and mood variables. EMA mood ratings were correlated with validated rating scales for depression, mania, anxiety, and impulsivity. Poor self-reported sleep quality was associated with worse overall ratings of sadness and anger. Worse self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater sadness the following day. Higher daytime impulsivity was associated with worse sleep quality the following night. Exploratory analyses found relationships between worse and more variable mood (sadness, anger, and impulsivity) with worse and more variable sleep that evening (efficiency, WASO, and sleep onset time). The sample size was modest, fairly homogenous, and included mainly euthymic persons with BD. EMA-based assessments of mood and sleep are correlated with validated scale scores and provide novel insight into intra-individual variability. Further work on the complex two-way interactions between sleep and mood is needed to better understand how to improve outcomes in BD.

11.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 158, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High loop gain (unstable ventilatory control) is an important-but difficult to measure-contributor to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis, predicting OSA sequelae and/or treatment response. Our objective was to develop and validate a clinical prediction tool of loop gain. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of consecutive adults with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI > 5/hour) based on in-laboratory polysomnography 01/2017-12/2018 was randomly split into a training and test-set (3:1-ratio). Using a customized algorithm ("reference standard") loop gain was quantified from raw polysomnography signals on a continuous scale and additionally dichotomized (high > 0.7). Candidate predictors included general patient characteristics and routine polysomnography data. The model was developed (training-set) using linear regression with backward selection (tenfold cross-validated mean square errors); the predicted loop gain of the final linear regression model was used to predict loop gain class. More complex, alternative models including lasso regression or random forests were considered but did not meet pre-specified superiority-criteria. Final model performance was validated on the test-set. RESULTS: The total cohort included 1055 patients (33% high loop gain). Based on the final model, higher AHI (beta = 0.0016; P < .001) and lower hypopnea-percentage (beta = -0.0019; P < .001) predicted higher loop gain values. The predicted loop gain showed moderate-to-high correlation with the reference loop gain (r = 0.48; 95% CI 0.38-0.57) and moderate discrimination of patients with high versus low loop gain (area under the curve = 0.73; 95% CI 0.67-0.80). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first prediction model of loop gain based on readily-available clinical data, which may facilitate retrospective analyses of existing datasets, better patient selection for clinical trials and eventually clinical practice.


Assuntos
Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Polissonografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394060

RESUMO

We evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and Melbourne's multiple community lockdowns (between 2020-21) on total live birth rates and preterm births in a large health network. Analysis revealed a decrease in total live birth rates following easing of initial lockdowns, and a sharp increase in births at one stage in between lockdowns. The proportion and number of preterm births (<37 weeks gestation) decreased at the start of initial lockdowns with the strongest decrease after the end of the second lockdown period. Births <34 weeks gestation also decreased during lockdowns, but no significant change was identified for births <28 weeks gestation.

14.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(639): eaaz8454, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385341

RESUMO

Postnatal maturation of the immune system is poorly understood, as is its impact on illnesses afflicting term or preterm infants, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension. These are both cardiopulmonary inflammatory diseases that cause substantial mortality and morbidity with high treatment costs. Here, we characterized blood samples collected from 51 preterm infants longitudinally at five time points, 20 healthy term infants at birth and age 3 to 16 weeks, and 5 healthy adults. We observed strong associations between type 2 immune polarization in circulating CD3+CD4+ T cells and cardiopulmonary illness, with odds ratios up to 24. Maternal magnesium sulfate therapy, delayed hepatitis B vaccination, and increasing fetal, but not maternal, chorioamnionitis severity were associated with attenuated type 2 polarization. Blocking type 2 mediators such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, or signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in murine neonatal cardiopulmonary disease in vivo prevented changes in cell type composition, increases in IL-1ß and IL-13, and losses of pulmonary capillaries, but not gains in larger vessels. Thereby, type 2 blockade ameliorated lung inflammation, protected alveolar and vascular integrity, and confirmed the pathological impact of type 2 cytokines and STAT6. In-depth flow cytometry and single-cell transcriptomics of mouse lungs further revealed complex associations between immune polarization and cardiopulmonary disease. Thus, this work advances knowledge on developmental immunology and its impact on early life disease and identifies multiple therapeutic approaches that may relieve inflammation-driven suffering in the youngest patients.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Interleucina-13 , Animais , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/patologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Inflamação/complicações , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Gravidez
15.
Dev Cell ; 57(7): 839-853.e6, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303432

RESUMO

Although increased neuropeptides are often detected in lungs that exhibit respiratory distress, whether they contribute to the condition is unknown. Here, we show in a mouse model of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, a pediatric disease with increased pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), excess PNEC-derived neuropeptides are responsible for pulmonary manifestations including hypoxemia. In mouse postnatal lung, prolonged signaling from elevated neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) activate receptors enriched on endothelial cells, leading to reduced cellular junction gene expression, increased endothelium permeability, excess lung fluid, and hypoxemia. Excess fluid and hypoxemia were effectively attenuated by either prevention of PNEC formation, inactivation of CGRP gene, endothelium-specific inactivation of CGRP receptor gene, or treatment with CGRP receptor antagonist. Neuropeptides were increased in human lung diseases with excess fluid such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our findings suggest that restricting neuropeptide function may limit fluid and improve gas exchange in these conditions.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo
16.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 11(2): 135-145, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259278

