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1.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely limited the access to cancer surgery, but it is not known to what extent referral centers for pancreatic diseases were affected by its outbreak. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on a third-level referral center for pancreatic surgery in Italy. METHODS: The 2020 activity of The Pancreas Institute of the University of Verona was reviewed, comparing different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreaks using the pre-COVID era as a control. Endpoints were the overall caseload of pancreatic resections, surgical waiting list, administration of preoperative therapy, major morbidity and mortality, residents' training; number of inpatients beds, outpatient visits/procedures/diagnostics. RESULTS: In 2020, there was an overall significant reduction of pancreatic resections performed (394 vs. 506 in 2019), particularly during the first (March-May) and second (October-December) COVID-19 outbreaks, with an all-time-low of 16 resections/months in April (compared to 43 average resection/month in 2019). The rates of major morbidity (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) and mortality were similar to 2019 (16 vs 12%, p = 0.11 and 3 vs 2%, p = 0.29, respectively). During the first and second outbreaks resident's training, inpatient beds, outpatient visits, diagnostics, and procedures were severely impaired, while the waiting list for up-front cancer resections and the use of preoperative chemotherapy concomitantly raised. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted the activity of a third-level referral center for pancreatic surgery, affecting the access to cancer surgical procedures and raising concerns regarding the solidity of the current centralization model.

2.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613461

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with microsatellite instability (MSI)/defective mismatch repair (dMMR) is the only subtype of pancreatic cancer with potential response to immunotherapy. Here, we report the histo-molecular characterization of MSI/dMMR PDAC with immunohistochemistry, MSI-based PCR, and next-generation sequencing. Five paradigmatic cases have been identified. The main results include the first report in pancreatic cancer of MSI/dMMR intra-tumor heterogeneity, the presence of microsatellite-stable metastases from MSI/dMMR primary and recurrent B2M gene inactivation, which may confer resistance to immunotherapy. In addition to the classic PDAC drivers, ARID1A was the most common mutated gene in the cohort. Intra-tumor heterogeneity, B2M inactivation, and metastatic sites should be carefully considered in MSI/dMMR PDAC, which should also be investigated in routine diagnostic practice with specific molecular analysis. The chromatin remodeler ARID1A represents another potential driver gene in this context.

3.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pancreatic transection method during distal pancreatectomy is thought to influence postoperative fistula rates. Yet, the optimal technique for minimizing fistula occurrence is still unclear. The present randomized controlled trial compared stapled versus ultrasonic transection in elective distal pancreatectomy. METHODS: Patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy from July 2018 to July 2020 at two high-volume institutions were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were contiguous organ resection and a parenchymal thickness > 17 mm on intraoperative ultrasound. Eligible patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to stapled transection (Endo GIA Reinforced Reload with Tri-Staple Technology®) or ultrasonic transection (Harmonic Focus® + or Harmonic Ace® + shears). The primary endpoint was postoperative pancreatic fistula. Secondary endpoints included overall complications, abdominal collections, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Overall, 72 patients were randomized in the stapled transection arm and 73 patients in the ultrasonic transection arm. Postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 23 patients (16%), with a comparable incidence between groups (12% in stapled transection versus 19% in ultrasonic dissection arm, p = 0.191). Overall complications did not differ substantially (35% in stapled transection versus 44% in ultrasonic transection arm, p = 0.170). There was an increased incidence of abdominal collections in the ultrasonic dissection group (32% versus 14%, p = 0.009), yet the need for percutaneous drain did not differ between randomization arms (p = 0.169). The median length of stay was 8 days in both groups (p = 0.880). Intraoperative blood transfusion was the only factor independently associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula on logistic regression analysis (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.2-20.0, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: The present randomized controlled trial of stapled versus ultrasonic transection in elective distal pancreatectomy demonstrated no significant difference in postoperative pancreatic fistula rates and no substantial clinical impact on other secondary endpoints.

