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1.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25452, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774711

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes has serious health effects during pregnancy and childbirth. We estimated the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among pregnant women in a secondary care hospital in Haryana. METHODS: It was a hospital-based cross-sectional study, done in an ante-natal clinic (ANC) at a sub-district hospital (SDH), Faridabad district of Haryana, India. Eligible pregnant women attending the ANC clinic were recruited. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 75 g of glucose was done with a collection of blood for fasting blood sugar (FBS) and two-hour post-OGTT blood glucose. A pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule was administered. Both the modified International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria (IADPSGC) and the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group of India (DIPSI) criteria were used. Data were presented as percentages, means, standard deviation, and 95% confidence interval (CI). Bi-variable and multi-variable logistic regressions were done. The level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Of the 623 eligible participants, 66.1% were within the 20-25 age group. The GDM was found in 14.1% (95%CI: 11.5-17.1) participants as per modified IADPSG criteria and 6.7% (95%CI: 4.9-9.0) participants as per DIPSI criteria, respectively. Increasing age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05-1.47), p=0.008] and increasing years of schooling [AOR: 1.19 (1.01-1.41), p=0.032] were significantly associated with GDM by DIPSI criteria. Family history of DM was also found to have an increased odds with GDM using modified IADPSG criteria [AOR 2.87 (95% CI: 1.09-7.54), p=0.032].  Conclusion: Considerable proportion of pregnant women were found to have GDM in a Sub-district hospital at Ballabgarh in north India. The study highlighted the need and generated evidence about the feasibility of GDM screening utilizing routine staff in a secondary care facility.

2.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; : 100023, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163

RESUMO

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

3.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23603, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505710

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anemia during pregnancy is an important public health problem and is associated with a number of maternal and fetal complications. Intravenous iron sucrose (IVIS) has been reported to be safe and efficacious in raising the hemoglobin (Hb) level among pregnant women. However, most of the studies were conducted in controlled research settings, and there is a paucity of data on the effectiveness when IVIS is given as routine therapy in public health facilities. The objective of this study was to estimate the change in mean Hb level four weeks after the last dose of IVIS infusion in pregnant women with moderate to severe anemia in a public healthcare setting. METHODS: Records of pregnant women having moderate anemia (Hb level: 7.0-9.9 gm/dL), who received IVIS in calculated dose during routine antenatal care between 1 January 2018 and 31 July 2018, were reviewed. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13 software (StataCorp LLC, College Station, TX). Hb levels before the start of the therapy (baseline) and four weeks after the last infusion (endline) were compared. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) Hb level increased from 8.5 (±0.88) gm/dL at baseline to 10.3 (±1.24) gm/dL four weeks after the last dose of IVIS infusion. The mean (±SD) increase in Hb level was 1.7 (±1.29) gm/dL (95% CI: 1.57, 1.87). The change from moderate and severe anemia to normal Hb levels was observed in 28.4% and 28.6% of women, respectively. CONCLUSION: IVIS therapy is effective in improving Hb levels when given as routine therapy in a secondary level public healthcare facility.

4.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 168(4)2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380532

RESUMO

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) remains an important cause of urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Multiple molecular virulence determinants and antibiotic resistant genes facilitate its pathogenesis and virulence phenotype. Hence it is hypothesized that there will be considerable variation in genes among the isolates from symptomatic as well as asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to decipher the genetic variation among the two phenotypes. Six different UPEC isolates collected from urine specimens of consecutive pregnant females (five, symptomatic bacteriuria and one, ABU) were tested for their growth kinetics, and biofilm formation. A total of 87 virulence determinants and 56 antibiotic resistance genes were investigated using whole-genome sequencing, to identify putative drives of virulence phenotype. In this analysis, we identified eight different types of fully functional toxin antitoxin (TA) systems [HipAB, YefM-YoeB, YeeU-YeeV (CbtA), YhaV-PrlF, ChpBS, HigAB, YgiUT and HicAB] in the isolates from symptomatic bacteriuria; whereas partially functional TA system with mutations were observed in the asymptomatic one. Isolates of both the groups showed equivalent growth characteristics and biofilm-formation ability. Genes for an iron transport system (Efe UOB system, Fhu system except FhuA) were observed functional among all symptomatic and asymptomatic isolates, however functional mutations were observed in the latter group. Gene YidE was observed predominantly associated with the biofilm formation along with few other genes (BssR, BssS, YjgK, etc.). This study outlines putative critical relevance of specific variations in the genes for the TA system, biofilm formation, cell adhesion and colonization among UPEC isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Further functional genomic study in the same cohort is warranted to establish the pathogenic role of these genes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 287-293, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35309602

