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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2002871, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive pediatric malignancy with distinct biology. Its treatment follows the principles developed for adults; pediatric-specific studies are scarce. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective single-arm risk-stratified interventional study. Study objectives were (1) to describe the outcome of patients with stage I ACC treated with adrenalectomy alone; (2) to describe the outcome of stage II patients (completely resected > 200 cc or > 100 g) treated with adrenalectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; and (3) to describe the outcome of patients with stage III or IV treated with mitotane and chemotherapy. RESULTS: Between September 2006 and May 2013, 78 patients (77 eligible, 51 females) were enrolled. The 5-year event-free survival estimates for stages I (24 patients), II (15 patients), III (24 patients), and IV (14 patients) were 86.2%, 53.3%, 81%, and 7.1%, respectively. The corresponding 5-year overall survival estimates were 95.2%, 78.8%, 94.7%, and 15.6%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stage, presence of virilization, Cushing syndrome, or hypertension, germline TP53 status, and presence of a somatic ATRX mutation were associated with outcome. On multivariable analysis, only stage and age were significantly associated with outcome. The probabilities of mitotane and chemotherapy feasibility events were 10.5% and 31.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Outcome for children with stage I ACC is excellent with surgery. Outcome for patients with stage II disease is inferior despite retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Patients with stage III ACC have an excellent outcome combining surgery and chemotherapy. Patients with stage IV ACC are older and have a poor outcome; new treatments should be explored for this high-risk group. The combination of mitotane and chemotherapy as prescribed in ARAR0332 resulted in significant toxicity; one third of patients with advanced disease could not complete the scheduled treatment.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29021, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Individuals with cancer predisposition syndromes (CPS) are often followed in cancer screening programs, which aim to detect early stage tumors. While cancer surveillance has the potential to improve patient outcomes, its psychosocial impact is uncharacterized in the pediatric population. We examined the cancer surveillance experience from the perspectives of adolescents and parents of children at risk of developing cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using grounded theory and thematic analysis qualitative methodology, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents and adolescents, separately. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded separately to derive overlapping and unique themes. RESULTS: We completed 20 semi-structured interviews (11 parents and nine adolescents). Positive experiences were related to feelings of reassurance and taking a proactive approach. Both adolescents and parents experienced worry, related to practical aspects of screening, and related to the reminder of cancer risk that manifests with surveillance appointments. This worry was cyclical, associated with appointments, and generally waned over time. Participants felt that the benefits of surveillance outweighed perceived challenges. Open communication with health care providers, and equipping parents/adolescents with vocabulary to discuss their diagnosis and care with others, were felt to be important for mitigating worries associated with cancer risk and surveillance. CONCLUSION: Parents and adolescents experience worry associated with surveillance for CPS, which may warrant regular psychosocial support, particularly during the first year following CPS diagnosis. Enhancing communication with the health care team and among and beyond immediate family members represents an additional important strategy to mitigate adverse experiences and perceptions.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1749, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741928

RESUMO

Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma encompasses a clinically and molecularly diverse group of cancers of the developing central nervous system. Here, we use unbiased sequencing of the transcriptome across a large cohort of 250 tumors to reveal differences among molecular subtypes of the disease, and demonstrate the previously unappreciated importance of non-coding RNA transcripts. We identify alterations within the cAMP dependent pathway (GNAS, PRKAR1A) which converge on GLI2 activity and show that 18% of tumors have a genetic event that directly targets the abundance and/or stability of MYCN. Furthermore, we discover an extensive network of fusions in focally amplified regions encompassing GLI2, and several loss-of-function fusions in tumor suppressor genes PTCH1, SUFU and NCOR1. Molecular convergence on a subset of genes by nucleotide variants, copy number aberrations, and gene fusions highlight the key roles of specific pathways in the pathogenesis of Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma and open up opportunities for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Meduloblastoma/genética , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29022, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Disease spectrum in pediatric sarcoma differs substantially from adults. We report a cohort of very young children with non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS) detailing their molecular features, treatment, and outcome. METHODS: We report features of consecutive children (age <2 years) with NRSTS (2000-2017). Archival pathological material was re-reviewed, with additional molecular techniques applied where indicated. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (16 females, 55%) were identified (median age 6 months; range 0-23). Most common diagnoses included infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS, n = 14, 48%), malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT, n = 4, 14%), and undifferentiated sarcoma (n = 4, 14%). Twenty-seven of 29 (93%) had tumor molecular characterization to confirm diagnosis. Clinical presentation included a swelling/mass (n = 23, 79%). Disease extent was localized (n = 20, 69%), locoregional (n = 6, 21%), or metastatic (n = 3, 10%). Seventeen of 29 (59%) who underwent surgery achieved complete resection (R0). Other treatments included conventional chemotherapy (n = 26, 90%), molecularly targeted therapies (n = 3, 10%), and radiation (n = 5, 17%). At last follow-up (median 3 years; range 0.3-16.4), 23 (79%) were alive, disease-free and six (21%) had died of disease. All patients with IFS were alive and all those with MRT died. A cancer predisposition syndrome (CPS) was confirmed in three of 10 (30%) genetically tested patients. CONCLUSION: We recommend tumor molecular characterization in all young patients including evaluation for CPS to optimize treatment options and prognostication.