4.
Hum Pathol ; 118: 30-41, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562502

RESUMO

Hepatoid tumors (HT) are rare neoplasms morphologically resembling hepatocellular carcinoma, which arise in several organs other than the liver. A comprehensive molecular profile of this group of neoplasms is still lacking. Genomic characterization of 19 HTs from different organs (three colon HTs, four esophagogastric HTs, four biliary HTs, six genitourinary HTs, two lung HTs) was performed using a multigene next-generation sequencing panel. NGS unraveled a composite molecular profile of HT. Their genetic alterations were clearly clustered by tumor site: (i) colorectal HT displayed microsatellite instability, high tumor mutational burden, mutations in ARID1A/B genes and NCOA4-RET gene fusion (2/3 cases); (ii) gastric HT had TP53 mutations (2/4); (iii) biliary HT displayed loss of CDKN2A (3/4) and loss of chromosome 18 (2/4); (iv) genital HT showed gain of chromosome 12 (3/6); (v) lung HT had STK11 somatic mutations (2/2). The only commonly mutated gene occurring in HT of different sites was TP53 (8/19 cases: colon 2, esophagogastric 2, biliary 2, genital 1, lungs 1). This study shows that most genetic alterations of HT were clustered by site, indicating that context matters. The novel potential targets for HT precision oncology are also clustered based on the anatomic origin. This study shed light on the biology of these rare cancers and may have important consequences for treatment decisions and clinical trial selection for HT patients.

5.
Updates Surg ; 73(4): 1231-1236, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363601

RESUMO

Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) still represents the major driver of surgical morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The purpose of this narrative review was to critically analyze current evidence supporting the use of total pancreatectomy (TP) to prevent the development of POPF in patients with high-risk pancreas, and to explore the role of completion total pancreatectomy (CP) in the management of severe POPF. Considering the encouraging perioperative outcomes, TP may represent a promising tool to avoid the morbidity related to an extremely high-risk pancreatic anastomosis in selected patients. Surgical management of severe POPF is only required in few critical scenarios. In this context, even if anecdotal, CP might play a role as last resort in expert hands.


Assuntos
Pancreatectomia , Fístula Pancreática , Humanos , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Fístula Pancreática/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 10(5): 47, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer represents a systemic disease, and its treatment ideally includes the administration of systemic therapy regardless of its anatomical stage. METHODS: In this brief narrative review, the most recent literature will be highlighted, together with updates, new perspectives on the topic, and the authors own personal view. RESULTS: While preoperative therapy has recently become the new standard for borderline resectable stages, adjuvant therapy after surgery remains the current standard of care for resectable disease. However, to deliver systemic therapy in the postoperative setting implies that a significant subset of patients, not fully recovering after a pancreatectomy, will never receive appropriate treatment. Administration of chemotherapy before pancreatectomy may represent the only way to assure optimal treatment, simultaneously selecting patients for surgery according to tumor biology. For these reasons, many high-volume centers for pancreatic surgical oncology are increasingly considering this strategy also for patients with resectable disease. CONCLUSIONS: Nonetheless, available data to support this paradigm shift are still germinal, and the optimal modalities and timing of preoperative therapy are eagerly debated as well.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia
7.
Ann Surg ; 274(5): 721-728, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) critically influenced microscopically complete resection (R0) rates and long-term outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with portomesenteric vein resection (PVR) from a diverse, world-wide group of high-volume centers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Limited size studies suggest that NAT improves R0 rates and overall survival compared to upfront surgery in R/BR-PDAC patients. METHODS: This multicenter study analyzed consecutive patients with R/BR-PDAC who underwent PD with PVR in 23 high-volume centers from 2009 to 2018. RESULTS: Data from 1192 patients with PD and PVR were collected and analyzed. The median age was 68 [interquartile range (IQR) 60-73] years and 52% were males. Some 186 (15.6%) and 131 (10.9%) patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) alone and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, respectively. The R0/R1/R2 rates were 57%, 39.3%, and 3.2% in patients who received NAT compared to 46.6%, 49.9%, and 3.5% in patients who did not, respectively (P =0.004). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS in patients receiving NAT was 79%, 41%, and 29%, while for those that did not it was 73%, 29%, and 18%, respectively (P <0.001). Multivariable analysis showed no administration of NAT, high tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, R1/R2 resection, no adjuvant chemotherapy, occurrence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher postoperative complications within 90 days, preoperative diabetes mellitus, male sex and portal vein involvement were negative independent predictive factors for OS. CONCLUSION: Patients with PDAC of the pancreatic head expected to undergo venous reconstruction should routinely be considered for NAT.