RESUMO

Background: Presbyopia is a major cause for near visual impairment among adults. Presbyopia induced visual impairment can be corrected easily by spectacles. We aimed to study the prevalence of presbyopia among adults aged ≥35 years and spectacles coverage among them. We also studied the unmet need for presbyopia along with the barriers to uptake of services. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted among adults aged ≥35 years in a rural district of Haryana. Near vision assessment and semistructured interview schedule were administered by a team of trained ophthalmic assistant, social worker and health assistant. Results: A total of 3832 adults aged ≥35 years were enumerated, from which 3246 (84.7%) were examined. Prevalence of presbyopia was found to be 42.9% (95% confidence interval 41.2-44.6). Participants with increasing age, literacy and women had higher prevalence, and those that were employed and belonged to below poverty line economic status had lower prevalence of presbyopia. Spectacles coverage among presbyopes was found to be 25.8%. There was an inverse association between unmet need for presbyopia and women, increasing education status and office work. Lack of felt need and personal reasons were the most common barriers for unmet need due to presbyopia. Conclusions: There is high prevalence of presbyopia among adult population, with spectacles coverage being low. Awareness activities along with affordable, accessible and socially acceptable services for those affected with presbyopia would be one of the key components of management.

6.
Access Microbiol ; 4(2): 000321, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35355869

RESUMO

Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in clinical practice worldwide in both healthcare and community settings causing significant morbidity and mortality. It is one of the major conditions at the community level treated empirically and regarded as a potential cause of emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Limited information is available regarding community-acquired UTI (CA-UTI) from India. Methodology: This is a first of its kind, multicentric-cross-sectional study at the community level targeting patients attending the out-patient department (OPD) of the community health centre (CHC) from four geographical regions (North, South, West and East) of India. The study had been designed to determine the epidemiology, antibiogram profile and identification of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producer and carbapenem resistant (CR) uropathogens. Samples were collected prospectively from UTI suspected patients coming at CHC and processed at the tertiary healthcare centres using a common standard operating procedure. Clinical history of all the patients exhibiting significant bacteriuria was collected and data was analysed. Result: Overall, 250 out of a total of 2459 (10.1 %) urine samples were positive for bacteria with significant bacteriuria (adult: paediatrics, 6.7 : 1). Females were predominantly affected (male: female, 1 : 2.9). History of recent episode of UTI was observed as the commonest risk factor followed by diabetes mellitus. Altogether, 86 % of total cases were caused by Escherichia coli (68 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.6 %) together. Among the commonly used oral antibiotics for the Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), the highest resistance was observed against beta-lactams, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and co-trimoxazole. Overall, the prevalence of ESBL producer and CR isolates were 44.8, and 4.3 %, respectively. However, the ESBL production, CR and nitrofurantoin resistance among the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates was 52.8, 5.1 and 14 %, respectively. No resistance was found against fosfomycin among the UPEC isolates. Conclusion: The current study highlights the increasing incidence of AMR among uropathogens at the community-settings of India. A significant percentage of ESBL producers among the isolated UPEC and K. pneumoniae were observed. The currently available evidence supports the clinical recommendation of fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin for empiric therapy in CA-UTI in India.

