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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12219-12227, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613626

RESUMO

Quantification, using an accurate analytical approach, of capsinoids and capsaicinoids was performed on three chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes: "Chiltepín", "Tampiqueño 74", and "Bhut Jolokia" at various stages of fruit development. The accumulation of capsinoids, in all these peppers started between 10 to 20 days post-anthesis (dpa), increased and reached the highest capsinoid amount at 40 dpa, and then decreased until 60 dpa. Conversely, capsaicinoids could already be determined at 10 dpa in "Bhut Jolokia" and their accumulation pattern was different from that of the capsinoids in this genotype. The capsiate/dihydrocapsiate ratio presented a higher variation between genotypes and developmental stages than the capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio. Capsinoid ratios (4-24%) and Pun1/pAMT genotyping were determined. These results provide information on the progress of the accumulation of capsinoids in the aforementioned pungent and superhot cultivars and could support future breeding studies toward the understanding of the factors affecting their accumulation.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
2.
Food Chem ; 270: 264-272, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174045

RESUMO

A highly sensitive, selective method has been developed and validated for determination of capsiate and dihydrocapsiate for the first time using HPLC-ESI/MS(QTOF). For both capsinoids, LODs and LOQs were 0.02 and 0.05 µmol/l, respectively. The intra- and interday repeatability values (RSD %) were 0.26-0.41% for retention time, and 2.25-2.11% for peak area. Recoveries were up to 98% and 97% for capsiate and dihydrocapsiate, respectively. This method was successfully applied to quantify capsiate and dihydrocapsiate in eight pepper fruit accessions. Capsinoids were found in the range of 1.21-544.59 µg/g DW for capsiate and of 0.61-81.95 µg/g DW for dihydrocapsiate. In the 'Tabasco' accession, capsiate and dihydrocapsiate were quantified for the first time, ranging from 3.09 to 58.76 and 1.80 to 6.94 µg/g DW, respectively. Additionally, the ESI-MS/MS(QTOF) analysis has allowed the tentative identification of two other minor capsinoids by exact mass and fragmentation pattern, in the 'Bhut Jolokia' accession.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsicum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Capsaicina/análise , Frutas
3.
Food Chem ; 270: 452-458, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174071

RESUMO

Traditional tomatoes are highly valued for their organoleptic quality and cultural links with a territory. At present, strong competition has put these crops at risk, and it is necessary to differentiate the local cultivars and improve their nutritional value. This work focused on the nutritional study of four selected lines of a local tomato grown in two locations and in two agronomic conditions to nutritionally characterize the tomatoes and to study the effect of location and cultivation on nutritional parameters. Data on nutritional characterization revealed significant effects of location and treatment in most compounds. Tomatoes grown in traditional areas showed a significantly higher concentration of some phenolic acids and beta-carotene. Lycopene contents were not location dependent. The open field test showed significant differences in all the components. Regarding the best nutritional genotypes, all the components were dependent on lines, and significant differences were confirmed between them.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Valor Nutritivo , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Carotenoides , Comportamento do Consumidor , Frutas/química , Genótipo , Lycopersicon esculentum/química
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1794, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564263

RESUMO

Genebanks were created by the middle of the twentieth century to preserve cultivated biodiversity when landraces began to be substituted by modern varieties. This move was generally accepted as a necessary step to safeguard the future. After about 75 years of collecting and maintaining genetic resources, the increasing ability of biotechnology to create new variability brings the roles of genebanks in the present and near future into question. As a continuation of several workshops that started in 2014, staff of some representative genebanks have met to discuss how the Spanish Plant Genetic Resources Network can be improved, identifying the following major shortcomings: lack of efficient coordination in the distribution of species among genebanks; too many genebanks; existence of detected and undetected duplicates; insufficient rate of regeneration; insufficient phenotyping, genotyping, and epiphenotyping; unsatisfactory rate of use by end users; and, insufficient funding. As a considerable increase in public funding is unlikely, we propose some strategies to increase the efficiency of the system. The most urgent tasks are to strengthen the rationalization of the network by establishing a clear hierarchy and functions, to improve the information in the base collection by deep characterization including not only phenotypes but also uses and utilities, to progressively replace the active collections with focused core collections constructed to meet users' needs, to optimize regeneration protocols, to limit new collecting expeditions of Spanish crop wild relatives to those growing in threatened habitats, and to develop user-friendly platforms to access germplasm documentation, including a unified system of descriptors and classification categories. Current advances in biotechnology, and especially those in gene editing will have without doubt an impact on the role of genebanks. However, the high number of genes and gene combinations created by evolution they hold cannot be produced by these techniques at present. So, these reservoirs of variability will continue to be indispensable for the near-medium future while the function of all the genes is unveiled. In turn, biotechnologies and gene editing will allow us to take advantage of the information held in genebanks in a more efficient and fast way, contributing to a better rationalization and functioning.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1440, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410497