RESUMO

Cell therapies are an emerging focus for neonatal research, with benefits documented for neonatal respiratory, neurological, and cardiac conditions in pre-clinical studies. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) and umbilical cord (UC) tissue-derived cell therapy is particularly appealing for preventative or regenerative treatment of neonatal morbidities; they are a resource that can be collected at birth and used as an autologous or allogeneic therapy. Moreover, UCB contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells that demonstrate paracrine actions to mitigate damaging inflammatory, immune, oxidative stress, and cell death pathways in several organ systems. In the past decade, published results from early-phase clinical studies have explored the use of these cells as a therapeutic intervention in neonates. We present a systematic review of published and registered clinical trials of UCB and cord tissue-derived cell therapies for neonatal morbidities. This search yielded 12 completed clinical studies: 7 were open-label phase I and II safety and feasibility trials, 3 were open-label dose-escalation trials, 1 was a open-label placebo-controlled trial, and 1 was a phase II randomized controlled trial. Participants totaled 206 infants worldwide; 123 (60%) were full-term infants and 83 (40%) were preterm. A majority (64.5%) received cells via an intravenous route; however, 54 (26.2%) received cells via intratracheal administration, 10 (4.8%) intraoperative cardiac injection, and 9 (4.3%) by direct intraventricular (brain) injection. Assessment of efficacy to date is limited given completed studies have principally been phase I and II safety studies. A further 24 trials investigating UCB and UC-derived cell therapies in neonates are currently registered.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Cordão Umbilical
17.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 132(4): 1104-1113, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323050

RESUMO

The common pulmonary consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection is pneumonia, but vascular clot may also contribute to COVID pathogenesis. Imaging and hemodynamic approaches to identifying diffuse pulmonary vascular obstruction (PVO) in COVID (or acute lung injury generally) are problematic particularly when pneumonia is widespread throughout the lung and hemodynamic consequences are buffered by pulmonary vascular recruitment and distention. Although stimulated by COVID-19, we propose a generally applicable bedside gas exchange approach to identifying PVO occurring alone or in combination with pneumonia, addressing both its theoretical and practical aspects. It is based on knowing that poorly (or non) ventilated regions, as occur in pneumonia, affect O2 more than CO2, whereas poorly (or non) perfused regions, as seen in PVO, affect CO2 more than O2. Exhaled O2 and CO2 concentrations at the mouth are measured over several ambient-air breaths, to determine mean alveolar Po2 and Pco2. A single arterial blood sample is taken over several of these breaths for arterial Po2 and Pco2. The resulting alveolar-arterial Po2 and Pco2 differences (AaPo2, aAPco2) are converted to corresponding physiological shunt and deadspace values using the Riley and Cournand 3-compartment model. For example, a 30% shunt (from pneumonia) with no alveolar deadspace produces an AaPO2 of almost 50 torr, but an aAPco2 of only 3 torr. In contrast, a 30% alveolar deadspace (from PVO) without shunt leads to an AaPO2 of only 12 torr, but an aAPco2 of 9 torr. This approach can identify and quantify physiological shunt and deadspace when present singly or in combination.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Identifying pulmonary vascular obstruction in the presence of pneumonia (e.g., in COVID-19) is difficult. We present here conversion of bedside measurements of arterial and alveolar Po2 and Pco2 into values for shunt and deadspace-when both coexist-using Riley and Cournand's 3-compartment gas exchange model. Deadspace values higher than expected from shunt alone indicate high ventilation/perfusion ratio areas likely reflecting (micro)vascular obstruction.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumopatias , Dióxido de Carbono , Humanos , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Children (Basel) ; 9(3)2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35327760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placental pathology is a common antecedent factor in infants born small for gestational age. Maternal region of birth can influence rates of SGA. AIMS: To determine the association of maternal region of birth on placental pathology in babies that are born small, comparing a South Asian born population with Australia and New Zealand born women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Monash Health, the largest public health service in Victoria. Mother-baby pairs above 34 weeks' gestation and birth weight less than 10th centile born in 2016 were included. Placental pathology reports and medical records were reviewed. Statistical analyses of placental and selected neonatal outcomes data were performed. RESULTS: Three hundred and eleven small for gestational age babies were included in this study, of which 171 were born to South Asian mothers and 140 to Australian and New Zealand mothers. There were no significant differences in gestational age at birth between the groups (38.7 (1.6) vs. 38.3 (1.7) weeks, p = 0.06). Placental pathology (macroscopic and microscopic) data comparisons showed no significant differences between the two groups (81% major abnormality in both groups). This was despite South Asian small for gestational age babies being less likely to require admission to a special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit (35 vs. 41%, p = 0.05), or have a major congenital abnormality (2.3 vs. 4.3%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In this observational study, maternal region of birth did not have an influence on placental pathology of babies born small, despite some differences in neonatal outcomes.

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