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Life Sci ; 286: 120017, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619169


Tumour cells exhibit numerous defence mechanisms against various therapeutic strategies and help in developing drug resistance. These defence strategies help cancer cells prevent their elimination from an organism and prosper at a specific location. In recent times it's been observed that there is a significant contribution of secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) from such tumorigenic sites in the development and prognosis of cancer. Amongst the various types of EVs, exosomes behave like biological carriers, play a crucial role in transporting the content between different cells, and had such an underrated defence mode by getting induced due to the hypoxia secreted highly specialised double-membrane structures. These small structure vesicles play a critical part in regulating local microenvironment and intracellular communications, cited by many research studies. Exosomes are a potential carrier of several cargo biomolecules like proteins, lipids, miRNAs, mRNAs etc., facilitating better communication within the microenvironment of cancer cells, enhancing the metastatic rate along with cancer progression. Several studies have extensively researched elucidating exosomes mediated radiation-induced bystander effects: multidrug resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and help cancer cells escape from the immune system apart from playing a critical role in angiogenesis too. Due to its natural tendency to carry different biomolecules, it can also be used to haul chemical drugs and efficiently deliver the drug molecules to the targeted site of cancer. The current review aims to explore the vivid role of hypoxia-induced exosomes in tumour progression along with its application and challenges in cancer therapeutics.

Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443598


Apocynin (APO) is a known multi-enzymatic complexed compound, employed as a viable NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, extensively used in both traditional and modern-day therapeutic strategies to combat neuronal disorders. However, its therapeutic efficacy is limited by lower solubility and lesser bioavailability; thus, a suitable nanocarrier system to overcome such limitations is needed. The present study is designed to fabricate APO-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (APO-NPs) to enhance its therapeutic efficacy and sustainability in the biological system. The optimized APO NPs in the study exhibited 103.6 ± 6.8 nm and -13.7 ± 0.43 mV of particle size and zeta potential, respectively, along with further confirmation by TEM. In addition, the antioxidant (AO) abilities quantified by DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays exhibited comparatively higher AO potential of APO-NPs than APO alone. An in-vitro release profile displayed a linear diffusion pattern of zero order kinetics for APO from the NPs, followed by its cytotoxicity evaluation on the PC12 cell line, which revealed minimal toxicity with higher cell viability, even after treatment with a stress inducer (H2O2). The stability of APO-NPs after six months showed minimal AO decline in comparison to APO only, indicating that the designed nano-formulation enhanced therapeutic efficacy for modulating NOX-mediated ROS generation.

Acetofenonas/química , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Ratos