Assuntos
Veias Mesentéricas/cirurgia , Pâncreas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206554

RESUMO

Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a numeric index that expresses the number of mutations per megabase (muts/Mb) harbored by tumor cells in a neoplasm. TMB can be determined using different approaches based on next-generation sequencing. In the case of high values, it indicates a potential response to immunotherapy. In this systematic review, we assessed the potential predictive role of high-TMB in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as well as the histo-molecular features of high-TMB PDAC. High-TMB appeared as a rare but not-negligible molecular feature in PDAC, being present in about 1.1% of cases. This genetic condition was closely associated with mucinous/colloid and medullary histology (p < 0.01). PDAC with high-TMB frequently harbored other actionable alterations, with microsatellite instability/defective mismatch repair as the most common. Immunotherapy has shown promising results in high-TMB PDAC, but the sample size of high-TMB PDAC treated so far is quite small. This study highlights interesting peculiarities of PDAC harboring high-TMB and may represent a reliable starting point for the assessment of TMB in the clinical management of patients affected by pancreatic cancer.

9.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(8): 1037-1045, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216462

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal cancers. Its poor prognosis is predominantly due to the fact that most patients remain asymptomatic until the disease reaches an advanced stage, alongside the lack of early markers and screening strategies. A better understanding of PDAC risk factors is essential for the identification of groups at high risk in the population. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a powerful tool for detecting genetic variants associated with complex traits, including pancreatic cancer. By exploiting functional and GWAS data, we investigated the associations between polymorphisms affecting gene function in the pancreas (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs) and PDAC risk. In a two-phase approach, we analysed 13 713 PDAC cases and 43 784 controls and identified a genome-wide significant association between the A allele of the rs2035875 polymorphism and increased PDAC risk (P = 7.14 × 10-10). This allele is known to be associated with increased expression in the pancreas of the keratin genes KRT8 and KRT18, whose increased levels have been reported to correlate with various tumour cell characteristics. Additionally, the A allele of the rs789744 variant was associated with decreased risk of developing PDAC (P = 3.56 × 10-6). This single nucleotide polymorphism is situated in the SRGAP1 gene and the A allele is associated with higher expression of the gene, which in turn inactivates the cyclin-dependent protein 42 (CDC42) gene expression, thus decreasing the risk of PDAC. In conclusion, we present here a functional-based novel PDAC risk locus and an additional strong candidate supported by significant associations and plausible biological mechanisms.

10.
Pancreatology ; 21(7): 1342-1348, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local ablation of pancreatic cancer has been suggested as an option to manage locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) although no robust evidence has been published to date to support its application. The aim of this study is to compare overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients receiving both radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and conventional chemoradiotherapy (CHRT) with patients receiving CHRT only. METHODS: This is a multicentre prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients with LAPC diagnosed by the Pancreas-Ablation-Team-Verona were randomly assigned to open RFA (Group A) or CHRT (Group B). Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: One hundred LAPC patients were enrolled from January 2014 to August 2016. 33% of patients in Group A did not receive the designated procedure because of intraoperative findings of liver (18.7%) or peritoneal metastases (43.8%), or technical contraindications (37.5%). We did not observe any statistically significant survival benefit from RFA compared to CHRT, neither in terms of OS (medians of 14.2 months and 18.1 months, respectively, p = 0.639) nor PFS (medians of 8 months and 6 months respectively, p = 0.570). Mortality was nil and RFA-related morbidity was 15.6%. In 13% of subjects, conversion to surgery occurred (2 after RFA and 11 after CHRT). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first RCT evaluating the impact of upfront RFA in the multimodal treatment of LAPC. Compared to CHRT, RFA alone did not provide any advantage in terms of OS or PFS. It could be considered as a therapeutic option for LAPC within a multimodal context and after neoadjuvant therapies.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2617-2631, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of HRD in PDAC from PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, and online cancer genomic data sets. The main outcome was pooled prevalence of somatic and germline mutations in the better characterized HRD genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, ATR, CHEK2, RAD51, and the FANC genes). The secondary outcomes were prevalence of germline mutations overall, and in sporadic and familial cases; prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ); and prevalence of HRD based on other definitions (ie, alterations in other genes, genomic scars, and mutational signatures). Random-effects modeling with the Freeman-Tukey transformation was used for the analyses. PROSPERO registration number: (CRD42020190813). RESULTS: Sixty studies with 21,842 participants were included in the systematic review and 57 in the meta-analysis. Prevalence of germline and somatic mutations was BRCA1: 0.9%, BRCA2: 3.5%, PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2.2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, FANC: 0.5%, RAD51: 0.0%, and ATR: 0.1%. Prevalence of germline mutations was BRCA1: 0.9% (2.4% in AJ), BRCA2: 3.8% (8.2% in AJ), PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, and FANC: 0.4%. No significant differences between sporadic and familial cases were identified. HRD prevalence ranged between 14.5%-16.5% through targeted next-generation sequencing and 24%-44% through whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing allowing complementary genomic analysis, including genomic scars and other signatures (surrogate markers of HRD). CONCLUSION: Surrogate readouts of HRD identify a greater proportion of patients with HRD than analyses limited to gene-level approaches. There is a clear need to harmonize HRD definitions and to validate the optimal biomarker for treatment selection. Universal HRD screening including integrated somatic and germline analysis should be offered to all patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos , Prevalência
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14922, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290274

