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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e051122, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Define the services available for the care of breast cancer at hospitals in the Eastern Region of Ghana, identify areas of the region with limited access to care through geospatial mapping, and test a novel survey instrument in anticipation of a nationwide scale up of the study. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, facility-based survey study. SETTING: This study was conducted at 33 of the 34 hospitals in the Eastern Region of Ghana from March 2020 to May 2020. PARTICIPANTS: The 33 hospitals surveyed represented 97% of all hospitals in the region. This included private, government, quasi-government and faith-based organisation owned hospitals. RESULTS: Sixteen hospitals (82%) surveyed provided basic screening services, 11 (33%) provided pathological diagnosis and 3 (9%) provided those services in addition to basic surgical care.53%, 64% and 78% of the population lived within 10 km, 25 km and 45 km of screening, diagnostic and treatment services respectively. Limited chemotherapy was available at two hospitals (6%), endocrine therapy at one hospital (3%) and radiotherapy was not available. Twenty-nine hospitals (88%) employed a general practitioner and 13 (39%) employed a surgeon. Oncology specialists, pathology personnel and a plastic surgeon were only available in one hospital (3%) in the Eastern Region. CONCLUSIONS: Although 16 hospitals (82%) provided screening, only half the population lived within reasonable distance of these services. Few hospitals offered diagnosis and surgical services, but 64% and 78% of the population lived within a reasonable distance of these hospitals. Geospatial analysis suggested two priorities to cost-effectively expand breast cancer services: (1) increase the number of health facilities providing screening services and (2) centralise basic imaging, pathological and surgical services at targeted hospitals.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 943, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gambia has one of the lowest survival rates for breast cancer in Africa. Contributing factors are late presentation, delays within the healthcare system, and decreased availability of resources. We aimed to characterize the capacity and geographic location of healthcare facilities in the country and calculate the proportion of the population with access to breast cancer care. METHODS: A facility-based assessment tool was administered to secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities and private medical centers and clinics in The Gambia. GPS coordinates were obtained, and proximity of service availability and population analysis were performed. Distance thresholds of 10, 20, and 45 km were chosen to determine access to screening, pathologic diagnosis, and surgical management. An additional population analysis was performed to observe the potential impact of targeted development of resources for breast cancer care. RESULTS: All 102 secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities and private medical centers and clinics in The Gambia were included. Breast cancer screening is mainly performed through clinical breast examination and is available in 52 facilities. Seven facilities provide pathologic diagnosis and surgical management of breast cancer. The proportion of the Gambian population with access to screening, pathologic diagnosis, and surgical management is 72, 53, and 62%, respectively. A hypothetical targeted expansion of resources would increase the covered population to 95, 62, and 84%. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the Gambian population does not have access to pathologic diagnosis and surgical management of breast cancer within the distance threshold utilized in the study. Mapping and population analysis can identify areas for targeted development of resources to increase access to breast cancer care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
3.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(8): 1770-1777, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relatively recent availability of effective systemic therapies for metastatic melanoma necessitates reconsideration of current surveillance patterns. Evidence supporting surveillance guidelines for resected Stage II melanoma is lacking. Prior reports note routine imaging detects only 21% of recurrent disease. This study aims to define recurrence patterns for Stage II melanoma to inform future surveillance guidelines. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with Stage II melanoma. We analyzed risk factors for recurrence and methods of recurrence detection. We also assessed survival. Yearly hazards of recurrence were visualized. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 4.9 years, 158 per 580 patients (27.2%) recurred. Overall, most recurrences were patient-detected (60.7%) or imaging-detected (27.3%). Routine imaging was important in detecting recurrence in patients with distant recurrences (adjusted rate 43.1% vs. 9.4% for local/in-transit; p = .04) and with Stage IIC melanoma (42.5% vs. 18.5% for IIA; p = .01). Male patients also self-detected recurrent disease less than females (52.1% vs. 76.8%; p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Routine imaging surveillance played a larger role in detecting recurrent disease for select groups in this cohort than noted in prior studies. In an era of effective systemic therapy, routine imaging should be considered for detection of asymptomatic relapse for select, high-risk patient groups.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Utah/epidemiologia
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