6.
Cancer Discov ; 11(6): 1454-1467, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563663

RESUMO

The RAS/MAPK pathway is an emerging targeted pathway across a spectrum of both adult and pediatric cancers. Typically, this is associated with a single, well-characterized point mutation in an oncogene. Hypermutant tumors that harbor many somatic mutations may obscure the interpretation of such targetable genomic events. We find that replication repair-deficient (RRD) cancers, which are universally hypermutant and affect children born with RRD cancer predisposition, are enriched for RAS/MAPK mutations (P = 10-8). These mutations are not random, exist in subclones, and increase in allelic frequency over time. The RAS/MAPK pathway is activated both transcriptionally and at the protein level in patient-derived RRD tumors, and these tumors responded to MEK inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of patients with RAS/MAPK hypermutant gliomas reveals durable responses to MEK inhibition. Our observations suggest that hypermutant tumors may be addicted to oncogenic pathways, resulting in favorable response to targeted therapies. SIGNIFICANCE: Tumors harboring a single RAS/MAPK driver mutation are targeted individually for therapeutic purposes. We find that in RRD hypermutant cancers, mutations in the RAS/MAPK pathway are enriched, highly expressed, and result in sensitivity to MEK inhibitors. Targeting an oncogenic pathway may provide therapeutic options for these hypermutant polyclonal cancers.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1307.

8.
Cancer Discov ; 11(5): 1176-1191, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355208

RESUMO

Although replication repair deficiency, either by mismatch repair deficiency (MMRD) and/or loss of DNA polymerase proofreading, can cause hypermutation in cancer, microsatellite instability (MSI) is considered a hallmark of MMRD alone. By genome-wide analysis of tumors with germline and somatic deficiencies in replication repair, we reveal a novel association between loss of polymerase proofreading and MSI, especially when both components are lost. Analysis of indels in microsatellites (MS-indels) identified five distinct signatures (MS-sigs). MMRD MS-sigs are dominated by multibase losses, whereas mutant-polymerase MS-sigs contain primarily single-base gains. MS deletions in MMRD tumors depend on the original size of the MS and converge to a preferred length, providing mechanistic insight. Finally, we demonstrate that MS-sigs can be a powerful clinical tool for managing individuals with germline MMRD and replication repair-deficient cancers, as they can detect the replication repair deficiency in normal cells and predict their response to immunotherapy. SIGNIFICANCE: Exome- and genome-wide MSI analysis reveals novel signatures that are uniquely attributed to mismatch repair and DNA polymerase. This provides new mechanistic insight into MS maintenance and can be applied clinically for diagnosis of replication repair deficiency and immunotherapy response prediction.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 995.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To ascertain the prevalence of recurrent de novo variants among 240 pediatric patients with osteosarcoma (OS; age < 20 years) unselected for family history of cancer. METHODS: The identification of de novo variants was implemented in 2 phases. In the first, we identified genes with a rare (minor allele frequency < 0.01) de novo variant in > 1 of the 95 case-parent trios examined by whole-exome sequencing (WES) who passed quality control measures. In phase 2, 145 additional patients with OS were evaluated by targeted sequencing to identify rare de novo variants in genes nominated from phase 1. Recurrent rare variants identified from phase 1 and 2 were verified as either de novo or inherited by Sanger sequencing of affected patients and their parents. Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using Fisher exact test and t tests, respectively. RESULTS: Among 95 case-parent trios who underwent WES, we observed 61 de novo variants in 60 genes among 47 patients, with TP53 identified as the only gene with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) de novo variant in more than one case-parent trio. Among all 240 patients with OS, 13 (5.4%) harbored a P/LP TP53 germline variant, of which 6 (46.2%) were confirmed to be de novo. CONCLUSION: Apart from TP53, we did not observe any other recurrent de novo P/LP variants in the case-parent trios, suggesting that new mutations in other genes are not a frequent cause of pediatric OS. That nearly half of P/LP TP53 variants in our sample were de novo suggests universal screening for germline TP53 P/LP variants among pediatric patients with OS should be considered.