RESUMO

The GNA15 gene is ectopically expressed in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer cells. The encoded Gα15 protein can promiscuously redirect GPCR signaling toward pathways with oncogenic potential. We sought to describe the distribution of GNA15 in adenocarcinoma from human pancreatic specimens and to analyze the mechanism driving abnormal expression and the consequences on signaling and clinical follow-up. We detected GNA15 expression in pre-neoplastic pancreatic lesions and throughout progression. The analysis of biological data sets, primary and xenografted human tumor samples, and clinical follow-up shows that elevated expression is associated with poor prognosis for GNA15, but not any other GNA gene. Demethylation of the 5' GNA15 promoter region was associated with ectopic expression of Gα15 in pancreatic neoplastic cells, but not in adjacent dysplastic or non-transformed tissue. Down-modulation of Gα15 by shRNA or CRISPR/Cas9 affected oncogenic signaling, and reduced adenocarcimoma cell motility and invasiveness. We conclude that de novo expression of wild-type GNA15 characterizes transformed pancreatic cells. The methylation pattern of GNA15 changes in preneoplastic lesions coincident with the release a transcriptional blockade that allows ectopic expression to persist throughout PDAC progression. Elevated GNA15 mRNA correlates with poor prognosis. In addition, ectopic Gα15 signaling provides an unprecedented mechanism in the early steps of pancreas carcinogenesis distinct from classical G protein oncogenic mutations described previously in GNAS and GNAQ/GNA11.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063347

RESUMO

Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), the major driver of morbidity and mortality following pancreatectomy, is caused by an abnormal communication between the pancreatic ductal epithelium and another epithelial surface containing pancreas-derived, enzyme-rich fluid. There is a strong correlation between the amylase content in surgically-placed drains early in the postoperative course and the development of POPF. A simple and cheap method to determine the amylase content from the drain effluent has been eagerly advocated. Here, we developed an amylase optical biosensor, based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) plastic optical fiber (POF), metallized with a 60 nm layer of gold and interrogated with white light. The sensor was made specific by coupling it with an anti-amylase antibody. Each surface derivatization step was optimized and studied by XPS, contact angle, and fluorescence. The POF-biosensor was tested for its response to amylase in diluted drain effluents. The volume of sample required was 50 µL and the measurement time was 8 min. The POF-biosensor showed selectivity for amylase, a calibration curve log-linear in the range of 0.8-25.8 U/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of ~0.5 U/L. In preliminary tests, the POF-biosensor allowed for the measurement of the amylase content of diluted surgically-placed drain effluents with an accuracy of >92% with respect to the gold standard. The POF-biosensor allows for reliable measurement and could be implemented to allow for a rapid bedside assessment of amylase value in drains following pancreatectomy.


