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2.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290277

RESUMO

Inborn errors of immunity cause monogenic immune dysregulatory conditions such as severe and recurrent pathogen infection, inflammation, allergy and malignancy. Somatic reversion refers to the spontaneous repair of a pathogenic germline genetic variant and has been reported to occur in a number of inborn errors of immunity with a range of impacts on clinical outcomes of these conditions. DOCK8 deficiency due to bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 causes a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe bacterial, viral and fungal infections, as well as allergic disease and some cancers. Here, we describe the clinical, genetic and cellular features of three patients with bi-allelic DOCK8 variants who, following somatic reversion in multiple lymphocyte subsets, exhibited improved clinical features, including complete resolution of infection and allergic disease, cure over time. Acquisition of DOCK8 expression restored defective lymphocyte signalling, survival and proliferation, as well as CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, CD4+ T cell cytokine production, and memory B cell generation compared to typical DOCK8-deficient patients. Our temporal analysis of DOCK8-revertant and DOCK8-deficient cells within the same individual established mechanisms of clinical improvement in these patients following somatic reversion and revealed further non-redundant functions of DOCK8 in human lymphocyte biology. Lastly, our findings have significant implications for future therapeutic options for the treatment of DOCK8 deficiency.

3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 606333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324422

RESUMO

Background: Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) is a rare, potentially severe pulmonary complication of common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID). Informative clinical trials and consensus on management are lacking. Aims: The European GLILD network (e-GLILDnet) aims to describe how GLILD is currently managed in clinical practice and to determine the main uncertainties and unmet needs regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Methods: The e-GLILDnet collaborators developed and conducted an online survey facilitated by the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) between February-April 2020. Results were analyzed using SPSS. Results: One hundred and sixty-one responses from adult and pediatric pulmonologists and immunologists from 47 countries were analyzed. Respondents treated a median of 27 (interquartile range, IQR 82-maximum 500) CVID patients, of which a median of 5 (IQR 8-max 200) had GLILD. Most respondents experienced difficulties in establishing the diagnosis of GLILD and only 31 (19%) had access to a standardized protocol. There was little uniformity in diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Fewer than 40% of respondents saw a definite need for biopsy in all cases or performed bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnostics. Sixty-six percent used glucocorticosteroids for remission-induction and 47% for maintenance therapy; azathioprine, rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil were the most frequently prescribed steroid-sparing agents. Pulmonary function tests were the preferred modality for monitoring patients during follow-up. Conclusions: These data demonstrate an urgent need for clinical studies to provide more evidence for an international consensus regarding management of GLILD. These studies will need to address optimal procedures for definite diagnosis and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of GLILD in order to provide individualized treatment options. Non-availability of well-established standardized protocols risks endangering patients.

4.
Hepatology ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Porto-sinusoidal vascular liver disease (PSVD) is a rare cause of portal hypertension. PSVD is still often misdiagnosed as cirrhosis, emphasizing the need to improve PSVD diagnosis strategies. Data on liver stiffness measurement (TE-LSM) using transient elastography, in PSVD are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of TE-LSM to discriminate PSVD from cirrhosis in patients with signs of portal hypertension. APPROACH & RESULTS: Retrospective multicenter study comparing TE-LSM in patients with PSVD, according to VALDIG criteria, to patients with compensated biopsy-proven cirrhosis related to alcohol (n=117), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (n=110) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n=46). All patients had at least one sign of portal hypertension among gastroesophageal varices, splenomegaly, porto-systemic collaterals, history of ascites or platelet count < 150 x 109 /L. The 77 patients with PSVD included in the test cohort had lower median TE-LSM [7.9 kilopascals (kPa)] than the patients with alcohol-, HCV- and NAFLD-related cirrhosis (33.8 kPa, 18.2 kPa, and 33.6 kPa, respectively; p<0.001). When compared to cirrhosis, a cut-off value of 10 kPa had a specificity of 97% for the diagnosis of PSVD, with a 85% positive predictive value. A cut-off value of 20 kPa had a sensitivity of 94% for ruling-out PSVD, with a 97% negative predictive value. 94% of the patients were well-classified. Even better results were obtained in a validation cohort including 78 PSVD patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study including a total of 155 patients with PSVD and 273 patients with cirrhosis demonstrates that TE-LSM <10 kPa strongly suggests PSVD in patients with signs of portal hypertension. Conversely, when TE-LSM is >20 kPa, PSVD is highly unlikely.