RESUMO

The "Caparrona" bean is a landrace that was grown largely in Monzón, and for that reason, it is also known by the name of "Caparrona de Monzón." Historical references mention that in the thirties of the last century, Caparrona beans reached a production higher than 200,000 kg. Nevertheless, the increasing modernization of agriculture at the end of the 20th century enhanced its replacement by newer varieties. As a result, only a few local growers continued producing Caparrona beans mainly for family use. However, in recent years, the high demand for local products, grown with environmentally friendly farming techniques, has reawakened interest in this local bean. In order to recover the Caparrona bean crop, a study was conducted with the aim of assessing this landrace, along with all the processes, from collecting seeds to securing the in situ and ex situ conservation. Six bean samples were initially collected from local farmers and the traditional knowledge was also recorded. After the first seed-borne virus test, two samples were rejected because of the positive results for Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV). The four remaining samples were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at two locations. All through the growth phase of the plants, samples were taken for a virus test. Two samples tested positive for BCMV and were discarded. Between the two healthy seed samples, regarding morphology, chemical composition, and agronomic data, no significant statistical differences were found. Therefore, both samples were selected for commercial production. The seeds obtained from the assays were transferred to a recently created producers' association, which registered a private label to commercialize the Caparrona beans as a gourmet product. Seeds are also available from the Spanish BGHZ-CITA public genebank.

6.
Molecules ; 22(5)2017 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467391

RESUMO

The ontogenetic variation of total and individual capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin (C), dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), homocapsaicin (h-C) and homodihydrocapsaicin (h-DHC)) present in Malagueta pepper (Capsicum frutescens) during fruit ripening has been studied. Malagueta peppers were grown in a greenhouse under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Capsaicinoids were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and the extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with fluorescence detection. A significant increase in the total content of capsaicinoids was observed in the early days (between 12 and 33). Between day 33 and 40 there was a slight reduction in the total capsaicinoid content (3.3% decrease). C was the major capsaicinoid, followed by DHC, n-DHC, h-C and h-DHC. By considering the evolution of standardized values of the capsaicinoids it was verified that n-DHC, DHC and h-DHC (dihydrocapsaicin-like capsaicinoids) present a similar behavior pattern, while h-C and C (capsaicin-like capsaicinoids) show different evolution patterns.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Capsaicina/isolamento & purificação , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 6: 384, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074944

RESUMO

The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2-3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 µM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 µM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis efficiency.

8.
PLoS One ; 9(12): e116276, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25545628

RESUMO

The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , Ecótipo , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Plant Dis ; 87(8): 960-964, 2003 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30812803

RESUMO

Two hundred and sixty-eight Cucumis melo and wild relative accessions were evaluated for resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Papaya ringspot virus strain W (PRSV-W), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Symptom development and systemic infection based on double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were monitored. Sources of resistance were scarce. However, a number of them were found among the C. melo accessions tested. Thus, the accession C-189 behaved similarly to PI 161375 and showed resistance to "common" CMV strains although it was infected by a "song" type CMV. For WMV, the accessions C-768 and C-425, although infected, exhibited very mild symptoms, and recovery from infection occurred in some occasions in the former. A similar trait was also found in C-105, although in this case symptoms rarely appear and part of the plants are not infected. In addition, C-105 was highly resistant to virus transmission by Aphis gossypii, similarly to PI 161375. Accessions C-885 and C-769 exhibited resistance to PRSV-W, WMV, and ZYMV; therefore they are potential sources of multiple resistance. Resistance traits were also found in wild relatives that could be exploited when interspecific barriers with C. melo can be circumvented.

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