7.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21091, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165551

RESUMO

Background Anemia continues to be a major public health problem in India despite multiple initiatives to address it among various vulnerable groups including adolescents. Aim This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of anemia among rural adolescent girls who had attained menarche. Methods The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages of Ballabgarh Block of district Faridabad, Haryana. From the computerized Health Management Information System data (HMIS), a random list of 363 adolescent girls was generated. Adolescent girls who had attained menarche were included in the study. Hemoglobin level was measured for all the consented or assented participants using a digital hemoglobinometer (HemoCue201+ photometer, HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden). Results A total of 272 participants were enrolled in the study. Mean (SD) age at menarche was 13.2 (1.2) years. Prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls who had attained menarche was observed to be 71.7% (95% CI: 66.3 - 77.1) as per the WHO classification. Among the 195 anemic adolescent girls, severe, moderate, and mild anemia was observed in 4.8%, 41.2%, and 25.7%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for the age, the mother's education was significantly associated with anemia (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22 - 0.96, p-value = 0.04). Conclusion The prevalence of anemia among rural adolescent girls who had attained menarche was high. Mother's education status had a protective effect on anemia among adolescent girls.

8.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(1): 35-41, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Against the backdrop of Tuberculosis (TB) elimination strategy within India, all ages have assumed importance including the burden of pediatric TB. The current study was carried out to study the profile of pediatric TB patients and factors associated with treatment outcome of these patients registered in Faridabad district of Haryana, India. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Record reviews of 1589 pediatric tuberculosis patients (≤14 years) registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme of Faridabad district was carried out using TB registers present at tuberculosis units. Socio-demographic data, clinical characteristics, treatment outcome and factors associated with treatment outcome were studied. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among 1589 pediatric TB patients with records available, 62% were females, majority (68%) belonged to age group 10-14 years, 93% were new cases, and 65% had extra-pulmonary TB. Among 554 pulmonary TB cases, 41% were sputum smear-positive. Majority (97%) patients reported successful treatment outcome (cured or treatment completed). In bivariable analysis, sex, category of TB treatment, sputum result, type of TB and past history of TB treatment were significantly associated with successful treatment outcome. On multivariable analysis, patients who were female, had higher bacillary load and previously treated, had significantly lesser odds for achieving successful treatment outcomes at the end of treatment.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Adolescente , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Escarro , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994793

RESUMO

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vírion/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(3): 1063-1069, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495818

RESUMO

Context: Cobalamin and folate are essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids and in the maintenance of myelin. They are required during the period of the rapid growth of infancy and childhood. Their deficiency may result in nutritional anemia and neurological manifestations. There is paucity of literature regarding the prevalence of cobalamin and folate deficiency among North Indian children aged 6-59 months. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of serum cobalamin and folate deficiency among children aged 6-59 months, attending a secondary care hospital. Settings and Design: Children were recruited from pediatrics OPD of the sub-district hospital (SDH), Ballabgarh, Haryana, through systematic random sampling. Hemoglobin was measured by an automated analyzer. Serum cobalamin and serum folate were estimated using enhanced chemiluminescence based immunoassay. Results: A total of 420 children were recruited, of which 392 provided a blood specimen. Prevalence of cobalamin, folate deficiency, and anemia were 22.3% (95% CI: 18.3-26.7), 10.9% (95% CI: 8.2-14.6), and 81.9% (95% CI 77.7-85.4), respectively. The proportion of children with cobalamin deficiency who had anemia was 97.7% compared to 95.7% among those with no cobalamin deficiency (P = 0.396). Similarly, the proportion of children with folate deficiency who had anemia was 95.2% compared to 96.2% among those with no folate deficiency (P = 0.765). Conclusion: We found that almost one in five children aged 6-59 were deficient in cobalamin, and one in ten were deficient in folate.