11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(12): e28758, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047872

RESUMO

Liquid biopsy, specifically circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection, has started to revolutionize the clinical management of patients with cancer by surpassing many limitations of traditional tissue biopsies, particularly for serial testing. ctDNA sequencing has been successfully utilized for cancer detection, prognostication, and assessment of disease response and evolution. While the applications of ctDNA analysis are growing, the majority of studies to date have primarily evaluated its use as a tool for tracking a known cancer, and in most cases at advanced stage. Herein, we discuss the potential application of ctDNA for surveillance and early cancer detection in patients with a cancer predisposition syndrome.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122580

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy of the adrenal cortex. This study characterizes a single-institution cohort of children treated for ACC, and explores the relationship between clinical outcomes of ACC and germline TP53 mutation status. We performed a retrospective chart review of 23 consecutive pediatric patients with ACC treated at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, between 1977 and 2017. Clinical, biochemical, radiologic, pathologic, and genetic data were collected for each patient. ACC diagnosis followed a bimodal age distribution of 0 to 6 (n=17) and 12+ (n=6) years, with a female:male ratio of 3.6:1. Ten of 20 patients tested for germline TP53 status carried a pathogenic (9) or likely pathogenic (1) variant, including all but 1 male patient. Only 3 patients died of ACC-related causes, each 5 months post-diagnosis. When treated with resection and combination chemotherapy, carriers of germline TP53 mutations may respond more favorably than their wild-type counterparts. In addition, the survival of patients reported in our cohort with high-stage ACC was appreciably greater than previously described (100.0% for stage II, 50.0% for stage III, and 42.9% for stage IV), favoring aggressive intervention in these patient populations.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3945, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770028

RESUMO

TP53 missense mutations leading to the expression of mutant p53 oncoproteins are frequent driver events during tumorigenesis. p53 mutants promote tumor growth, metastasis and chemoresistance by affecting fundamental cellular pathways and functions. Here, we demonstrate that p53 mutants modify structure and function of the Golgi apparatus, culminating in the increased release of a pro-malignant secretome by tumor cells and primary fibroblasts from patients with Li-Fraumeni cancer predisposition syndrome. Mechanistically, interacting with the hypoxia responsive factor HIF1α, mutant p53 induces the expression of miR-30d, which in turn causes tubulo-vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus, leading to enhanced vesicular trafficking and secretion. The mut-p53/HIF1α/miR-30d axis potentiates the release of soluble factors and the deposition and remodeling of the ECM, affecting mechano-signaling and stromal cells activation within the tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing tumor growth and metastatic colonization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Complexo de Golgi/patologia , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/patologia , Camundongos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Mutação , Cultura Primária de Células , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722340

RESUMO

Loss of p53 promotes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A up-regulation and the angiogenic potential of cancer cells. We investigated TP53 somatic mutations in 110 primary gastric adenocarcinomas of two retrospective metastatic series including 48 patients treated with second-line Ramucirumab/Paclitaxel and 62 patients who received first-line chemotherapy with Cisplatin or Oxaliplatin plus 5-Fluorouracil. Missense mutations were classified by tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutant-specific residual transcriptional activity scores (TP53RTAS) and used to stratify patients into two groups: transcriptionally TP53Active and TP53Inactive. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). An additional analysis was addressed to measure VEGF/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression levels in relation to the TP53RTAS. In the Ramucirumab/Paclitaxel group, 29/48 (60.4%) patients had TP53 mutations. Ten patients with TP53Inactive mutations showed better OS than carriers of other TP53 mutations. This effect was retained in the multivariate model analysis (Hazard Ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.85, p = 0.02). In the chemotherapy group, 41/62 (66%) patients had TP53 mutations, and the 11 carriers of TP53Inactive mutations showed the worst OS (Hazard Ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.17-5.95, p = 0.02). VEGF-A mRNA expression levels were significantly increased in TP53Inactive cases. Further studies are warranted to explore the effect of TP53Inactive mutations in different anti-cancer regimens. This information would lead to new tailored therapy strategies for this lethal disease.

