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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 728-735, 08/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753049


High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio/urina , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana , Coleta de Urina/métodos
Cad Saude Publica ; 14(1): 157-64, 1998 Apr 30.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9592221


This study aimed to establish a correlation between anthropometric and socioeconomic variables and repetition in school for first grade pupils, as well to determine the predictive value of such variables vis-à-vis repetition. A study with a prospective and concurrent approach was developed in four elementary schools in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, with 699 children (95% of those eligible). After adjustment for confounders, children whose mothers had less than eight years of schooling, of mothers with unskilled jobs, from single-parent households (mother, father, or guardian), whose per capita family income was less than or equal to half the minimum wage, and who had a height/age/sex index under the 10.1 percentile were at greater risk of repeating the first grade. The data are potentially useful for selecting children to be monitored and to prevent repetition in the schools investigated.