5.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812031

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) preferentially infects epithelial cells and B lymphocytes and sometimes T and NK lymphocytes. Persistence of EBV-infected cells results in severe lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Diagnosis of EBV-driven T or NK cell LPD and chronic active EBV diseases (CAEBV) is difficult, often requiring biopsies. Herein, we report a flow-FISH cytometry assay that detects cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), allowing rapid identification of EBV-infected cells among PBMCs. EBV-infected B, T, and/or NK cells were detectable in various LPD conditions. Diagnosis of CAEBV in 22 patients of Caucasian and African origins was established. All exhibited circulating EBV-infected T and/or NK cells, highlighting that CAEBV is not restricted to native American and Asian populations. Proportions of EBV-infected cells correlated with blood EBV loads. We showed that EBV-infected T cells had an effector memory activated phenotype, whereas EBV-infected B cells expressed plasma cell differentiation markers. Thus, this method achieves accurate and unambiguous diagnoses of different forms of EBV-driven LPD and represents a powerful tool to study their pathophysiological mechanisms.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human encephalitis represents a medical challenge from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view. We investigated the cause of 2 fatal cases of encephalitis of unknown origin in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Untargeted metatranscriptomics was applied on the brain tissue of 2 patients to search for pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or protozoans) without a prior hypothesis. RESULTS: Umbre arbovirus, an orthobunyavirus never previously identified in humans, was found in 2 patients. In situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed that Umbre virus infected neurons and replicated at high titers. The virus was not detected in cerebrospinal fluid by RT-qPCR. Viral sequences related to Koongol virus, another orthobunyavirus close to Umbre virus, were found in Culex pipiens mosquitoes captured in the south of France where the patients had spent some time before the onset of symptoms, demonstrating the presence of the same clade of arboviruses in Europe and their potential public health impact. A serological survey conducted in the same area did not identify individuals positive for Umbre virus. The absence of seropositivity in the population may not reflect the actual risk of disease transmission in immunocompromised individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Umbre arbovirus can cause encephalitis in immunocompromised humans and is present in Europe.

11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(4): 887-895, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037948

RESUMO

The LyKID study is a nationwide survey in France of lymphoma patients with renal involvement based on biopsy and/or imaging, to evaluate its impact on disease outcome and renal function. A total of 87 adult cases of B or T-cell lymphomas were retrospectively analyzed. Interstitial topography was observed in most of the kidney biopsies (54/66; 80%). Kidney failure (glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was present in 47% of patients and was associated with non-significantly different outcome. After lymphoma treatment, 44% of patients had persistent chronic kidney failure (CKF); kidney failure at diagnosis was the only parameter associated with CKF in multivariate analysis. DLBCL (diffuse large B-cell lymphomas) represented half of the series, with noticeably CNS (central neurological system) relapse in 17% patients, while fewer than one of two patients had received CNS prophylaxis. To our knowledge, the LyKID study represents the largest published non-autopsy lymphoma series with renal involvement.

12.
Mycoses ; 62(12): 1140-1147, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are life-threatening infections most commonly diagnosed in acute leukaemia patients with prolonged neutropenia and are uncommonly diagnosed in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases. OBJECTIVES: Following the initial report of aspergillosis diagnosed shortly after beginning ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, a survey was developed to seek additional cases of IFD during ibrutinib treatment. METHODS: Local and international physicians and groups were approached for relevant cases. Patients were included if they met the following criteria: diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/non-Hodgkin lymphoma; proven or probable IFD; and ibrutinib treatment on the date IFD were diagnosed. Clinical and laboratory data were captured using REDCap software. RESULT: Thirty-five patients with IFD were reported from 22 centres in eight countries: 26 (74%) had chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The median duration of ibrutinib treatment before the onset of IFD was 45 days (range 1-540). Aspergillus species were identified in 22 (63%) of the patients and Cryptococcus species in 9 (26%). Pulmonary involvement occurred in 69% of patients, cranial in 60% and disseminated disease in 60%. A definite diagnosis was made in 21 patients (69%), and the mortality rate was 69%. Data from Israel regarding ibrutinib treated patients were used to evaluate a prevalence of 2.4% IFD. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IFD among chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated with ibrutinib appears to be higher than expected. These patients often present with unusual clinical features. Mortality from IFD in this study was high, indicating that additional studies are urgently needed to identify patients at risk for ibrutinib-associated IFD.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/etiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/microbiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/microbiologia , Neutropenia/complicações , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/mortalidade , Israel , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Am J Hematol ; 94(11): 1214-1226, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396978