16.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 20(9): 533-549, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472073

RESUMO

Cell division and organismal development are exquisitely orchestrated and regulated processes. The dysregulation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes may cause cancer, a consequence of cell-intrinsic and/or cell-extrinsic events. Cellular DNA can be damaged by spontaneous hydrolysis, reactive oxygen species, aberrant cellular metabolism or other perturbations that cause DNA damage. Moreover, several environmental factors may damage the DNA, alter cellular metabolism or affect the ability of cells to interact with their microenvironment. While some environmental factors are well established as carcinogens, there remains a large knowledge gap of others owing to the difficulty in identifying them because of the typically long interval between carcinogen exposure and cancer diagnosis. DNA damage increases in cells harbouring mutations that impair their ability to correctly repair the DNA. Tumour predisposition syndromes in which cancers arise at an accelerated rate and in different organs - the equivalent of a sensitized background - provide a unique opportunity to examine how gene-environment interactions influence cancer risk when the initiating genetic defect responsible for malignancy is known. Understanding the molecular processes that are altered by specific germline mutations, environmental exposures and related mechanisms that promote cancer will allow the design of novel and effective preventive and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/genética , Animais , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 927-935, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The success of multisite collaborative research relies on effective data collection, harmonization, and aggregation strategies. Data Coordination Centers (DCC) serve to facilitate the implementation of these strategies. The utility of a DCC can be particularly relevant for research on rare diseases where collaboration from multiple sites to amass large aggregate datasets is essential. However, approaches to building a DCC have been scarcely documented. METHODS: The Li-Fraumeni Exploration (LiFE) Consortium's DCC was created using multiple open source packages, including LAM/G Application (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Grails), Extraction-Transformation-Loading (ETL) Pentaho Data Integration Tool, and the Saiku-Mondrian client. This document serves as a resource for building a rare disease DCC for multi-institutional collaborative research. RESULTS: The primary scientific and technological objective to create an online central repository into which data from all participating sites could be deposited, harmonized, aggregated, disseminated, and analyzed was completed. The cohort now include 2,193 participants from six contributing sites, including 1,354 individuals from families with a pathogenic or likely variant in TP53. Data on cancer diagnoses are also available. Challenges and lessons learned are summarized. CONCLUSIONS: The methods leveraged mitigate challenges associated with successfully developing a DCC's technical infrastructure, data harmonization efforts, communications, and software development and applications. IMPACT: These methods can serve as a framework in establishing other collaborative research efforts. Data from the consortium will serve as a great resource for collaborative research to improve knowledge on, and the ability to care for, individuals and families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 122(8): 1231-1241, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have enriched the fields of genomics and drug development. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with a bimodal age distribution and inadequate treatment options. Paediatric ACC is frequently associated with TP53 mutations, with particularly high incidence in Southern Brazil due to the TP53 p.R337H (R337H) germline mutation. The heterogeneous risk among carriers suggests other genetic modifiers could exist. METHODS: We analysed clinical, genotype and gene expression data derived from paediatric ACC, R337H carriers, and adult ACC patients. We restricted our analyses to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified in GWASs to associate with disease or human traits. RESULTS: A SNP, rs971074, in the alcohol dehydrogenase 7 gene significantly and reproducibly associated with allelic differences in ACC age-of-onset in both cohorts. Patients homozygous for the minor allele were diagnosed up to 16 years earlier. This SNP resides in a gene involved in the retinoic acid (RA) pathway and patients with differing levels of RA pathway gene expression in their tumours associate with differential ACC progression. CONCLUSIONS: These results identify a novel genetic component to ACC development that resides in the retinoic acid pathway, thereby informing strategies to develop management, preventive and therapeutic treatments for ACC.

20.
J Pers Med ; 10(1)2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075154

RESUMO

Precision medicine is changing cancer care and placing new demands on oncology professionals. Precision medicine trials for high-risk childhood cancer exemplify these complexities. We assessed clinicians' (n = 39) and scientists' (n = 15) experiences in the first year of the PRecISion Medicine for Children with Cancer (PRISM) trial for children and adolescents with high-risk cancers, through an in-depth semi-structured interview. We thematically analysed participants' responses regarding their professional challenges, and measured oncologists' knowledge of genetics and confidence with somatic and germline molecular test results. Both groups described positive early experiences with PRISM but were cognisant of managing parents' expectations. Key challenges for clinicians included understanding and communicating genomic results, balancing biopsy risks, and drug access. Most oncologists rated 'good' knowledge of genetics, but a minority were 'very confident' in interpreting (25%), explaining (34.4%) and making treatment recommendations (18.8%) based on somatic genetic test results. Challenges for scientists included greater emotional impact of their work and balancing translational outputs with academic productivity. Continued tracking of these challenges across the course of the trial, while assessing the perspectives of a wider range of stakeholders, is critical to drive the ongoing development of a workforce equipped to manage the demands of paediatric precision medicine.

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