11.
Cureus ; 13(9): e18388, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729269

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The estimates of prevalence of depression among adolescents in the Indian community are limited; most studies are institution-based. Early identification and management of depression can provide significant health dividends to the affected adolescents, and better health consequences in their adulthood. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of depression among 10- to 19-year-old residents in a rural area of Haryana, India, and to assess factors associated with adolescent depression. METHODS: A sample of 630 adolescents (between 10 to 19 years of age) residing in the selected area of Ballabgarh (Haryana) were selected using simple random sampling technique. Home visits were made, in which participants were administered the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 to screen for depression. The prevalence and 95%CI were estimated. In addition, a semi-structured interview schedule was administered to identify sociodemographic variables and other factors associated with adolescent depression. Unadjusted and adjusted OR were reported with p-value, using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of depression among adolescents was 20.6% (95% CI: 16.9-24.2). The prevalence in late and early adolescence was 11.7% and 8.9%, respectively. It was higher in girls (22.3%) as compared with boys (19.2%). Mild depression was the most common type identified. On multivariable logistic regression, depression was associated with birth order of four or more (Adjusted OR (AOR)=3.0 (95%CI: 1.4-6.3), p<0.01), presence of long-standing illness in the past three months (AOR=3.0 (95%CI: 1.4-6.1), p<0.01), impaired self-perceived body image (AOR=2.9 (95%CI: 1.8-4.6), p<0.01), and perceived stressful event(s) in the past six months (AOR=4.9 (95%CI: 2.8-8.6), p<0.01). CONCLUSION:  One in five adolescents was screened positive for depression, necessitating focus on screening and early identification of depressive symptoms, especially at the primary care level.

12.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(8): 3084-3088, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Awareness about brain death influences organ donation behaviour of community. There is huge gap in the demand and availability of organs in India. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing awareness about brain death and attitude towards organ donation in a rural community. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out among 1050 adults in a rural area of district Faridabad, Haryana. Data were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule and analysed using SPSS v17. RESULTS: 80% of the study participants had heard about organ donation. Among them, about 40% were aware of brain death. Majority of the study participants (71.5%) were willing to donate organ irrespective of circumstances. Totally, 94.6% participants had the perspective that special facility should be there for organ donors and their families. Awareness was significantly more among men and among those educated above primary level. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about brain death is crucial in convincing people into organ donation. Hence more efforts should be made to educate and make people aware about brain death and its implications for organ donation.

13.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 5(7): nzab078, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268465

RESUMO

The effectiveness of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in quickly increasing normal hemoglobin concentration and replenishing body iron reserves up to 6-12 wk is known; however, its long-term effectiveness is unknown. In this study conducted in northern India during August 2018 to February 2019, 100 postpartum women within 48 h of delivery with a hemoglobin concentration between 5.0 and 9.9 g/dL were included. A single dose of intravenous FCM was administered. The hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were measured at baseline and at 6 mo. Out of 100 women recruited, 57 (57%) returned for the follow-up visit at 6 mo. The mean (± SD) hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations at baseline were 8.6 ± 1.1 g/dL and 15.8 ± 17.2 ng/mL, respectively, and at 6 months were 12.5 ± 1.2 g/dL and 72.0 ± 52.0 ng/mL, respectively. The mean increase in hemoglobin concentration was 3.9 (95% CI: 3.5, 4.3) g/dL (P < 0.001) and for serum ferritin was 53.8 (95% CI: 41.8, 65.8) ng/mL (P < 0.001). The study was registered prospectively in the Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI) as CTRI/2018/06/014332.

14.
Open Biol ; 11(6): 200288, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062097

RESUMO

We describe the epidemiological characteristics and associated risk factors of those presenting at a large testing centre for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a retrospective record review of individuals who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at a high-throughput national-level government facility located in the north of India. Samples collected from 6 April to 31 December 2020 are included in this work and represent four highly populous regions. Additionally, there was a prospective follow-up of 1729 cases through telephone interviews from 25 May 2020 to 20 June 2020. Descriptive analysis has been performed for profiling clinic-epidemiological aspects of suspect cases. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine risk factors that are associated with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and symptom status. A total of 125 600 participants' details have been included in this report. The mean (s.d.) age of the participants was 33.1 (±15.3) years and 66% were male. Among these tested, 9515 (7.6%) were positive for COVID-19. A large proportion of positive cases were asymptomatic. In symptomatic positive cases, the commonest symptoms were cough and fever. Increasing age (groups 20-59 and ≥60 years compared to age group less than 5 years), male sex, history of international travel, symptoms for SARS-CoV-2, and participants from Delhi and Madhya Pradesh were positively associated with SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. Having co-morbidity, risk behaviours and intra-familial positivity were associated with a positive odds ratio for exhibiting SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. Intensified testing and isolation of cases, identification of both asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals and additional care of those with co-morbidities and risk behaviours will all be collectively important for disease containment in India. Reasons for differentials in testing between men and women remain an important area for in-depth study. The increased deployment of vaccines is likely to impact the trajectory of COVID-19 in the coming time, and therefore our data will serve as a comparative resource as India experiences the second wave of infection in light of newer variants that are likely to accelerate disease spread.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Indian J Dent Res ; 32(3): 372-379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229778