Assuntos
Amilases/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Fístula Pancreática/diagnóstico , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Drenagem , Humanos , Fibras Ópticas , Pancreatectomia , Plásticos
14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 662205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959509

RESUMO

Background and Objective: To assess the efficacy of a Risk-Adapted Ablative Radiotherapy (RAdAR) approach, after intensive induction chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Material and Methods: Patients with LAPC who received RAdAR following induction chemotherapy from January 2017 to December 2019 were included in this observational study. The RAdAR approach consisted of an anatomy- and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-based dose prescription strategy. RAdAR was delivered with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SAbR), administering 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the tumor volume (PTVt) and 50 Gy SIB (BED10 100 Gy) to the vascular involvement, or with (hypo-)fractionated ablative radiotherapy (HART) prescribing 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the PTVt, with a vascular SIB of 78.4 Gy (BED10 100 Gy). Primary end points were freedom from local progression (FFLP), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Sixty-four LAPC patients were included. Induction chemotherapy consisted of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel in 60.9% and FOLFIRINOX in 39.1% of cases. SAbR was used in 52 (81.2%) patients, and HART in 12 (18.8%). After RAdAR, surgery was performed in 17 (26.6%) patients. Median follow-up was 16.1 months. Overall local control (LC) rate was 78.1%, with no difference between resected and non-resected patients (2-year FFLP 75.3% vs 56.4%; p = 0.112). Median OS and PFS were 29.7 months and 8.7 months, respectively, for the entire cohort. Resected patients had a better median OS (not reached versus 26.1 months; p = 0.0001) and PFS (19 versus 5.6 months; p < 0.0001) compared to non-resected patients. In non-resected patients, no significant difference was found between SAbR and HART for median FFLP (28.1 versus 18.5 months; p = 0.614), OS (27.4 versus 25.3 months; p = 0.624), and PFS (5.7 versus 4.3 months; p = 0.486). One patient (1.6%) experienced acute grade 4 gastro-intestinal bleeding. No other acute or late grade ≥ 3 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: The RAdAR approach, following intensive induction chemotherapy, is an effective radiation treatment strategy for selected LAPC patients, representing a promising therapeutic option in a multimodality treatment regimen.

15.
Surgery ; 170(4): 1195-1204, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between intraoperative estimated blood loss and outcomes after pancreatoduodenectomy has, thus far, been rarely explored. METHODS: In total, 7,706 pancreatoduodenectomies performed at 18 international institutions composing the Pancreas Fistula Study Group were examined (2003-2020). High estimated blood loss (>700 mL) was defined as twice the median. Propensity score matching (1:1 exact-match) was employed to adjust for variables associated with high estimated blood loss and clinically relevant pancreatic fistula occurrence. The study was powered to detect a 33% clinically relevant pancreatic fistula increase in the high estimated blood loss group, with α = 0.05 and ß = 0.2. RESULTS: The propensity score model included 966 patients with high estimated blood loss and 966 patients with lower estimated blood loss; all covariate imbalantces were solved. Patients with high estimated blood loss patients experienced higher clinically relevant pancreatic fistula rates (19.4 vs 12.6%, odds ratio 1.66; P < .001), as well as higher severe complication rates (27.8 vs 15.6%), transfusions (50.1 vs 14.3%), reoperations (9.2 vs 4.0%), intensive care unit transfers (9.9 vs 4.8%) and 90-day mortality (4.7 vs 2.0%, all P < .001). High estimated blood loss was an independent predictor for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.37-2.32), as were prophylactic Octreotide administration (odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.46-2.61) and soft pancreatic texture (odds ratio 5.32, 95% confidence interval 3.74-5.57; all P < .001). Moreover, a second model including 1,126 pancreatoduodenectomies was derived including vascular resections as additional confounder (14.0% vascular resections performed in each group). On multivariable regression, high estimated blood loss was confirmed an independent predictor for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula reduction (odds ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.32-2.44; P < .001), whereas vascular resection was not (odds ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.34-1.88; P = .156). CONCLUSION: This study better establishes the relationship between estimated blood loss and outcomes after pancreatoduodenectomy. Despite inherent contributions to blood loss, its minimization is an actionable opportunity for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula reduction and performance optimization in pancreatoduodenectomy. Accordingly, practical insights are offered to achieve this goal.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Pontuação de Propensão , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fístula Pancreática/diagnóstico , Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a pretreatment prognostic score in pancreatic cancer (PDAC). BACKGROUND: Pretreatment prognostication in PDAC is important for treatment decisions but remains challenging. Available prognostic tools are derived from selected cohorts of patients who underwent resection, excluding up to 20% of patients with exploration only, and do not adequately reflect the pretreatment scenario. METHODS: Patients undergoing surgery for PDAC in Heidelberg from 07/2006 to 06/2014 were identified from a prospective database. Pretreatment parameters were extracted from the database and the laboratory information system. Parameters independently associated with overall survival by uni- and multivariable analyses were used to build a prognostic score. A contemporary cohort from Verona was used for external validation. RESULTS: In 1197 patients, multiple pretreatment parameters were associated with overall survival by univariable analyses. ASA-classification, CA19-9, CEA, CRP, albumin, and platelet count were independently associated with survival and were used to create the Heidelberg Prognostic Pancreatic Cancer (HELPP)-score. The HELPP-score was closely associated with overall survival (median survival between 31.3 and 4.8 months; 5-year survival rates between 35% and 0%) and was able to stratify survival in subgroups with or without resection as well as in CA19-9 non-secretors. In the resected subgroup the HELPP-score stratified survival independently of pathological prognostic factors. The HELPP-score was externally validated and was superior to CA19-9 in both the development and validation cohorts. CONCLUSION: The HELPP-score is a readily available prognostic tool based on pretreatment routine parameters to stratify survival in PDAC independently of resection status and pathological tumor stage.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924363