RESUMO

Lower-respiratory-tract (LRT) amyloidosis has rarely been investigated. Our study presents characteristics, outcomes and survival of LRT amyloidosis. This multicenter retrospective study, from 1995 to 2017, included 73 patients with amyloidosis and LRT involvement. Respiratory patterns were: tracheobronchial (n = 17), nodular (n = 10), interstitial (n = 14) or composite (several respiratory involvements, n = 32). Interstitial and composite patterns were associated with multi-organ amyloidosis (n = 37, 80%) while tracheobronchial and nodular patterns were associated with organ-limited amyloidosis (n = 21, 78%). Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis was diagnosed in 43 patients (59%), mainly of lambda type (n = 33, 77%). Smokers' proportion was higher in tracheobronchial (71%) and nodular (90%) patterns than in interstitial (14%) and composite (34%) patterns. The B-cell neoplasms involved 15 patients (21%), solid neoplasms 8 (11%), connective tissue diseases 8 (11%) and multiple myeloma 6 (8%). The B-cell and solid neoplasms were most prevalent in nodular pattern. Median follow-up was 4.4 years (2.2-8.9). Twenty-four patients died, mostly from respiratory infection. Survival at 1, 5, 10 years was respectively 88%, 70% and 54% for multi-organ amyloidosis, 96%, 89% and 69% for organ-limited amyloidosis (P = .125). Tracheobronchial and nodular patterns survival was better than in other respiratory patterns (P = .039). Death risk factors (multivariate analysis) were: cardiac localization (hazard-ratio [HR] 4.3 [95% confidence interval 1.6-11.5]; P = .004), age (HR 2.1 [1.2-3.7]; P = .008) and dyspnea at diagnosis (HR 4.0 [1.3-12.3]; P = .014). Various LRT amyloidosis patterns depend on smoking habits, organ-limited or multi-organ extension and comorbidities. They are associated with a different survival, which is also predicted by age, cardiac localization and dyspnea at presentation.


Assuntos
Amiloidose/epidemiologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/análise , Amiloidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloidose/patologia , Amiloidose/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 702-712, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included. RESULTS: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Hospitalização , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis/etiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/etiologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/terapia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Br J Haematol ; 187(1): 124-128, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155716

RESUMO

We report the off-label use of bortezomib combined with dexamethasone in eight adults with severe and multi-refractory warm auto-immune haemolytic anaemia (wAIHA). After six cycles of induction therapy, 6 of the 8 patients achieved response (3 complete response, 3 response). Response was obtained after a median of 2 (1-4) cycles. After a median follow-up of 14 (6-36) months, six patients maintained a response (bortezomib/dexamethasone maintenance, n = 4); five patients experienced at least one moderate adverse event, including peripheral neuropathy (n = 2). These results suggest that bortezomib/dexamethasone combination is a promising approach with acceptable toxicity for treating severe refractory wAIHA in adults.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/sangue , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Off-Label , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Br J Haematol ; 186(2): 269-273, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016730

RESUMO

We retrospectively analysed 71 cases of Unicentric Castleman disease, a rare, usually asymptomatic, benign lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as a unique nodal mass. Although surgery is considered as the gold standard therapy, only 38 patients (54%) underwent initial surgical resection and 95% were cured. An additional 9 patients had surgery after an attempt at medical reduction. Reduction therapy was used in 21 patients with a 55% response rate, but without evidence for an optimal regimen. Radiotherapy was limited to 8 patients because of associated toxicity. Watch and wait was considered in 13 asymptomatic patients and 11 of these remained stable for up to 17 years.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/mortalidade , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/terapia , Adulto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(4): 1575-1585.e4, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commensals induce local IgA responses essential to the induction of tolerance to gut microbiota, but it remains unclear whether antimicrobiota responses remain confined to the gut. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate systemic and intestinal responses against the whole microbiota under homeostatic conditions and in the absence of IgA. METHODS: We analyzed blood and feces from healthy donors, patients with selective IgA deficiency (SIgAd), and patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Immunoglobulin-coated bacterial repertoires were analyzed by using combined bacterial fluorescence-activated cell sorting and 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacterial lysates were probed by using Western blot analysis with healthy donor sera. RESULTS: Although absent from the healthy gut, serum antimicrobiota IgG are present in healthy subjects and increased in patients with SIgAd. IgG converges with nonoverlapping secretory IgA specificities to target the same bacteria. Each individual subject targets a diverse microbiota repertoire with a proportion that correlates inversely with systemic inflammation. Finally, intravenous immunoglobulin preparations target CVID gut microbiota much less efficiently than healthy microbiota. CONCLUSION: Secretory IgA and systemic IgG converge to target gut microbiota at the cellular level. SIgAd-associated inflammation is inversely correlated with systemic anticommensal IgG responses, which might serve as a second line of defense. We speculate that patients with SIgAd could benefit from oral IgA supplementation. Our data also suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin preparations can be supplemented with IgG from IgA-deficient patient pools to offer better protection against gut bacterial translocations in patients with CVID.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Fezes/química , Humanos , Deficiência de IgA/imunologia
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