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this 12 week, single-blind clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of Manual (Oral-B Pro Health Gum care®), Powered (Oral-B Cross action Power Dual®) and Charcoal (Colgate slim Soft Charcoal®) toothbrushes in plaque control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 systemically healthy students were selected at random among the students of a Dental College, living under similar environment and dietary conditions. Plaque and calculus were removed professionally and three varieties of toothbrush were distributed among them. Plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and gingival index (GI) were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Assessment of colony forming units (CFU) was done at baseline and 12th week. The learning effect over a period of time was also assessed. RESULTS: Over the 12-week period, PI reduced significantly (P < 0.001) with % reduction in plaque from 47% to 59%, 41% to 53% and 45% to 55% for manual, powered and charcoal brush. A significant reduction in GI and SBI was also seen with all the brushes. An insignificant difference in PI, GI and SBI was seen between the brushes. CFU count before and after brushing reduced gradually and statistically significantly (P < 0.001) for all the brushes; however, by end of 12th week period, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). The learning effect increased from 35% to 60%, 24% to 56% and 31% to 58% for three brushes, respectively, but was more pronounced for powered brush. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that all the three brushes (manual, powered and charcoal) are clinically effective in removing plaque, with learning effect more pronounced for powered brush and if proper technique is followed, no brush is superior to the other.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Gengivite , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária
17.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020431, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following data access and storage concerns, Government of India transferred the management of its Sample Registration System (SRS) based mortality surveillance (formerly known as the Million Death Study) to an Indian agency. This paper introduces the new system, challenges it faced and its vision for future. METHODS: The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, the new nodal agency, established the "Mortality in India Established through Verbal Autopsy" (MINErVA) platform with state level partners across India in November 2017. The network in its first three years has undertaken capacity building of supervisors conducting verbal autopsy under the SRS, established a panel of trained physician reviewers and developed three IT-based platforms for training, quality control and coding. Coding of VA forms started from January 2015 onwards, and the cause specific mortality fractions (CSMF) of the first 14 185 adult verbal autopsy (VA) records for 2015 were compared with earlier published data for 2010-2013 to check for continuity of system performance. RESULTS: The network consists of 25 institutions and a panel of 676 trained physician reviewers. 916 supervisors have been trained in conducting verbal autopsies. More than 75 000 VA forms have been coded to date. The median time taken for finalizing cause of death on the coding platform is 37 days. The level of physician agreement (67%) and proportion of VA forms requiring adjudication (12%) are consistent with published literature. Preliminary CSMF estimates for 2015 were comparable with those for 2010-2013 and identified same top ten causes of death. In addition to the delay, two major challenges identified for coding were language proficiency of physician reviewers vis-à-vis language of narratives and quality of verbal autopsies. While an initial strategic decision was made to consolidate the system to ensure continuity, future vision of the network is to move towards technology-based solutions including electronic data capture of VAs and its analysis and improving the use of mortality data in decision making. CONCLUSION: MINErVA network is now fully functional and is moving towards achieving global standards. It provides valuable lessons for other developing countries to establish their own mortality surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Mortalidade , Adulto , Autopsia/métodos , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Índia , Médicos
18.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(4): 357-361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring universal access to sanitation in households is essential for public health. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the availability of sanitary latrine at the household level and its use at the individual level in a rural area and factors associated with availability and use of sanitary latrine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December, 2016 to January 2017 (mention month and year) at the rural Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Ballabgarh, in district Faridabad, Haryana, North India. A total of 16,896 households were studied. House-to-house visits were made by trained health workers who conducted interviews regarding availability and pattern of use of sanitary latrine in the household. The health worker also observed the type of sanitation facility, its functional status, availability of water, and hand-washing facility. RESULTS: Individual household latrine (IHL) was present in 87.3% of the households. An improved sanitation facility was available in 84.8% of the households, while 15.2% of the households had unimproved or no sanitation facility. Hand-washing facility along with improved sanitation was present in 70.4% of the households. Nonavailability of latrine among socially disadvantaged communities (scheduled caste households) was significantly higher (19.4%) as compared to other castes (10.4%) (P < 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of households below poverty line (28.9%) lacked IHL as compared to those above the poverty line (11.0%) (P < 0.001). Nearly 11% of the individuals reported open defecation. CONCLUSION: The availability of sanitary latrines in the study area was high. Nonavailability of in-house sanitary latrine was higher among economically poor households and those belonging to socially disadvantaged communities.