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a simplified radiomic analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on qualitative and quantitative tumor features and to compare the results between metastatic and non-metastatic patients. A search of our radiological, surgical, and pathological databases identified 1218 patients with a newly diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who were referred to our Institution between January 2014 and December 2018. Computed Tomography (CT) examinations were reviewed analyzing qualitative and quantitative features. Two hundred eighty-eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. Overall, metastases were present at diagnosis in 86/288 patients, while no metastases were identified in 202/288 patients. Ill-defined margins and a hypodense appearance on portal-phase images were significantly more common among patients with metastases compared to non-metastatic patients (p < 0.05). Metastatic tumors showed a significantly larger size and significantly lower arterial index, perfusion index, and permeability index compared to non-metastatic tumors (p < 0.05). In the management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, early detection and correct staging are key elements. The study of computerized tomography characteristics of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma showed substantial differences, both qualitative and quantitative, between metastatic and non-metastatic disease.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 165, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current management guidelines recommend that patients with borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BRPC) should initially receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The addition of advanced radiation therapy modalities, including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT), could result in a more effective neoadjuvant strategy, with higher rates of margin-free resections and improved survival outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: In this single-center, single-arm, intention-to-treat, phase II trial newly diagnosed BRPC will receive a "total neoadjuvant" therapy with FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and hypofractionated SBRT (5 fractions, total dose of 30 Gy with simultaneous integrated boost of 50 Gy on tumor-vessel interface). Following surgical exploration or resection, IORT will be also delivered (10 Gy). The primary endpoint is 3-year survival. Secondary endpoints include completion of neoadjuvant treatment, resection rate, acute and late toxicities, and progression-free survival. In the subset of patients undergoing resection, per-protocol analysis of disease-free and disease-specific survival will be performed. The estimated sample size is 100 patients over a 36-month period. The trial is currently recruiting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04090463 at clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to critically reappraise the experience at our high-volume institution to obtain new insights for future directions. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The indications, surgical techniques, and perioperative management of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) have profoundly evolved over the last 20 years. METHODS: All consecutive PDs performed during the last 20 years at the Verona Pancreas Institute were divided into four 5-year timeframes and retrospectively analyzed in terms of indications, intraoperative features and surgical outcomes. Significant milestones were provided to understand practice changes using a before-after analysis method. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 3000 patients. The median age, ASA ≥ 3 and number of nonbenchmark cases significantly increased over time (p < 0.005). Pancreatic cancer was the leading indication, representing 60% of patients/year in the last timeframe, 40% of whom received neoadjuvant treatment. Conversely, after the development of International Guidelines, the proportion of resected cystic neoplasms progressively and thoroughly decreased. Given the increased complexity of surgery for pancreatic cancer, the evolution of technologies, surgical techniques and postoperative management allowed the maintenance of favorable surgical outcomes over time, with a stable 20.0% of patients with a Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3, an 11.7% failure to rescue and a 2.3% in-hospital mortality rate. The incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula, hemorrhage and delayed gastric emptying was 22.4%, 13.4% and 12.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatoduodenectomy significantly evolved in Verona over the past two decades. Surgeries of greater complexity are currently performed on increasingly frailer patients, mostly for pancreatic cancer and often after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, the progression of all fields of pancreatic surgery, including the expanding use of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) mitigation strategies, has allowed satisfactory outcomes to be maintained.

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