Assuntos
População Rural , Saneamento , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Toaletes
19.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(2): 168-172, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum anemia is associated with postpartum anxiety, depression, poor cognitive interaction, and delayed infant development. Oral iron is the currently recommended therapy but is associated with gastrointestinal complaints and poor compliance. Parenteral iron dextran may cause serious side effects, whereas iron sucrose requires repeated visits. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is given as an infusion in a single setting, which is logistically convenient both to patients and health system. It can be particularly beneficial for postpartum women who are usually discharged from health facility 48 h after delivery. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to estimate the change in mean hemoglobin (Hb) level 6 weeks after administration of intravenous FCM and to document any adverse events following administration among postpartum women. METHODS: A prospective, interventional follow-up study was conducted from August to December 2018. One hundred eligible postpartum women with Hb level of 5-9.9 g/dl were administered a calculated dose of intravenous FCM based on Ganzoni's formula with Hb target of 12 g/dl. Hb and serum ferritin were measured at baseline and at 6 weeks after FCM infusion and compared for mean increase. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in Hb and serum ferritin levels after administration of FCM. The mean (95% confidence interval) increase in the Hb and serum ferritin after 6 weeks was 4.2 (3.9-4.5) g/dl and 137.3 (113.6-161.0) ng/ml, respectively. No major adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Administration of FCM was safe and effective in the treatment of moderate-to-severe anemia among postpartum women.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Férricos/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Maltose/análogos & derivados , Período Pós-Parto , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Férricos/efeitos adversos , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Hematínicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imidazóis , Índia , Maltose/administração & dosagem , Maltose/efeitos adversos , Maltose/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Triazinas , Adulto Jovem
20.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 36(2): 342-348, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425387

RESUMO

Accurate and reliable point of care tests (POCTs) for hemoglobin estimation is essential for early diagnosis and management of anemia. This study was aimed to assess the reliability and validity of two versions of digital hemoglobinometer (HemoCue 201+ and HemoCue 301) compared to the gold standard Sysmex autoanalyzer for hemoglobin estimation. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of Primary Health Centre and a Sub Divisional Hospital in Haryana, India, were recruited. After obtaining consent, capillary blood samples were collected and tested for hemoglobin levels with digital hemoglobinometers (HemoCue 201+ and HemoCue 301). Among same pregnant women venous blood was collected and hemoglobin levels were estimated using autoanalyzer. Validity and reliability of POCTs compared to Sysmex autoanalyzer were reported. Of the 102 pregnant women included in the study, 44 (43%) were primigravida, with mean (SD) age of 23.3 (3.4) years. The mean (SD) of difference in hemoglobin levels using HemoCue 201+ was - 0.53 (1.01) and using HemoCue 301 was - 0.25 (0.85) g/dL as compared to auto-analyzer. Lin's concordance coefficient was 0.80 for HemoCue 201+ and 0.85 for HemoCue 301. Weighted Cohen's Kappa indicated moderate degree of agreement with the gold standard. Sensitivity (HemoCue 201+: 93%; HemoCue 301: 90%) and specificity (HemoCue 201: 76% HemoCue 301: 80%) for detecting anemia was similar for both the POCT devices. The digital hemoglobinometers used in the study had moderate degree of agreement and concordance with the autoanalyzer for hemoglobin estimation. HemoCue 301 had higher validity as compared to HemoCue 201+.

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